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Internet of Things is a buzzword that is trained to blend itself in today's market seamlessly. But do you know what it is? Also, what does it signify for the delivery sector? IoT mainly refers to the concept of connecting various devices and transferring data using wireless apps. It eliminates face-to-face human interaction to a great extent.

The Internet of Things guarantees big things in the world of customer goods, but even more significant things in the evolution of the supply chain. Research firm Gartner stated that IoT would change the world of delivery services. A thirty-fold increase in Internet-connected physical machines by 2020 will significantly alter how the sector works. Morgan Stanley concludes that 75 billion devices will be connected with IoT-enabled devices by the end of 2020.

With today's growing customer demands for personalized and speedy service, it's no surprise IoT is evolving rapidly; this is special for the delivery and logistics sector. With IoT becoming more accepted globally, more devices are designed with sensors that can be monitored, opening up countless opportunities for those that choose to board the growing trend. With the advanced technology to carve a position in the delivery market, it's fascinating to keep an eye on how the sector ecosystem transforms and the type effects on system and operations.

Food Delivery with IoT: Explore How it Enhances Business Operations!

The IoT is quickly widespread in the food delivery sector. It has been primarily driven by pizza chains, including Pizza Hut, Dominos, and many more. Using smart devices, a customer can easily order mouth-watering pizza, get an estimated time for delivery, get a real-time update, watch the order being made through a webcam, etc.

Delivery personnel if knowing the exact delivery location can eliminate time lost to confusing addresses. Tipping and payment can also be handled through feature-rich solutions, making the process more efficient. The best part is that delivery brands like UberEats are leveraging the advantage of IoT technology.

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MarketsandMarkets determined the global IoT market size is valued at 170.6 billion in 2017. It's presumed to reach 561.0 billion by the end of 2022, at a 26.9% Compound Annual Growth Rate during the predicted period. The report scope covers the internet of things market by platform, software solution, services, apps region, and area.


Image: (Source)

The software solution is divided into remote monitoring, real-time streaming analytics, data management, network bandwidth management, and security solution. However, it's further segmented into developing home automation, smart manufacturing, energy, retail, mobility, and transportation.


Image: (Source)

The simple deployment and low-cost process of IoT-powered devices mean virtually any restaurant service that can provide smart delivery. However, numerous restaurants, including local chains, are lacking to take advantage of and opportunities IoT provides to them. A restaurateur can provide turnkey with smart IoT-enabled solutions, helping to complete and manage every business operation effectively.

Impact of IoT On Delivery Industry

With ever-growing customer demands for personalized and speedy service, it is no wonder the IoT is increasing, especially in the logistics and delivery sector. However, the IoT will allow troubleshooting and greater accuracy throughout the fully automated methods, significantly reducing the brand's required work hours.

With IoT existing is accepted globally, more devices are developing with sensors that can be tracked, thereby opening up countless opportunities. Machine-to-Machine and IoT interaction are evolving customer expectations around the delivery sector, forcing providers to replan and know how they can do more business and generate more leads in less time.

Increases Operational Visibility

In the delivery sector, operational visibility is critical for developing faster and more efficient actions. Luckily improved visibility is the primary benefit the IoT technology brings to your table. The restaurateur can obtain valuable insight into accurate data-driven decisions and operations.

Building a well-integrated IoT platform at your place can provide the fleet manager with information and a deeper understanding of data like on-time deliveries, real-time alerts, and more. All the data provided by managers possess the ability to decrease unnecessary problems that can otherwise arise. In simple terms, an IoT system permits data-driven judgments to occur and reduces unexpected problems; all this reduces extra cost throughout the delivery process.

Moreover, in terms of warehouse services, IoT streamlines operations with sensors, bar code readers, etc., ensuring to provide you with visibility of inventory and tracing of products and services quickly and efficiently. In essence, business managers can easily understand what products they have to make snap decisions accordingly.

Route Optimisation

Visibility is critical for delivery brands wishing to thrive in a competitive market, but it's not only one factor why brands must consider IoT integration. Inefficient and unorganized routes can result in a downfall; such routes increase fuel use, road time, carbon footprints, and other resources. However, this dramatically affects the company's bottom line as well as the operational environment.

However, IoT-enabled devices are fighting all of this by strategically utilizing corporation resources to relinquish all planned destinations and open interaction between fleet managers and drivers. It improves real-time analytics and helps to achieve an efficient system of operations and manage consumer satisfaction.

Improves Real-Time Tracking

Every delivery business understands the stress of managing multiple deliveries at a time. However, a restaurateur can develop food delivery apps using IoT technology, helping them to stay aware of the real-time location of drivers and deliveries. It helps them to deal with unexpected problems that sometimes occur on the road.

The data enables restaurateurs to drive accurate and intelligent decision-making, ensuring to improve customer service by keeping customers updated about the delivery service. Most brands these days are using RFID and are approaching about 100% receiving accuracy, 33% faster order processing whereas 30% reduction in operational costs."

Efficient Last-Mile Delivery

Due to customer demand and delivery growth, many complex challenges are created for a restaurateur to tackle. Most of the challenges arise due to last-mile delivery due to driver behavior, traffic, driver behavior, etc. However, IoT is helping supermarkets and restaurants at every stage, helping them replan their operation process and ensure a streamlined journey for customers.

Hence restaurateur needs to find a cost-effective platform that satisfies customer needs and unexpected problems. Modern technology enables them to bridge the gap between customers and driver inter-communication, ensuring business growth.

Preventive Maintenance

Additionally, if you want to gain better insight into delivery provider behavior, you can connect all your vehicles. It even helps with preventive maintenance for the vehicle. IoT-connected vehicles will send automated signals and warning alerts when any part of a particular vehicle requires maintenance. 

With the help of such alters, you can easily maintain services such as a low battery, coolant temperature, check engine, etc., ensuring to leverage preventive maintenance and increasing the lifespan of your vehicles.

Wrapping It Up

The delivery sector is experiencing a lot of change with the IoT, and it seems to have more improvements shortly as well. The advantages of IoT in the delivery industry are indisputable, and as more and more devices are connected, further optimizations show that the numbers will grow. 

The urgency of IoT adoption differs from one sector to another and its impact as well. But it has excellent benefits for the delivery sector as it provides excellent visibility, reduces operation cost, and better last-mile execution. Hence considering integrating IoT within your business process is a wise choice that will bring worth for your business.

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Happy Friday (or whatever day it is when you find yourself reading this). I’m currently bouncing off the walls in excitement because I’ve been invited to host a panel discussion as part of a webinar series — Fast and Fearless: The Future of IoT Software Development — being held under the august auspices of


Panel members Joe Alderson (upper left), Pamela Cortez (upper right), Katherine Scott (lower left), and Ihor Dvoretskyi (bottom right)

At this event, the first of a 4-part series, we will be focusing on “The IoT Software Developer Experience.”

As we all know, the IoT is transforming the software landscape. What used to be a relatively straightforward embedded software stack has been revolutionized by the IoT, with developers now having to juggle specialized workloads, security, machine learning, real-time connectivity, managing devices that have been deployed into the field… the list goes on.

In this webinar — which will be held on Tuesday 11 May 2021 from 10:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. CDT — I will be joined by four industry luminaries to discuss the development challenges engineers are facing today, how the industry is helping to make IoT development easier, an overview of development processes (including cloud-based continuous integration (CI) workflows and low-code development), and what the future looks like for developers who are building for the IoT. 

The luminaries in question (and whom I will be questioning) are Joe Alderson (Director of Embedded Tools and User Experience at Arm), Pamela Cortez (IoT Developer Advocate and Sr. Program Manager at Microsoft Azure IoT), Katherine Scott, Developer Advocate at Open Robotics, and Ihor Dvoretskyi (Developer Advocate at Cloud Native Computing Foundation).

So, what say you? Dare I hope that we will have the pleasure of your company and that you will be able to join us to (a) tease your auditory input systems with our discussions and (b) join our question-and-answer free-for-all at the end?

Recording available:

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Well, this isn’t something I expected to be talking about today, but my chum Ben Cook just introduced me to something that looks rather cool.

Ben is the Founder and Director at Airspeed Electronics Ltd., which is an electronic design consultancy that’s based in the UK specializing in high-performance acoustic detection and tracking technology for counter-unmanned aircraft system (UAS) applications. The folks at Airspeed Electronics are currently developing a drone detection and tracking system called MANTIS, where this work is being funded through a research grant provided by the UK Ministry of Defence (which — before you make a nasty comment — is how they spell “Defense” in the UK).

MANTIS, which stands for “MAchine learNing acousTIc Surveillance,” is a system of distributed, intelligent acoustic sensors that use artificial intelligence (AI) for the detection, classification, and location estimation of UAS — such as drones — based on their acoustic signatures.

But that’s not what I wanted to talk to you about…

In his email to me, Ben spake as follows: “Have you heard of an embedded operating system called ‘Luos’ before? It’s a microservices software architecture, like docker but for use with microcontrollers. I have no affiliation, I just stumbled across this today and I’m thinking this could be very useful for some future projects. It looks really good for anything ‘modular-y,’ if you know what I mean…”

I do know what Ben means. I just meandered my way around the website, perused and pondered the documentation at, and watched this video on YouTube (later today, I’m going to get the tattoo, buy the T-shirt, and see the stage play).

In a nutshell, Luos is a simple and lightweight open-source distributed operating system dedicated to embedded systems. It uses the concept of modularity to simplify the linking of components and chunks of application code together to form a single system image.

Consider a system like a robot that uses multiple microcontrollers to manage its various sensors, actuators, and motors. If each of these microcontrollers employs Luos technology, all of them can use any feature of any microcontroller in the system as if all of the features were located in the same component.

Now, I’m a hardware design engineer by trade, so the software side is a bit outside my bailiwick, but — even so — looking at the video above and scanning the documentation makes me sit up and say, “Wow, this looks really, really cool.”

I asked around a few of my embedded systems software developer friends, and no one had heard of Luos, but I have a feeling that this may be a tool that’s poised to make a big splash. All sorts of ideas are currently bouncing around my head, like the fact that the Tracealyzer tool from Percepio would make an ideal companion for the Luos OS (see also The 2021 Embedded Online Conference Approacheth).

How about you? Have you heard of Luos? If so, what are your thoughts? If not, and if you lean toward the software side of things, it would be great if you could take a look with your highly trained eye, see what you think, and report back to the rest of us in the comments below.

Originally posted HERE

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The world has seen the emergence of countless advanced technologies over the past few decades and among them, one of the most notable and impactful has been the Internet of Things. Often described as a critical part of the foundation of our technology-driven future, IoT has shaken up pretty much every industry on the face of Earth. For the better, of course. Anyway, this transformation brought on by IoT has made its way into the world of web and mobile apps development too, and understandably so. After all, today apps are not only the most omnipresent modern tools but are relied upon by millions and millions of people every single day. Suffice it to say that app development is vital to the cause of keeping the world running and IoT has only entered the scene to further improve things. But the question remains: How?

The Internet of Things is a dynamic technology that has, for starters, completely changed how users in the digital realm interact and engage with web applications as well as mobile applications. It not only enables companies to effortlessly deal with humongous volumes of data, but also ensures top-notch security, seamless communications, and so much more. After all, the Internet of Things market is not projected to touch $11 trillion in economic value by 2025 without reason. Studies have also found that the global investment in IoT could touch $15 trillion by 2025. Now, let’s explore some of its other contributions to app development in detail.

1. Smarter UIs: While it can be quite challenging to put together UIs that integrate modern technologies and still successfully tend to users’ expectations, IoT can help considerably in this regard. It is highly conducive to the development of effective UI and integrates relevant latest trends to further enhance users’ experiences while engaging with the app. Oh, and let’s not forget that it also enables A/B split tests to help developers identify which iteration of the app is best suited for success.
2. Cybersecurity: Of course, ensuring high levels of security with your apps is a top priority for everyone. IoT helps ameliorate this process by helping programmers to integrate the latest security measures and strategies. This includes modern identification and authorization methods to monitor the continued safety of all the data stored within the app.
3. Chatbots: Now, artificial intelligence and machine learning-driven chatbots can be further integrated with the Internet of Things to empower them with access to even more sources of data. This, then, allows them to answer customers' queries and issues in a much more proficient manner, which is critical to ensuring high levels of customer satisfaction in an increasingly competitive market.
4. Data collection and processing: Data collection and its processing are critical to the success of any app in the world today. With the Internet of Things, that ability is fortified since one now gains access to a wider set of sources for data. Furthermore, IoT also helps avoid any lags in the relay of this information, thus enabling it to be used in real-time.

There is not even a shred of doubt that avant-garde technologies such as the Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, machine learning, etc. have completely transformed the web and mobile app development process and for good! So, if you want to take advantage of IoT and other such technologies to build modern apps that are more secure, highly customer experience-focused, and enable the seamless collection of data among other things, all you have to do is find a qualified service provider for their development. Their expertise and knowledge will further fortify your product and thus, your customers’ experiences.

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By Bee Hayes-Thakore

The Android Ready SE Alliance, announced by Google on March 25th, paves the path for tamper resistant hardware backed security services. Kigen is bringing the first secure iSIM OS, along with our GSMA certified eSIM OS and personalization services to support fast adoption of emerging security services across smartphones, tablets, WearOS, Android Auto Embedded and Android TV.

Google has been advancing their investment in how tamper-resistant secure hardware modules can protect not only Android and its functionality, but also protect third-party apps and secure sensitive transactions. The latest android smartphone device features enable tamper-resistant key storage for Android Apps using StrongBox. StrongBox is an implementation of the hardware-backed Keystore that resides in a hardware security module.

To accelerate adoption of new Android use cases with stronger security, Google announced the formation of the Android Ready SE Alliance. Secure Element (SE) vendors are joining hands with Google to create a set of open-source, validated, and ready-to-use SE Applets. On March 25th, Google launched the General Availability (GA) version of StrongBox for SE.


Hardware based security modules are becoming a mainstay of the mobile world. Juniper Research’s latest eSIM research, eSIMs: Sector Analysis, Emerging Opportunities & Market Forecasts 2021-2025, independently assessed eSIM adoption and demand in the consumer sector, industrial sector, and public sector, and predicts that the consumer sector will account for 94% of global eSIM installations by 2025. It anticipates that established adoption of eSIM frameworks from consumer device vendors such as Google, will accelerate the growth of eSIMs in consumer devices ahead of the industrial and public sectors.

Consumer sector will account for 94% of global eSIM installations by 2025

Juniper Research, 2021.

Expanding the secure architecture of trust to consumer wearables, smart TV and smart car

What’s more? A major development is that now this is not just for smartphones and tablets, but also applicable to WearOS, Android Auto Embedded and Android TV. These less traditional form factors have huge potential beyond being purely companion devices to smartphones or tablets. With the power, size and performance benefits offered by Kigen’s iSIM OS, OEMs and chipset vendors can consider the full scope of the vast Android ecosystem to deliver new services.

This means new secure services and innovations around:

🔐 Digital keys (car, home, office)

🛂 Mobile Driver’s License (mDL), National ID, ePassports

🏧 eMoney solutions (for example, Wallet)

How is Kigen supporting Google’s Android Ready SE Alliance?

The alliance was created to make discrete tamper resistant hardware backed security the lowest common denominator for the Android ecosystem. A major goal of this alliance is to enable a consistent, interoperable, and demonstrably secure applets across the Android ecosystem.

Kigen believes that enabling the broadest choice and interoperability is fundamental to the architecture of digital trust. Our secure, standards-compliant eSIM and iSIM OS, and secure personalization services are available to all chipset or device partners in the Android Ready SE Alliance to leverage the benefits of iSIM for customer-centric innovations for billions of Android users quickly.

Vincent Korstanje, CEO of Kigen

Kigen’s support for the Android Ready SE Alliance will allow our industry partners to easily leapfrog to the enhanced security and power efficiency benefits of iSIM technology or choose a seamless transition from embedded SIM so they can focus on their innovation.

We are delighted to partner with Kigen to further strengthen the security of Android through StrongBox via Secure Element (SE). We look forward to widespread adoption by our OEM partners and developers and the entire Android ecosystem.

Sudhi Herle, Director of Android Platform Security 

In the near term, the Google team is prioritizing and delivering the following Applets in conjunction with corresponding Android feature releases:

  • Mobile driver’s license and Identity Credentials
  • Digital car keys

Kigen brings the ability to bridge the physical embedded security hardware to a fully integrated form factor. Our Kigen standards-compliant eSIM OS (version 2.2. eUICC OS) is available to support chipsets and device makers now. This announcement is a start to what will bring a whole host of new and exciting trusted services offering better experience for users on Android.

Kigen’s eSIM (eUICC) OS brings


The smallest operating system, allowing OEMs to select compact, cost-effective hardware to run it on.

Kigen OS offers the highest level of logical security when employed on any SIM form factor, including a secure enclave.

On top of Kigen OS, we have a broad portfolio of Java Card™ Applets to support your needs for the Android SE Ready Alliance.

Kigen’s Integrated SIM or iSIM (iUICC) OS further this advantage


Integrated at the heart of the device and securely personalized, iSIM brings significant size and battery life benefits to cellular Iot devices. iSIM can act as a root of trust for payment, identity, and critical infrastructure applications

Kigen’s iSIM is flexible enough to support dual sim capability through a single profile or remote SIM provisioning mechanisms with the latter enabling out-of-the-box connectivity, secure and remote profile management.

For smartphones, set top boxes, android auto applications, auto car display, Chromecast or Google Assistant enabled devices, iSIM can offer significant benefits to incorporate Artificial intelligence at the edge.

Kigen’s secure personalization services to support fast adoption

SIM vendors have in-house capabilities for data generation but the eSIM and iSIM value chains redistribute many roles and responsibilities among new stakeholders for the personalization of operator credentials along different stages of production or over-the-air when devices are deployed.

Kigen can offer data generation as a service to vendors new to the ecosystem.

Partner with us to provide cellular chipset and module makers with the strongest security, performance for integrated SIM leading to accelerate these new use cases.

Security considerations for eSIM and iSIM enabled secure connected services

Designing a secure connected product requires considerable thought and planning and there really is no ‘one-size-fits-all’ solution. How security should be implemented draws upon a multitude of factors, including:

  • What data is being stored or transmitted between the device and other connected apps?
  • Are there regulatory requirements for the device? (i.e. PCI DSS, HIPAA, FDA, etc.)
  • What are the hardware or design limitations that will affect security implementation?
  • Will the devices be manufactured in a site accredited by all of the necessary industry bodies?
  • What is the expected lifespan of the device?

End-to-end ecosystem and services thinking needs to be a design consideration from the very early stage especially when considering the strain on battery consumption in devices such as wearables, smart watches and fitness devices as well as portable devices that are part of the connected consumer vehicles.

Originally posted here.

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When a global automobile manufacturer sought to ease the complexity and expense of maintaining and integrating PLC devices to its MES, it first looked to an OPC-based solution (Open Platform Communications). It reasoned that easing the process of adding new device drivers would speed up projects and ease data access. 

What it ended up with was a mixed model that still didn’t provide the flexibility and agility it was looking for. Engineers still needed to write custom code for MES and PLC integration, which slowed the implementation of new projects. What’s more, because there was data build-up in transit, response time was slow. The architecture wasn’t flexible, and the software struggled to scale to support both large and smaller plant implementations.

 In all, the technology added complexity. It didn’t improve the use of IT resources, couldn’t scale to increase commonality between tools and plants, and ultimately, fell short of the goal of providing easy access to data to improve product quality.

 A Classic Challenge of Bringing IIoT to the Factory Floor

 It’s an issue that spans industries in connecting plant floor devices to the enterprise: How can you cleanly and easily get PLC data into MES and ERP systems in a short amount of time?

Mapping devices like PLCs directly to applications is challenging, and is a problem that can’t be solved simply by leveraging an OPC-based interface. Projects get backlogged because there still is so much custom coding involved, increasing the cost of the project, the cost of maintaining the solution and the implementation time.

 APIs and standard protocols will never get rid of custom programming. The lack of native drivers is what leads programmers to have to write all that custom code. Instead, organizations need a data-centric platform that brings a broad array of native drivers to ensure plug-and-play functionality, to make PLCs talk to other PLCs, and communicate directly to MES and ERP applications.

 With this functionality, IIoT projects can be launched in a matter of days, instead of months.

 The Role of Flexible IIoT Middleware

By leveraging a data-centric IIoT software platform, organizations can connect legacy and modern devices regardless of communication protocol and provide a central data pipeline to all devices and applications on the network. The platform serves as a control center of all IT and OT applications, lending control over how, when, and where data is used, and providing the ability to quickly onboard new devices.

Most importantly, an IIoT platform can make it easy to build any kind of logic without custom programming. This means that plant engineers and even subject matter experts can fully customize a deployment without the need to get a programmer to make the change, speeding the connections of devices and more easily directing the flow of data.

Leveraging the Telit deviceWISE platform, the manufacturer was able to bring together systems from Siemens, Rockwell Automation, Omron and Mitsubishi, with a proprietary MES on a DB2 database. 

The deviceWISE platform provided a common interface to the factory floor, bringing with it none of the performance issues presented by the OPC-based interface. For both its large and small plants, the company has the flexibility to integrate devices to MES systems using web services and messaging services.

Complex business logic is now available to the plant device, and complex ladder logic has been masked. It’s less expensive to configure logic, and enterprise users can access data without impacting the performance of PLC devices.

For instance, there are times when an enterprise user may want to look for a part serial number history to see whether it has been installed or to ensure there was no defect. The company wanted to make sure PLC scan rates were not impacted by this activity on the enterprise side.

From a factory floor perspective, in the past, that history had to be retained inside of the equipment. Adding more data to the PLC device slows the overall scanning time.

With Telit deviceWISE, query capabilities enable search within the enterprise system. Leveraging web services, the organization could “take” some of the complex logic in the equipment and move it to the enterprise system to ensure high performance. This in turn speeds up the decision making process, and provides more decision-making capabilities on data at the machine level. In turn, while production, and consequently the amount of data, grows, the amount of IT support doesn’t have to.

The deviceWISE platform allows devices and apps to “talk” to one another, with a very quick time to value by providing connectivity that breaks through complicated data transfer layers. By implementing IIoT, fast, the manufacturer can focus on what it does best – making innovative vehicles. 

Ricardo Buranello Head of Platforms Business Unit, Telit. 



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In the age of next-generation computer, the role of the cloud, the internet and smart devices will become stronger. These days we all know the word smart well. This word is often used in our daily lives. The Internet of Things (IoT) will generate a variety of information from a variety of resources. It can store big data in the cloud. Fog computing acts as a signal between cloud and IoT. Fog extensions in this framework apply to material under IoT. IoT devices are called Fog nodes, which can be accessed anywhere within the network range. A blockchain is a novel way of recording in a secure sequence. Creating a new framework in the development of Internet of Things is one of the critical problems of wireless communication where solving such a problem can lead to continued growth in the use and popularity of IoT. Proposed research creates a framework for providing a framework for middleware on the internet of smart devices network for the internet of things using blockchains technology. Our great offering connects new research that integrates blockchains into the Internet of Things and provides secure Internet connection for smart devices. Blockchain (BC) Internet of Things (IoT) is a new technology that works with low-level, distributed, public and real-time leaders to maintain transactions between IoT sites. A blockchain is a series of blocks, each block being linked to its previous blocks. All blocks have cryptographic hash code, previous block hash, and its data. Transactions in BC are the basic components used to transfer data between IoT nodes. IoT nodes are a variety of portable but smart devices with embedded sensors, actuators, systems and the ability to communicate with other IoT nodes. The role of BC in IoT is to provide a process for processing secure data records using IoT nodes. BC is a protected technology that can be used publicly and openly. IoT requires this type of technology to allow secure communication between IoT nodes in different environments. Events in BC can be tracked and monitored by anyone who is certified to communicate within IoT.

 Index Terms—Blockchain, Internet of Things, Security, Privacy, Wireless Communication.


The proposed framework introduces and presents its role in IoT. The IoT-Fog framework has the following features:He IoT is growing exponentially year by year with its focus on 5G technologies, such as Smart Homes and Cities, Health, intelligence surveillance etc. But there are challenges to security and privacy. IoT devices are connected in a shared power. Therefore, it is very complicated to use the most common security methods available for communication between IoT nodes. The proposed research is a step forward in wireless communication with IoT where we propose a new middleware framework based on blockchain technology. Wireless communication is the Internet key for things. It is expected to exceed 50 billion connected devices by 2020 and most of these nodes cannot be connected via wireline. In order to enable critical systems such as intelligent industries or intelligent structures, communication processes must address the ambiguous nature of wireless links. The research work proposed in this project is to develop and implement a middleware framework based on blockchain technology in the construction of the Internet of Things. The result of the research is to establish a new IoT framework. The proposed research uses the correct and effective imitation of the study you are looking for and can be done through the Internet of Things. In the future, researchers could expand this research and use it online for everything. Creating a new middleware-based block ware framework in the development of Internet of Things can be an important framework for improving the performance of the IoT framework in a unique environment. Wireless communication is a fast-growing research area that enables users to interact without using cables. Internet of Things is based on a completely wireless network. At the beginning of the Internet, it was developed to communicate from one device to another using access to browsers. However, in the modern era, high-performance high-speed devices have many advanced technologies such as low power consumption etc. Available to communicate with others. Fog extensions in this framework apply to material under IoT. IoT devices are called Fog nodes, which can be accessed anywhere within the network range. This research will help the IoT framework. However, the analysis framework is studied in the literature review, the authors did not describe the full framework in this study. This study adds a blockchain and an advanced fog to improve the effective IoT framework for communication between smart devices. Comparisons of this study with the limitations of the re-examination of previous research, admissions, bulk variations and poor distribution of production packages are mandatory. The algorithm was used for testing. The proposed framework accurately predicts our comprehensive assessment. In addition, confirm the results of the statistics. The purpose of this study is to create a new model of communication between the Internet of Things and Fog computing. This research is based on blockchain technology with Middleware, Fog, and IoT. The main contribution of this study is to design an Internet communication framework using fog and blockchain technology. The proposed framework is specifically suited for applications where data is periodically transferred to the natural network of smart devices. In these applications, on the other hand, packets are produced based on a specific time pattern. On the other hand, service time is constantly changing randomly with standard distribution. Therefore, the service time may be temporarily delayed, as an inevitable result some packages may encounter a busy channel and be discarded. We solve this problem by proposing a new middleware framework. We show that the proposed IoT-Fog framework, not only increases inputs, but also direct connections between generations (sensors) and communication packet systems are removed which makes the system more stable. In addition, in order to improve the proposed model, we have hired a redistribution system, flexible pack length, and full vehicle condition. The solution to this study is summarized as follows. The implementation of the IoT-Fog framework for internet connectivity for 5G smart devices will be set to work online for things. The concept will work with a three-layer model, these layers are Fog, Blockchain and IoT. The proposed research supports wireless communication technology to establish the IoT-Fog framework within the network of device devices.

  1. a) Devices (Items)
  2. b) The Internet
  3. c) Middleware
  4. d) Using fog with blockchain

In fog, status servers store secure resources, proxies by third-party servers can store protected data and owners are legitimate devices. The key server in middleware creates encryption keys. A token given to a smart device by an authorized blockchains database has the authority to access the framework, request keys from the key server, and download data to the cloud. Figure 1 presents the components of the proposed framework.

 The The following steps are applied to the proposed framework.

  1. Smart contracts published by status servers, attorneys and fog owners in an authorized database of blockchains.
  2. IoT smart device detects smart contacts from authorized database of blockchains.
  3. An authorized blockchains database archive creates an intelligent IoT device token.
  4. The smart device asks for the keys from the key server in the middleware and sends the token with the application.
  5. Key server in middleware verify the token from the authorized blockchain database and create a smart device key and feedback back to the smart device.
  6. Now the smart IoT device is authorized to access data from the cloud.

The framework itself is divided into three layers: IoT device layer, Fog layer, and cloud layer.

The framework can provide QoS by reducing traffic congestion and variability in the number of smart devices. In this study, we look at the state of inactivity in order to make our tests more effective, at which point, the general performance regarding the overall performance of the framework is assessed. IoT-Fog in this framework will view and analyze real-time data collected on fog nodes and take action.

The following are the key points-

  1. The study is mainly focused on IoT. Enables smart devices to communicate with another device within the Internet of smart devices using blockchain technology.
  2. The proposed communication framework will access the internet for smart devices.
  3. The results of the proposed study will be compared with the previous study in the same area.


In 1991, Theodore S. Rappaport published an article entitled “The Wireless Revolution”, in which he introduced wireless communication technology as the key to communication between people as well as devices. In 1994, Andy Harter and Andy Hopper published an article entitled “A Distributed Location System for the Active Office”, in this paper, outlining infrared sensor arrangements using communication badges between devices and workstations. In 1994, Tristan Richardson, Frazer Bennett, Glenford Mapp, and Andy Hopper presented the article “A ubiquitous, personalized computer Telephony in the X Window System Environment”, in this article they introduced X windows, X programs protocol for securing communication between client and server. In the article, the authors represented the "System Software for Ubiquitous Computing" for the integration of different types of networks, and created connections between devices on different types of networks. In 2002 the researchers published an article entitled “Connecting the Physical World with Pervasive Networks”, in which they addressed the challenges and opportunities of using the physical world through widespread compte-rich computation networks. Cloud computing came as a result of the continued development of computer paradigms. The advent of this technology has created the emergence of software (SaaS) as a service that says consumers do not need to buy software rather than go according to their needs. In 2006, Amazon achieved a milestone by testing the elastic elastic computing cloud (EC 2) that started the computer. * However, the term cloud computing did not coincide until March 2007. The following year saw the rapid development of this new system. In addition, cloud infrastructure services have expanded to install software (SaaS) as a service. In mid-2012, Oracle's cloud was introduced, which supports a wide range of deployments. For example, it could lead to more than 139,000,000 games on Google In May 2014, Lihong Jiang et al published an article entitled "An IoT-Oriented Data Storage Framework in Cloud Computing Platform", focusing on the framework storage of relevant data allow not only to properly store large IoT data, but also to integrate both scheduled unstructured data. In this article, the IoT biological system and key technologies to support IoT communication are introduced. In 2016, Maria Rita Palattella et al published an article entitled "Internet of Things in the 5G Era: Enablers, Architecture and Business Models", in this article they introduced IoT 5G technology, exploring both technological aspects and standards. In 2018, Pradip Kumar Sharma, Yen Chen and Jong Hyuk Par published an article entitled, "Software Defined Fog Node Based Distributed Blockchain Cloud Architecture IoT". They introduced the software-defined environment using the IoT blockchain cloud.

 Building a new reliable framework based on IEEE 802.15.4 online communication for smart devices can be an important framework for improving the reliability of communication. Wireless networks enable users to interact with each other in the IoT environment. But there are many challenges to secure and reliable communication. Early in the Internet, It was developed to connect one device to another device using browser access. However, in the modern era, high-performance devices have many advanced technologies such as low power consumption etc. Available to communicate with others. Communication reliability has been suggested as one of the most important issues for wireless communication where solving such a problem can lead to continued growth in IoT use and popularity. The proposed research creates a framework to provide internet connectivity for the network of smart devices for the internet of things using IEEE802.15.4. Our great offering connects new research that combines reliability in the Internet of Things and provides reliable online connectivity for smart devices. This research will help the IoT framework. However, the analytical framework is read in book reviews, the authors did not describe the full framework in their essays. This study adds an improved Markov-chain and MAC framework to improve the effective framework of communication between smart devices. Comparisons of this study with the limitations of the re-examination of previous research, validation, bulk variability and poor distribution of production packages are mandatory. The algorithm was used for testing. The proposed framework accurately predicts our comprehensive assessment. In addition, the imitation of Monte-Carlo confirms the mathematical results. Smart devices are growing increasingly day by day around the world. They offer a lot of services to end users and attach to their daily lives. Smart devices can easily connect to the Internet by sending and receiving data within a network. Smart devices are not just Smartphones, it can be a smart refrigerator, Smart home entry, smart air conditioners, Smart hubs, Smart thermostat, Color changing LED smartphones, Smart Watches and tablets smart etc in the online framework of things, connected to each other via the internet.

TABLE 1: IoT Devices installed category and year wise (in Millions) 






IoT Devices





Business: Across Industries





Business: Vertical specific











The The proposed research program creates research to facilitate online communication of objects using fog technology and blockchain. Transferring data from one configuration to another using a wireless network dates back to 1973 in the form of radio network packets. They were able to communicate with other similar configuration devices. Recent work is underway on a project called Serval Project. Provides networking location for Android communication devices on a sub-network. While our research is concerned with the online connection of objects. The main contribution of this study is the construction of a communication framework and provide reliable and fast communication using fog and blockchain between the internet of smart devices. Previous studies have focused on building and utilizing a communication framework, but such research does not create a complete framework for IoT-Fog communication between the internet of smart devices.

BC is a technology that provides transaction security between IoT devices. Provides shared, distributed and publicly available shared leagues to store used blockchain data and authentication on the IoT network. Information stored in a public ledger is automatically managed using a peer-to-peer topology. BC is a technology in which transactions are drawn in the form of a block in BC between IoT nodes. Blocks are connected and all devices have the device's previous address. Blockchain and IoT together work in the framework of IoT and Cloud integration. In the future, BC will alter IoT interactions [1]. The objectives for the integration of BC and IoT can be summarized as follows.

  1.  Distributed framework: This method is similar to IoT and BC. It is removed from one system and provide location for the program in the field. It improves the chances of failure and performance of the entire system.
  2. Security: In BC, transactions between nodes are secure. It is a novel way of secure communication. BC allows IoT devices to communicate securely.
  3. Identification: In IoT, all connected devices are identified separately with a unique ID. All BC blocks are also identified separately. Therefore, BC is a reliable technology that provides specially identified information stored in public records.
  4. Reliability: IoT sites in BC have the ability to verify information transmitted over a network. The details are reliable because they were verified by the miners before entering BC. Only verified blocks can enter BC.
  5. Independence: In BC, all IoT nodes are free to connect to any node in a network without an intermediate system.
  6. Variety: In BC, IoT devices will communicate widely available, a distributed intelligence network that connects to the destination device in real time and with exchange details.

The other paper is summarized as follows: section 1 represents the presentation of the paper, section 2 represents the literature review, section 3 introduces the role of BC in IoT, section 4 represents the possibilities of an integrated approach, section 5 represents the challenges and section 6 represents the conclusion.

Security and privacy in communication between IoT devices are of paramount importance in 2017 and 2018. Several papers were published in 2017 and 2018. In 1990, Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta wrote the article [3] in exchange for document and privacy without retaining any information about the punctuation service. The concept of blockchains comes from [3] but the first blockchains were introduced by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008. He presented a paper in which blocks were chained together forming a blockchain [4]. In the article [5], the authors introduced "IoTChain" to verify the information exchanged between the two sites in the IoT network. They introduced an algorithm for exchanging data on IoT and blockchains (fig. 2) [5]. In this paper, the authors focus on the security component of the IoTChain framework.

 In the article [6], the authors explored the cloud and the MANN framework to connect smart devices to the internet of objects and provide communication security. In the article [7], the authors represent an excellent framework called an internet-cloud framework, it is a good idea to provide secure connections to IoT devices. In the article [8], the authors provide a framework for middleware in the construction of MANET cloud access to data between IoT devices. Article [9,10] represents fidelity in communication between IoT nodes. Articles [11,12,13,14,15] provide mobile mobility models for 5G networks. In the article [16], a travel framework is defined based on the understanding of communication security. In the article [17], a positive study on blockchains and IoT was conducted by researchers. They introduced the security concept to BC-IoT to improve IoT applications with the power of BCs.


 IoT enables visual cables to exchange their data over a different network [18]. IoT can be divided into the following categories.

  1. Physical Objects: IoT provides a unique id of each object connected to the network. Material is able to exchange data with other IoT nodes.
  2. Gates: Device gates work between material and cloud to ensure that communication is established, and security is provided by the network.
  3. Connectivity: used to control data flow and establish a very short route between IoT sites.
  4. Cloud: Used to store and count data.

BC is a series of verified blocks and those of encrypted encryption held by a network-connected device. Block data is stored in a publicly shared and distributed digital ledge. BC provides secure connection to the IoT network. A blockchain can be a private, public or consortium with a variety of structures. The following table represents the differences between all types of blockchains.

Table 2 : Kinds of Blockchains and their properties 

BC/ Properties



Accord growth




Private BC




Can be

Can be publicly

Only one industry

Public BC






All miners

Consortium BC




Can be

Can be publicly

IoT devices


The database in blockchains has features such as low-level reliability model, high security, public access, low-level privacy and transferable ownership when placed on a single database, properties are moderately trusted, low security, low public access, high privacy privacy and non-transferable. From the above structures, the blockchain is much more advanced than central storage.

 The following platforms are used to develop IoT systems using blockchain technology.

  1. IOTA: IOTA is a new blockchain and IoT platform called Next generation blockchains. This platform helps with high data integrity, high transaction performance and high blockchain performance through a few resources. It solves the limitations of blockchains [19].
  2. IOTIFY: Provides an online web solution solution to reduce blockchains technology limitations in the form of custom applications [20].
  3. Exec: An open source blockchain based tool. It helps your applications to the benefits of the cloud used [21].
  4. Xage: It is a secure IoT blockchain platform for adding automation and secure information [22].
  5. SONM: It is a medium-sized fog computing platform to provide secure cloud services.

IoTs and blockchains increase business opportunities and open up new markets where everyone or anything can communicate in real time with authenticity, privacy and security in the way they are used. The integration of these novel technologies will change the current world in which devices will communicate without people in various stages. The purpose of the framework is to obtain secure information in the right place, in the correct format, in real time. BC can be used to track billions of IoT connected objects, to link these objects, to enable transaction processing, to solve or eliminate failures and to create a flexible ecosystem to use the material in it. Hashing techniques used in data blocks by BC to create information privacy for users.

Nowadays, around the world smart devices are growing rapidly. They offer a lot of services to end users and attach to their daily lives. Mobiles currently use a mid-range mobile network for personal communication over the past decade. The smart phone is technically built to make the phone more usable for end users. We are now able to send text, photos, voice and video to each other using strong mobile networks. The smart phone can also connect to the internet easily by sending and receiving data within the mobile network. The Internet of Things describes a network of intelligent objects through which they can communicate and share information with each other using the Internet. Smart stuff with smart devices with built-in software, sensor and programs. Everything smart has a unique identifier on the network with their internal systems. Figure 1 shows that the smart device network network is a combination of intelligent device applications and an integrated framework installed by IEEE 802.15.4.

Reliability is a major problem in connected areas where many sensors, actuators, controllers and smart devices etc are connected. Smart devices are not just smart phones, it can be a smart refrigerator, Smart home entry, smart air conditioners, Smart hubs, Smart thermostat, Smart LED converter Colors, Smart Watches and smart tablets etc. . connected to each other via the internet. The proposed research program creates a study that increases communication reliability on smart devices using IEEE802.15.4. Transferring data from one configuration to another using wireless networks dates back to 1973 in the form of radio network packets. They were able to communicate with other similar configuration devices. Recent work is underway on a project called Serval Project. Provides networking location for Android communication devices on a sub-network. While our research is concerned about the reliable connection to the internet of smart devices. The main contribution of this study is the construction of a communication framework and provided reliable communication using IEEE802.15.4 between the internet of smart devices. Previous studies have focused on building and utilizing a communication framework, but such research does not create a complete framework for reliable communication between the internet of smart devices. Figure 2 represents an IoT node with a reliability feature.

 Integrity is a major problem in a variety of environments where many sensors, actuators, controllers and smart devices etc are connected to each other. The proposed study planned to build a study to increase communication reliability on devices using IEEE802.15.4. The main contribution of this study is the construction of a communication framework and provided reliable communication using IEEE802.15.4 between the internet of smart devices. Previous studies have focused on building and utilizing a communication framework, but such research does not create a complete framework for reliable communication between the internet of smart devices. The proposed online framework for smart devices based on IEEE 802.15.4 for reliable communication to improve the reliability of communication is tested and obtained positive results. The proposed study focuses on a framework for providing reliable internet connection to smart devices networks. Our main contribution to this study includes the reliability of the online communication framework for smart devices. This tutorial is very useful for the Internet of Things. The proposed framework was used for testing. Properly predicted in our full review. The overall effectiveness of the proposed device-based study device delays and communication reliability are assessed.


 The BC-IoT integration method has many amazing possibilities. It opens new doors for both of them together. Other opportunities are described as follows.

  1. Building Trust between Groups: The BC-IoT approach will build trust between various connected devices due to its security features. Only verified devices can connect to the network and all transaction blocks will first be verified by miners so they can enter BC.
  2. Reduce Costs: This method will reduce costs because it communicates directly without a third party. It removes all third-party nodes between sender and receiver. Provides direct communication.
  3. Reduce Time: This method greatly reduces time. Reduces transaction time taken from one day to two.
  4. Security & Privacy: Provides security and privacy to devices and information.
  5. Social Services: This approach provides social and social services to connected devices. All connected devices are able to communicate and share information between them.
  6. Financial Services: This method transfers funds securely without a third party. Provides fast, secure and independent financial services. Reduce costs and time.
  7. Risk management: This approach plays a key role in analysing and mitigating the risk of resource failure and transactions.


 IoT and BC can face many challenges such as scale, store, skills, acquisition and the following are some of the challenges facing the integration approach.

  1. Diversity: BC can be suspended due to its heavy transaction load. Bitcoin storage exceeds 197 GB storage in 2019 [24]. Imagine if IoT meets BC the load will be much heavier than the current situation.
  2. Storage: The digital bag will be stored on all IoT nodes. At the same time, it will increase with its storage size which will be a challenging task and become a heavy load on each connected device.
  3. Lack of skills: BC new technology. It is known by very few people in the world. Therefore, it is also a challenge to train people professionally.
  4.  Discovery and Integration: In fact, BC was not built for IoT. It is a very challenging task for connected devices to find another device in BC and IoT. Therefore, IoT nodes can detect but can detect and integrate BC with another device.
  5. Privacy: The ledger is publicly distributed across all connected nodes. They see a ledger transaction. Therefore, privacy is a challenging task in an integrated approach.
  6. Collaboration: BC can be public or private. Therefore, the interaction between public and private blockchains is also a challenge in the BC-IoT approach.
  7. Rules and Regulations: IoT-BC will operate globally, and therefore deals with a number of rules and regulations for the use of this method worldwide.


BC and IoT are the novels tested in this document. Many opportunities and challenges are described. Also, the available platforms are listed in this article. This approach could be the future of the internet because it can transform the current internet system and transform it into a new one where all smart devices will connect to other devices using a peer-to-peer network in real time. It can reduce costs and current time and provide relevant information to the right device in real time. Therefore, it can be very helpful in the future.


 Tanweer Alam, Mohammed Aljohani (2016) Design a New Middleware for Communication in Ad Hoc Network of Android Smart Devices In: Second International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Competitive Strategies ACM. 2015

Mohammed Aljohani, Tanweer Alam (2015) An algorithm for accessing traffic database using wireless technologies In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research (ICCIC).

Mohammed Aljohani, Tanweer Alam (2015) Design an M-learning framework for smart learning in ad hoc network of Android devices In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research (ICCIC) IEEE.

Tanweer Alam, Mohammed Aljohani (2015) An approach to secure communication in mobile ad-hoc networks of Android devices In: International Conference on Intelligent Informatics and Biomedical Sciences (ICIIBMS) IEEE.

Tanweer Alam, Mohammed Aljohani (2015) Design and implementation of an Ad Hoc Network among Android smart devices In: International Conference on Green Computing and Internet of Things (ICGCIoT) IEEE.

Tanweer Alam (2021) Internet of Things and Blockchain-Based Framework for Coronavirus (COVID-19) Disease SSRN.

Tanweer Alam (2021) Blockchain-Enabled Mobile Healthcare System Architecture for the Real-Time Monitoring of the COVID-19 Patients SSRN. 2020

Tanweer Alam (2020) IoT-Fog-Blockchain Framework: Opportunities and Challenges International Journal of Fog Computing (IJFC) 3:

Tanweer Alam, Mohammed Aljohani (2020) Software Defined Networks: Review and Architecture IAIC Transactions on Sustainable Digital Innovation 1:

Tanweer Alam, Moath Erqsous (2020) The Real-Time Alert System for Prayers at Smart Masjid Scientific Journal of Informatics 7: 

Tanweer Alam (2020) Device-to-Device Communications in Cloud, MANET and Internet of Things Integrated Architecture Journal of Information Systems Engineering and Business Intelligence 6: 

Baha Rababah, Tanweer Alam, Rasit Eskicioglu (2020) The Next Generation Internet of Things Architecture Towards Distributed Intelligence: Reviews, Applications, and Research Challenges Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering 12: 

Tanweer Alam, Abdulrahman A Salem, Ahmad O Alsharif, Abdulaziz M Alhejaili (2020) Smart Home Automation Towards the Development of Smart Cities APTIKOM Journal on Computer Science and Information Technologies 5:    13-20.

Tanweer Alam, Baha Rababah, Arshad Ali, Shamimul Qamar (2020) Distributed Intelligence at the Edge on IoT Networks Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC) 4: 

Tanweer Alam, Abdirahman Ahmed Hadi, Rayyan Qari Shahabuddin Najam, Shamimul Qamar (2020) Design a Mobile Application for Children’s Tracking in Crowded Environments TEST Engineering and Management 83: .

Tanweer Alam (2020) Performance evaluation of blockchains in the internet of things Computer Science and Information Technologies 1:

Tanweer Alam (2020) CMI Computing: A Cloud, MANET and Internet of Things Integration for Future Internet JAMBURA JOURNAL OF INFORMATICS 2:

Tanweer Alam, Mohammed Aljohani (2020) M-Learning: Positioning the Academics to the Smart devices in the Connected Future JOIV: International Journal on Informatics Visualization 4:

Tanweer Alam, Shamimul Qamar (2020) Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Reviews, Applications, and Current Status Jurnal Informatika Universitas Pamulang 5:

Tanweer Alam Yazeed Mohammed Alharbi Firas Adel Abusallama Ahmad Osama Hakeem (2020) Smart Campus Mobile Application Toward the Development of Smart Cities International Journal of Applied Sciences and Smart Technologies 12:

Tanweer Alam (2020) Internet of Things: A Secure Cloud-based MANET Mobility Model International Journal of Network Security 22:

Tanweer Alam (2020) Design a blockchain-based middleware layer in the Internet of Things Architecture JOIV: International Journal on Informatics Visualization 4:

Tanweer Alam (2020) mHealth Communication Framework using Blockchain and IoT Technologies International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research 9:

Tanweer Alam, Mohammed Aljohani (2020) Decision Support System for Real-Time People Counting in a Crowded Environment International Journal of Electronics and Information Engineering 12:

Tanweer Alam (2020) Cloud Computing and Its Role in the Information Technology IAIC Transactions on Sustainable Digital Innovation 1:

Tanweer Alam (2020) Efficient and Secure Data Transmission Approach in Cloud-MANET-IoT Integrated Framework Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering 12:

Tanweer Alam (2020) Tactile Internet and Its Contribution in the Development of Smart Cities International Journal of Electronics and Information Engineering 12:

Tanweer Alam (2020) Cloud-MANET and its Role in Software-Defined Networking Transactions on Science and Technology 7:   1-7.

Tanweer Alam (2020) Middleware Implementation in MANET of Android Devices International Journal of Electronics and Information Engineering. 12:

Tanweer Alam, Shamimul Qamar, Amit Dixit, Mohamed Benaida (2020) Genetic Algorithm: Reviews, Implementations, and Applications International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy (iJEP) 10:   57-77 December. 2019

Tanweer Alam, Baha Rababah (2019) Convergence of MANET in Communication among Smart Devices in IoT International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies (IJWMT) 9:

Tanweer Alam (2019) 5G-Enabled Tactile Internet for Smart Cities: Vision, Recent Developments, and Challenges JURNAL INFORMATIKA 13:   1-10.

Tanweer Alam (2019) A Middleware Framework between Mobility and IoT Using IEEE 802.15.4e Sensor Networks Jurnal Online Informatika 4:

Tanweer Alam (2019) Blockchain and its Role in the Internet of Things (IoT) nternational Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science, Engineering and Information Technology 5:

Tanweer Alam (2019) IoT-Fog: A Communication Framework using Blockchain in the Internet of Things International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering 7:  2018

Tanweer Alam (2018) A Reliable Framework for Communication in Internet of Smart Devices using IEEE 802.15.4 ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 13:

Tanweer Alam (2018) A Reliable Communication Framework and its Use in Internet of Things (IoT) International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science, Engineering and Information Technology 3:

Tanweer Alam, Mohamed Benaida (2018) The Role of Cloud-MANET Framework in the Internet of Things (IoT) International Journal of Online and Biomedical Engineering 14:

Tanweer Alam, Mohamed Benaida (2018) CICS: Cloud–Internet Communication Security Framework for the Internet of Smart Devices International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM) 12:   74-84. 2017

Tanweer Alam (2017) Middleware Implementation in Cloud-MANET Mobility Model for Internet of Smart Devices International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security 17:   86-94.

Tanweer Alam (2017) Fuzzy Control Based Mobility Framework for Evaluating Mobility Models in MANET of Smart Devices ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 12:

Alam, Tanweer, and Mohamed Benaida. "Blockchain, Fog and IoT Integrated Framework: Review, Architecture and Evaluation.", Technology Reports of Kansai University 62, no. 2 (2020).

Sharma, Abhilash, Tanweer Alam, and Dimpi Srivastava. "Ad hoc network architecture based on mobile Ipv6 development." Advances in Computer Vision and Information Technology 224 (2008).

Alam, Tanweer. "Blockchain-based Big Data Analytics Approach for Smart Cities." Authorea Preprints (2020).

Alam, Tanweer, and B. K. Sharma. "A new optimistic mobility model for mobile ad hoc Networks." International Journal of Computer Applications 8, no. 3 (2010): 1-4.

Alam, Tanweer, Parveen Kumar, and Prabhakar Singh. "Searching mobile nodes using modified column mobility model." International Journal of Computer Science and Mobile Computing 3, no. 1 (2014): 513-518.

Alam, Tanweer, and Mohamed Benaida. "Blockchain and Internet of Things in Higher Education", Universal Journal of Educational Research 8(5): 2164-2174, 2020. DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2020.080556

Alam, Tanweer, and Moath Erqsous. "The Real-Time Alert System for Prayers at Smart Masjid." Scientific Journal of Informatics 7, no. 2 (2020): 166-172.

Singh, Parbhakar, Parveen Kumar, and Tanweer Alam. "Generating different mobility scenarios in ad hoc networks." International Journal of Electronics Communication and Computer Technology 4, no. 2 (2014): 582-591.

Read more…

Connected devices are emerging as a modern way for grocers to decrease food spoilage and energy waste losses. With bottom-line advantages, it is not surprising to experience some of the biggest business giants are putting internet of things (IoT) techniques to work and enhance the operating results.

According to Talk Business, Walmart uses IoT for different tasks like tracking food temperature, equipment energy outputs, etc. IoT apps help monitor refrigeration units for several products such as milk cold, ice cream, etc. It reports back to a support team if sensors have intimate equipment difficulties fixed without serious malfunctions and minimal downtime.

IoT solutions are used broadly during Walmart's massive store footprint. The connected devices send a total of 1.5 billion messages each day. Throughout the grocery business, IoT is leveraged to enhance food safety and decrease excessive energy consumption. IoT solutions allow food retailers to reduce food spoilage by 40% and experience a net energy saving of 30%.

Image: (Source)

It was forecasted that in 2018 grocers lose around $70 million per year due to food spoilage. However, large chains are losing hundreds of millions due to the same. Hence most grocers have started implementing sustainability-focused IoT technology to avoid wastage and increase their business profit to a great extent.

8874264280?profile=RESIZE_710xImage: (Source)

Explore How IoT Helps to Offer Safer Shopping Experience to Shoppers

People prepare to stock up food in preparation; however, there are numerous challenges that the pandemic raised in front of retails. But more retail trends are an answer to all the challenges, beginning from product moving to stock and much more. 

It also helps to ensure safe and healthy deliveries to customers' doorsteps, especially whenever they need it. Harvard study shows that grocery shopping is a high-risk activity than traveling on an airplane during COVID 19 pandemic. With COID 19 pandemic raging, retailer stores need to provide an efficient shopping experience; they must look for ways that help them overcome exposure and the risk of infection as customers venture to the store for food.

8874269299?profile=RESIZE_710xImage: (Source)

Most grocers turn towards modern technology such as IoT to help retailers or supermarkets offer safe service and meet the bottom lines. By placing internet of things devices throughout the store, smart grocery carts, baskets, etc., grocers can help make experiences more efficient and safer. Let's check how IoT is helping retailer businesses to overcome today's challenging scenarios and stop food spoilage.

Smart Stock Monitoring

Retailers keep warehouses full of goods to ensure that they don't run when there is high demand. And by integrating IoT-enabled sensors, retailers can easily detect weight on sleeves at warehouses and stores. It also helps them determine popular item lists; keeping track of items helps retailers restock them and prevent overstocking a particular product.

Guaranteeing Timely Deliveries

The report shows that 66% of customers anticipate they will increase online shopping in 2020. Undoubtedly online shopping is a new norm these days; most people prefer to order their daily essentials using a grocery delivery mobile app. However, it becomes vital for brands to ensure timely delivery. It's a critical factor, especially when it comes to customer satisfaction, especially when there is a lack of traditional consumer engagement like a friendly salesperson.

And by integrating IoT-enabled devices into containers and shipments, retailers can quickly obtain insight into shipments. They can even track real-time updates to keep their customers up to date on the approximate delivery time. It's critical, especially when you want to achieve excellent customer experiences in the eCommerce market.

However, data collected using IoT-enabled devices can help you drive the supply chain effectively by empowering retailers with root optimization for ensuring fast delivery. The IoT can play a crucial role, especially when it comes to recognizing warehouse delays. It also helps to optimize delivery operations for better and quicker service.

Manage Store Capacity

With the new COVID 19 safety guidelines to follow, IoT helps retailers ensure their customer's safety by supporting social distancing rules. For example, retailers can place IoT sensors at the entrance and exit to efficiently monitor traffic and grocery carts. The sensors provide accurate and up-to-date details. Details enable retailers to efficiently operate capacity, ensuring safety, and eliminates the need for store "bouncers" at exit and entrance.

Contact Monitoring

Retailers can offer a safe and unique shopping experience by benefiting from IoT. It helps them with contact monitoring and social distancing as well. Retailers can provide shoppers with IoT-enabled wearables paired with the shopper's mobile phone through their branded app. It helps shoppers detect whether they are too close to another shopper and report them through their phone and record the incident.

Combating COVID 19: How IoT is Helping Retailers?

Preventing food spoilage, saving energy, and reducing waste are good practices for grocery stores helping them to increase their profit margin. Due to the coronavirus pandemic, digital resilience has boosted drastically. 

Many brands and retailers, however, put a pause on initiatives during COVID 19. But to ensure their survival and profit margins, they need to start with new strategies and techniques. Check few IoT use cases that retailers are considering these days:

Video Analytics

Although supermarkets have practiced video surveillance technologies for the last many years, some brands are repurposing these systems to enhance their inventory management practices. Cameras would monitor consumer behaviors and help retailers to prevent theft.

As the customer's purchase preference changes constantly, it becomes essential for grocery stores to start stocking more perishable goods. A 2018 survey shows that more than 60% of retailers integrate refrigerators to store fresh products at their stores and meet customers' growing demand. 

And by monitoring customers' purchasing patterns, grocery stores can gauge how much extra produce they need to acquire and how unexpected surges and falls in the market will affect their margins.

Autonomous Cleaning Robots

To promote social distancing, grocery stores are taking all essential precautions. They have implemented a rigorous cleaning schedule to reduce the risk of COVID 19 spread. Retailers are focusing on sanitizing and disinfecting frequent touch surfaces using autonomous cleaning robots.

Robots can be controlled using IoT-based devices and help to sanitize various parts, including doors, shopping carts, countertops, etc. All these tasks demand a reasonable amount of time and employees' attention as well. But performing functions with the help of autonomous cleaning robots can help retailers save their employees time and energy.

Contactless Checkout

Contactless checkout has become increasingly popular over the few years. It has helped supermarkets reduce the requirement for cashier dedication to increase the customers' shopping speed. During the COVID 19 pandemic, the self-service environments have allowed customers a way to acquire essential food, cleaning products, and other day-to-day essentials without having to communicate with supermarket staff directly.

What's Next for Smart Supermarkets?

IoT technologies help supermarkets to tackle new challenges efficiently. Most stores know that they receive products from a different location, which went to a distribution center, making them lose traceability. But with IoT integration, it has become easier for them to track every business activity and provide an internet of shopping experience to customers.

Modern IoT technology makes it possible for grocery stores to track every activity at each stage. It becomes crucial for the health and safety of your customers, while it helps to handle top purchase priorities. It helps grocery stores exist and maintain healthy purchasing trends. IoT initiatives provide the shopping 2.0 infrastructure like smart shelves, carts, cashless, and other options that change the primary service experience.

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Before getting stuck to the point, which language is best for development? Let us know what exactly IoT is. Why is it important?

What is the Internet of Things (IoT)? 

The Internet of Things (IoT) epitomizes the pattern of once formerly autonomous devices getting progressively associated with the Internet. IoT alludes to different "things" that can speak with each other to accomplish more than if they were working all alone. Devices that fuse a microchip and information correspondence abilities are IoT gadgets.

The “Internet” alludes to the capacity for gadgets to speak with each other. In numerous IoT frameworks, correspondence between things is not really over the Internet. Things may utilize Internet conventions to speak with one another. On the other hand, they may utilize restrictive conventions. Nonetheless, in many frameworks, an association with the Internet is available eventually. Basic models utilizing the Internet includes gadgets conveying to one of the accompanying's: 

  • A mobile phone
  • A gateway device
  • An embedded cellular connection

This is true even if the IoT devices themselves do not use a connection, but when the user is the mobile device does. The Internet of Things will produce the data concerning the connected objects and analyze them, and create the decisions; in straightforward terms, we can say that one can tell that the web of Things is far smarter than the web. The protection cameras, sensors, vehicles, buildings, and therefore the software package a number of the examples are of things, which will exchange the info among one another.

The top 6 programming language suited for IoT and will be the best choice are:

1. C/C++

Java is not the only famous programming language in IoT programming. C and C++ are most popularly being utilized for IoT projects for an assortment of purposes. For example, designers may utilize the C language with IoT sheets or C++in installed IoT frameworks. Given that the two dialects have moderately low energy utilization and progressed adaptability, developers can utilize them to viably code for inserted frameworks that interface with the underlying hardware.

  • As you would have speculated, many "things" will not exist without quite possibly the main programming language, C. It is fundamentally a beginning stage and is the most famous language for embedded devices. C has been utilized regularly even though different languages may rank much higher. C is probably the most established language still generally utilized today. Despite the numerous languages to tag along since there are still a lot of activities that utilize C. Some even just utilize C. There is a valid justification for this, as well: execution. Different languages use this utilization at runtime, which implies that either bytecode or the actual code you write is being interpreted when your program runs. C, then again, accumulates to machine code. This implies that C projects are for the most part a lot quicker than their reciprocals in different languages.
  • C++ 
    C++ programming language has preparation control over C. This benefit makes C++ ideal as a pre-handling impetus for C. C++ invigorates the handling force of C, assisting it with running more significant level programming dialects. In spite of the fact that C++ is an intricate language and designers can have errors with it, it remains software engineers' top pick. This programming language shows its strength in Linux projects and the inserted programming space with its capacity for reflections and item layers. C++ is an improved variant of the C language ordinarily utilized for object-arranged programming. It was intended to run huge scope applications, an impediment in C. C++ is broadly utilized in implanted frameworks, GUI-based applications, internet browsers, working frameworks with applications across businesses like medical care, money, etc.


Another of the broadly utilized programming languages that are making IoT-controlled devices a reality. JavaScript when joined with Node.js turns out magnificently for creating both public just as private IoT organizations. Additionally, Tessel and Espruino microcontrollers utilize this programming language. This half makes it a lot of appropriate arrangement once we use low-force or short microcontrollers. JavaScript has a precarious expectation to absorb information and even students with no experience can begin chipping away at IoT advancement projects without the need to go through years dominating it. This is utilized in web development and HTML programs. This is a benefit as the code composed of this language can be effortlessly adjusted for an IoT application. This is likewise one of the suggested languages for the IoT application improvement organization. Designers will not have to get familiar with any new language to create code for sensors. JavaScript runs on Node.js, which is a decent choice for gathering information and sending them to the center. All that said, Java requires explicit libraries to work with specific hardware Nevertheless, However, it is amongst the most preferred tools used by developers today for IoT development.


The vast majority of web applications use Python as their programming language. Python has been extremely well known among IoT designers as it is not difficult to learn, adaptable, speedy and its force permits specialists to work with information-heavy applications. This is a flexible language as it tends to be adjusted on any type of device. Any designer can learn a moderately simple programming language. Consequently, this can be utilized by the IoT application advancement organization. The syntax is simple and readable. This makes the advancement of an IoT application simple. Python is likewise well known for keeping up complex codes. It is the best programming language to send complex information. As of late, this is viewed as a steady language. It is useful for all little to medium estimated projects. The handling power is moderate and is acquiring prevalence for IoT frameworks. A universally useful language, Python turns out impeccably for backend web improvement, information examination, computerized reasoning, and logical processing. Developers likewise use it to build up efficient devices, games, and work area applications. It is one of the quickest developing languages for installed figuring.


Another of the broadly utilized programming languages that are making IoT-controlled devices a reality. JavaScript when joined with Node.js turns out magnificently for creating both public just as private IoT organizations. Additionally, Tessel and Espruino microcontrollers utilize this programming language. This makes it a suitable arrangement when utilizing low-force or quick microcontrollers. JavaScript has a precarious expectation to absorb information and even students with no experience can begin chipping away at IoT advancement projects without the need to go through years dominating it. This is utilized in web development and HTML programs. This is a benefit as the code composed of this language can be effortlessly adjusted for an IoT application. This is likewise one of the suggested languages for the IoT application improvement organization. Designers will not have to get familiar with any new language to create code for sensors. JavaScript runs on Node.js, which is a decent choice for gathering information and sending them to the center.


Swift is the programming language that is utilized for making the applications for macOS or Apple's iOS devices. On the off chance that you need to communicate with the iPhones and iPads with your focal home center, Swift is the way. Swift is acquiring notoriety as a programming language that its processor Objective-C. Apple to accomplish its objective of turning into the head of IoT at home is building libraries. These libraries can deal with a large part of the work; it will make it simpler for designers to zero in on the agenda. A universally useful, multi-worldview, and gathered programming language, Swift is assembled utilizing the current way to deal with security, execution, and programming configuration designs. Swift is an open-source language, an extraordinary decision for the improvement of amazing Home kit arrangements. The home kit is a system by Apple Inc. for speaking with and controlling associated frills in a client's home. Swift will be accessible for Cloud kit too. Cloud kit is JavaScript that keeps your applications associated and state-of-the-art across iOS and macOS. 

Swift being an amazing, open-source, stage-viable improvement arrangement equipped for running applications both on the gadget and in the cloud, settles on it as an obvious decision for IoT items.

6. PHP

PHP is an open-source, language, open-source interpreted, object-oriented, server-side scripting language. A PHP script can execute quicker than scripts written in different languages. It is cross-stage, which implies that a PHP application created in one operating system can be effortlessly executed in other operating systems. Aside from that, PHP code can be effectively implanted inside HTML labels and scripts. The engineers to their heap of codes are adding PHP. The code's fundamental target is to shuffle microservices on the worker. They can transform the lowliest thing of the web into a full web worker. With the assistance of PHP, applications are created utilizing GPS Data from IoT gadgets. 

PHP is not a harder language to comprehend. Nevertheless, it is a bit more troublesome than HTML and CSS. PHP being a sensible language with rationale-based orders and articulations set aside an effort to dominate. It is prescribed to learn PHP after HTML/CSS and JavaScript.

How IoT application benefits your business

  1. IoT applications bring more business openings by improving the business modules and quality of the service provided.
  2. It improves resource use by observing hardware through sensors and taking preventive support for continuous access. 
  3. IoT applications can without much of a stretch associate with cameras and sensors to screen the hardware to keep away from actual dangers. 
  4. It expands business profitability by offering preparation to representatives and upgrading their work effectiveness and keeping away from the ability to improve business efficiency. 
  5. By upgrading the business module, resource usage, gear observing, and worker preparing administrations, IoT applications likewise save your general business cost.

Significance of Internet of Thing Technology 

IoT is viewed as the huge outskirts that can improve practically all exercises in our lives. The majority of the gadgets, which have not recently been associated with the web, can be arranged and react in a similar path as brilliant gadgets. By 2020, the world is set to be IoT arranged. Here are the advantages, which accompany this innovation.

Innovation is currently important for our lives, it is reevaluating the fun of each action and the web of things takes a critical offer in making it conceivable. In a world dominated by advanced innovation, the IoT assumes a conspicuous part in our lives. It has made an environment that joins numerous frameworks to give brilliant exhibitions in each undertaking. The expansion of the IoT has made another advancement of phones, homes, and other installed applications that are associated with the web. They have immaculately incorporated human correspondence in manners we never anticipated. These devices can infer significant data utilizing orders dependent on information investigation, share the information on the cloud, and break down it securely to give the necessary yield. Numerous organizations are quickly changing from multiple points of view, because of the IoT. 

The IoT is making various changes in our lives. It is interfacing with a large number of gadgets that were recently segregated. This is dramatically expanding the worth of huge information and smoothing out numerous regular errands. Many organizations in the world such as Eddie Stobart Transport and Logistics Company, Amazon, Dell, Aviva, John Deere Company, and Walt Disney Land are all utilizing the Internet of Things technology to monitor various activities and advance their existing systems. The IoT is making various changes in our lives. It is associating a great many devices that were recently disconnected. This is exponentially expanding the worth of huge information and smoothing out numerous regular undertakings.

  • IoT advances effective asset usage. 
  • It limits human endeavors in numerous life aspects. a 
  • Empowering IoT will decrease the expense of creating and expanding the profits 
  • It settles on examination choices quicker and precisely 
  • It helps the continuous advertising of items 
  • Give a superior customer experience 
  • It guarantees high-quality data and secured processing


Every one of the programming languages recorded above has its qualities and shortcomings, so organizations need to completely look at the attributes of each language and discover which of them coordinates with the d they will utilize. The openness of an advancement climate, devices, and libraries might be another factor to consider. Engineers might need to pick open-source language as they give solid local area support and a wide scope of tools.

Author Bio: 

Sidharth Jain, Proud Founder of Graffersid, Web and Mobile App Development Company based in India. Graffersid has a team of designers and dedicated developers. Hire laravel Developers, Trusted by start-ups in YC, Harvard, Google Incubation, BluChilli. He understands how to solve problems using technology and contributes his knowledge to the leading blogging sites.

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By Sachin Kotasthane

In his book, 21 Lessons for the 21st Century, the historian Yuval Noah Harari highlights the complex challenges mankind will face on account of technological challenges intertwined with issues such as nationalism, religion, culture, and calamities. In the current industrial world hit by a worldwide pandemic, we see this complexity translate in technology, systems, organizations, and at the workplace.

While in my previous article, Humane IIoT, I discussed the people-centric strategies that enterprises need to adopt while onboarding IoT initiatives of industrial IoT in the workforce, in this article, I will share thoughts on how new-age technologies such as AI, ML, and big data, and of course, industrial IoT, can be used for effective management of complex workforce problems in a factory, thereby changing the way people work and interact, especially in this COVID-stricken world.

Workforce related problems in production can be categorized into:

  1. Time complexity
  2. Effort complexity
  3. Behavioral complexity

Problems categorized in either of the above have a significant impact on the workforce, resulting in a detrimental effect on the outcome—of the product or the organization. The complexity of these problems can be attributed to the fact that the workforce solutions to such issues cannot be found using just engineering or technology fixes as there is no single root-cause, rather, a combination of factors and scenarios. Let us, therefore, explore a few and seek probable workforce solutions.8829066088?profile=RESIZE_584x

Figure 1: Workforce Challenges and Proposed Strategies in Production

  1. Addressing Time Complexity

    Any workforce-related issue that has a detrimental effect on the operational time, due to contributing factors from different factory systems and processes, can be classified as a time complex problem.

    Though classical paper-based schedules, lists, and punch sheets have largely been replaced with IT-systems such as MES, APS, and SRM, the increasing demands for flexibility in manufacturing operations and trends such as batch-size-one, warrant the need for new methodologies to solve these complex problems.

    • Worker attendance

      Anyone who has experienced, at close quarters, a typical day in the life of a factory supervisor, will be conversant with the anxiety that comes just before the start of a production shift. Not knowing who will report absent, until just before the shift starts, is one complex issue every line manager would want to get addressed. While planned absenteeism can be handled to some degree, it is the last-minute sick or emergency-pager text messages, or the transport delays, that make the planning of daily production complex.

      What if there were a solution to get the count that is almost close to the confirmed hands for the shift, an hour or half, at the least, in advance? It turns out that organizations are experimenting with a combination of GPS, RFID, and employee tracking that interacts with resource planning systems, trying to automate the shift planning activity.

      While some legal and privacy issues still need to be addressed, it would not be long before we see people being assigned to workplaces, even before they enter the factory floor.

      During this course of time, while making sure every line manager has accurate information about the confirmed hands for the shift, it is also equally important that health and well-being of employees is monitored during this pandemic time. Use of technologies such as radar, millimeter wave sensors, etc., would ensure the live tracking of workers around the shop-floor and make sure that social distancing norms are well-observed.

    • Resource mapping

      While resource skill-mapping and certification are mostly HR function prerogatives, not having the right resource at the workstation during exigencies such as absenteeism or extra workload is a complex problem. Precious time is lost in locating such resources, or worst still, millions spent in overtime.

      What if there were a tool that analyzed the current workload for a resource with the identified skillset code(s) and gave an accurate estimate of the resource’s availability? This could further be used by shop managers to plan manpower for a shift, keeping them as lean as possible.

      Today, IT teams of OEMs are seen working with software vendors to build such analytical tools that consume data from disparate systems—such as production work orders from MES and swiping details from time systems—to create real-time job profiles. These results are fed to the HR systems to give managers the insights needed to make resource decisions within minutes.

  2. Addressing Effort Complexity

    Just as time complexities result in increased  production time, problems in this category result in an increase in effort by the workforce to complete the same quantity of work. As the effort required is proportionate to the fatigue and long-term well-being of the workforce, seeking workforce solutions to reduce effort would be appreciated. Complexity arises when organizations try to create a method out-of-madness from a variety of factors such as changing workforce profiles, production sequences, logistical and process constraints, and demand fluctuations.

    Thankfully, solutions for this category of problems can be found in new technologies that augment existing systems to get insights and predictions, the results of which can reduce the efforts, thereby channelizing it more productively. Add to this, the demand fluctuations in the current pandemic, having a real-time operational visibility, coupled with advanced analytics, will ensure meeting shift production targets.

    • Intelligent exoskeletons

      Exoskeletons, as we know, are powered bodysuits designed to safeguard and support the user in performing tasks, while increasing overall human efficiency to do the respective tasks. These are deployed in strain-inducing postures or to lift objects that would otherwise be tiring after a few repetitions. Exoskeletons are the new-age answer to reducing user fatigue in areas requiring human skill and dexterity, which otherwise would require a complex robot and cost a bomb.

      However, the complexity that mars exoskeleton users is making the same suit adaptable for a variety of postures, user body types, and jobs at the same workstation. It would help if the exoskeleton could sense the user, set the posture, and adapt itself to the next operation automatically.

      Taking a leaf out of Marvel’s Iron Man, who uses a suit that complements his posture that is controlled by JARVIS, manufacturers can now hope to create intelligent exoskeletons that are always connected to factory systems and user profiles. These suits will adapt and respond to assistive needs, without the need for any intervention, thereby freeing its user to work and focus completely on the main job at hand.

      Given the ongoing COVID situation, it would make the life of workers and the management safe if these suits are equipped with sensors and technologies such as radar/millimeter wave to help observe social distancing, body-temperature measuring, etc.

    • Highlighting likely deviations

      The world over, quality teams on factory floors work with checklists that the quality inspector verifies for every product that comes at the inspection station. While this repetitive task is best suited for robots, when humans execute such repetitive tasks, especially those that involve using visual, audio, touch, and olfactory senses, mistakes and misses are bound to occur. This results in costly reworks and recalls.

      Manufacturers have tried to address this complexity by carrying out rotation of manpower. But this, too, has met with limited success, given the available manpower and ever-increasing workloads.

      Fortunately, predictive quality integrated with feed-forwards techniques and some smart tracking with visuals can be used to highlight the area or zone on the product that is prone to quality slips based on data captured from previous operations. The inspector can then be guided to pay more attention to these areas in the checklist.

  3. Addressing Behavioral Complexity

    Problems of this category usually manifest as a quality issue, but the root cause can often be traced to the workforce behavior or profile. Traditionally, organizations have addressed such problems through experienced supervisors, who as people managers were expected to read these signs, anticipate and align the manpower.

    However, with constantly changing manpower and product variants, these are now complex new-age problems requiring new-age solutions.

    • Heat-mapping workload

      Time and motion studies at the workplace map the user movements around the machine with the time each activity takes for completion, matching the available cycle-time, either by work distribution or by increasing the manpower at that station. Time-consuming and cumbersome as it is, the complexity increases when workload balancing is to be done for teams working on a single product at the workstation. Movements of multiple resources during different sequences are difficult to track, and the different users cannot be expected to follow the same footsteps every time.

      Solving this issue needs a solution that will monitor human motion unobtrusively, link those to the product work content at the workstation, generate recommendations to balance the workload and even out the ‘congestion.’ New industrial applications such as short-range radar and visual feeds can be used to create heat maps of the workforce as they work on the product. This can be superimposed on the digital twin of the process to identify the zone where there is ‘congestion.’ This can be fed to the line-planning function to implement corrective measures such as work distribution or partial outsourcing of the operation.

    • Aging workforce (loss of tribal knowledge)

      With new technology coming to the shop-floor, skills of the current workforce get outdated quickly. Also, with any new hire comes the critical task of training and knowledge sharing from experienced hands. As organizations already face a shortage of manpower, releasing more hands to impart training to a larger workforce audience, possibly at different locations, becomes an even more daunting task.

      Fully realizing the difficulties and reluctance to document, organizations are increasingly adopting AR-based workforce trainings that map to relevant learning and memory needs. These AR solutions capture the minutest of the actions executed by the expert on the shop-floor and can be played back by the novice in-situ as a step-by-step guide. Such tools simplify the knowledge transfer process and also increase worker productivity while reducing costs.

      Further, in extraordinary situations such  as the one we face at present, technologies such as AR offer solutions for effective and personalized support to field personnel, without the need to fly in specialists at multiple sites. This helps keep them safe, and accessible, still.

Key takeaways and Actionable Insights

The shape of the future workforce will be the result of complex, changing, and competing forces. Technology, globalization, demographics, social values, and the changing personal expectations of the workforce will continue to transform and disrupt the way businesses operate, increasing the complexity and radically changing where, and when of future workforce, and how work is done. While the need to constantly reskill and upskill the workforce will be humongous, using new-age techniques and technologies to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the existing workforce will come to the spotlight.


Figure 2: The Future IIoT Workforce

Organizations will increasingly be required to:

  1. Deploy data farming to dive deep and extract vast amounts of information and process insights embedded in production systems. Tapping into large reservoirs of ‘tribal knowledge’ and digitizing it for ingestion to data lakes is another task that organizations will have to consider.
  2. Augment existing operations systems such as SCADA, DCS, MES, CMMS with new technology digital platforms, AI, AR/VR, big data, and machine learning to underpin and grow the world of work. While there will be no dearth of resources in one or more of the new technologies, organizations will need to ‘acqui-hire’ talent and intellectual property using a specialist, to integrate with existing systems and gain meaningful actionable insights.
  3. Address privacy and data security concerns of the workforce, through the smart use of technologies such as radar and video feeds.

Nonetheless, digital enablement will need to be optimally used to tackle the new normal that the COVID pandemic has set forth in manufacturing—fluctuating demands, modular and flexible assembly lines, reduced workforce, etc.

Originally posted here.

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In my last post, I explored how OTA updates are typically performed using Amazon Web Services and FreeRTOS. OTA updates are critically important to developers with connected devices. In today’s post, we are going to explore several best practices developers should keep in mind with implementing their OTA solution. Most of these will be generic although I will point out a few AWS specific best practices.

Best Practice #1 – Name your S3 bucket with afr-ota

There is a little trick with creating S3 buckets that I was completely oblivious to for a long time. Thankfully when I checked in with some colleagues about it, they also had not been aware of it so I’m not sure how long this has been supported but it can help an embedded developer from having to wade through too many AWS policies and simplify the process a little bit.

Anyone who has attempted to create an OTA Update with AWS and FreeRTOS knows that you have to setup several permissions to allow an OTA Update Job to access the S3 bucket. Well if you name your S3 bucket so that it begins with “afr-ota”, then the S3 bucket will automatically have the AWS managed policy AmazonFreeRTOSOTAUpdate attached to it. (See Create an OTA Update service role for more details). It’s a small help, but a good best practice worth knowing.

Best Practice #2 – Encrypt your firmware updates

Embedded software must be one of the most expensive things to develop that mankind has ever invented! It’s time consuming to create and test and can consume a large percentage of the development budget. Software though also drives most features in a product and can dramatically different a product. That software is intellectual property that is worth protecting through encryption.

Encrypting a firmware image provides several benefits. First, it can convert your firmware binary into a form that seems random or meaningless. This is desired because a developer shouldn’t want their binary image to be easily studied, investigated or reverse engineered. This makes it harder for someone to steal intellectual property and more difficult to understand for someone who may be interested in attacking the system. Second, encrypting the image means that the sender must have a key or credential of some sort that matches the device that will decrypt the image. This can be looked at a simple source for helping to authenticate the source, although more should be done than just encryption to fully authenticate and verify integrity such as signing the image.

Best Practice #3 – Do not support firmware rollbacks

There is often a debate as to whether firmware rollbacks should be supported in a system or not. My recommendation for a best practice is that firmware rollbacks be disabled. The argument for rollbacks is often that if something goes wrong with a firmware update then the user can rollback to an older version that was working. This seems like a good idea at first, but it can be a vulnerability source in a system. For example, let’s say that version 1.7 had a bug in the system that allowed remote attackers to access the system. A new firmware version, 1.8, fixes this flaw. A customer updates their firmware to version 1.8, but an attacker knows that if they can force the system back to 1.7, they can own the system. Firmware rollbacks seem like a convenient and good idea, in fact I’m sure in the past I used to recommend them as a best practice. However, in today’s connected world where we perform OTA updates, firmware rollbacks are a vulnerability so disable them to protect your users.

Best Practice #4 – Secure your bootloader

Updating firmware Over-the-Air requires several components to ensure that it is done securely and successfully. Often the focus is on getting the new image to the device and getting it decrypted. However, just like in traditional firmware updates, the bootloader is still a critical piece to the update process and in OTA updates, the bootloader can’t just be your traditional flavor but must be secure.

There are quite a few methods that can be used with the onboard bootloader, but no matter the method used, the bootloader must be secure. Secure bootloaders need to be capable of verifying the authenticity and integrity of the firmware before it is ever loaded. Some systems will use the application code to verify and install the firmware into a new application slot while others fully rely on the bootloader. In either case, the secure bootloader needs to be able to verify the authenticity and integrity of the firmware prior to accepting the new firmware image.

It’s also a good idea to ensure that the bootloader is built into a chain of trust and cannot be easily modified or updated. The secure bootloader is a critical component in a chain-of-trust that is necessary to keep a system secure.

Best Practice #5 – Build a Chain-of-Trust

A chain-of-trust is a sequence of events that occur while booting the device that ensures each link in the chain is trusted software. For example, I’ve been working with the Cypress PSoC 64 secure MCU’s recently and these parts come shipped from the factory with a hardware-based root-of-trust to authenticate that the MCU came from a secure source. That Root-of-Trust (RoT) is then transferred to a developer, who programs a secure bootloader and security policies onto the device. During the boot sequence, the RoT verifying the integrity and authenticity of the bootloader, which then verifies the integrity and authenticity of any second stage bootloader or software which then verifies the authenticity and integrity of the application. The application then verifies the authenticity and integrity of its data, keys, operational parameters and so on.

This sequence creates a Chain-Of-Trust which is needed and used by firmware OTA updates. When the new firmware request is made, the application must decrypt the image and verify that authenticity and integrity of the new firmware is intact. That new firmware can then only be used if the Chain-Of-Trust can successfully make its way through each link in the chain. The bottom line, a developer and the end user know that when the system boots successfully that the new firmware is legitimate. 


OTA updates are a critical infrastructure component to nearly every embedded IoT device. Sure, there are systems out there that once deployed will never update, however, those are probably a small percentage of systems. OTA updates are the go-to mechanism to update firmware in the field. We’ve examined several best practices that developers and companies should consider when they start to design their connected systems. In fact, the bonus best practice for today is that if you are building a connected device, make sure you explore your OTA update solution sooner rather than later. Otherwise, you may find that building that Chain-Of-Trust necessary in today’s deployments will be far more expensive and time consuming to implement.

Originally posted here.

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Provisioning, managing and securing devices in an IoT product requires careful planning at the very start of the process. Rigorous evaluation of options, then a Proof of Concept helps determine the right solution. Once the POC has been approved, the IoT product moves to production. Then the real fun starts and many strategic considerations come into play. We can list them as follows:

  • Robust and secure OTA software updates

  • Security by design

  • Scalability

  • Automation

  • Remote terminal management

  • Device configuration, monitoring & troubleshooting

Robust and secure OTA software updates

Robust and secure OTA software updates are essential for keeping IoT devices secure as the software on these devices will become outdated during their lifetime and vulnerabilities are certain to arise if left in their initial states. Therefore a secure, risk-tolerant, and efficient update mechanism must be at the core of each product development team from the inception of the project to the end of its life.

How about a homegrown solution?

Homegrown solutions are less likely to be best-of-breed, can be hard to scale, can suffer from over customisation and scope creep, come at an inherently high cost and can be left in trouble if the star developers behind their creation suddenly jump ship and leave the organisation.  They also often lack the requirements needed to ensure security and robustness of software updates. Various open source solutions exist, but none provide an end-to-end solution and lack the overall functionality to make them enterprise-grade. Generic public cloud IoT stacks wish to cater to the entire IoT value chain but fail to deliver a purpose-built solution for software updates. Proprietary and platform solutions cause lock-in to specific cloud infrastructure, operating system, or development tools.

The common thread among all of these solutions is the lack of a fully optimized end-to-end OTA software update and device management infrastructure that can minimize risk, increase efficiency and enhance security and uptime.

Security by design

A device security breach incident can interrupt operations, damage systems, and negatively impact both virtual and physical processes. This translates into unhappy customers and lost business. As Colin Duggan, the Founder and CEO at BG Networks says in an interview with the Device Chronicle, “It is difficult to add security after the design has been completed. There are a number of reasons for this. Embedded systems have limited MHz, memory, and limitations of network interfaces on embedded processors. Security features can be added after the fact but usually will not close off all the vulnerabilities.” That is why it is so important to ensure security by design, in the very early stages of the product’s lifecycle.

IoT product security should be approached holistically with a framework that addresses the people, devices and process. To help IoT professionals make the right decisions concerning their product development, we designed a simple framework based on these factors and called it the Triangle of Trust:


There’s a significant difference between managing a small number of embedded devices and having thousands or even millions of devices deployed in the field. Microsoft’s new IoT Signals report found lack of scalability as a leading cause for IoT project failures. Complexity is one of the greatest scalability issues. As such, choosing the right solution with the right architecture is important to safeguard the long-term management viability of your fleet of connected devices. More on the topic of IoT scalability can be read here.


When one of the arms of the Triangle of Trust fails, the other two are endangered. To prevent any risks arising from human mistakes, automating some of the processes is a solution that might save your business thousands of dollars. is an OTA software update manager for Linux-based embedded devices, and it also offers a wide range of automations to securely manage these devices. One of the features that Mender offers is automatic retry of failed device deployments. Deployments to devices might fail for various intermittent reasons like loss of power, network or device usage. Automatic retry upon failures reduces device deployment error rates up to 90%. This translates to time and money savings managing deployments, and also leads to customers receiving the updates faster.

Remote Management

Remote management is a necessity for any kind of embedded device. Any company rolling out its IoT products needs to have control of its systems from a central location. SSH, secure tunneling and remote terminal access is preferred by service providers to VPN access as they can assure their customers of security when accessing and troubleshooting devices. Furthermore, the management involves grouping and accessing embedded devices, provisioning, configuring, and monitoring remotely and securely.

Seeing the necessity for not only secure over-the-air processes, but also for reliable ways of monitoring, provisioning, configuring, grouping, and accessing the embedded devices, the team behind Mender decided to expand their offering by the mentioned remote management features. Mender is open source software meaning there are many contributors to make it better and support a variety of customer hardware and software such as NVIDIA Jetson and NXP's family of iMX processors. It provides flexibility in choosing your infrastructure, software, and hardware from prototyping to production which means there is no vendor lock-in. Mender supports all device software updates from a full disk image to application updates with the freedom to customize the update and installation process to fit your workflow. It is also integrated with Google Cloud and Microsoft Azure IoT for easy device authentication. 

Device configuration, troubleshooting and monitoring

A proper device management set up should never be overlooked. Robust and secure device management is a necessary cornerstone for an IoT product and therefore you need to find a high quality solution. Once you deploy thousands or millions of devices into the field you’ll need to be able to configure them properly, gather the data, and quickly troubleshoot any arising problems. Many organisations treat these capabilities as an afterthought. Engineers realize that they need some kind of device management solution right before their deadlines and product releases, which results in rushed fixes being made, that may have serious implications for the robustness and security of connected devices.


In order to roll out a successful, secure, and robust IoT product a few things have to be taken into consideration before the release. To ensure security by design from the earliest stages of the product life cycle, the team behind the IoT product needs to find a solution for deploying secure and robust OTA updates, remotely monitor, configure, and troubleshoot the devices, and automate necessary processes in order to avoid human-made mistakes.

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The Internet of Things is growing at breakneck speed. One report suggests that the global market for IoT will surpass $1.38 trillion by 2026 — a substantial increase from its 2020 valuation of $761.4 billion.

The IoT is nothing without IoT platforms — middleware that connects sensors, assets, data, software, and business processes. It brings all the different components of your IoT infrastructure together so your business can get every possible benefit.

There are many IoT platforms on the market, and it’s important to find the right one for your business. This can be a challenging task, with lots of complex and competing information to sift through. 

In this article, we’ve put together a list of the main factors that should drive your decision when settling on an IoT platformhelping you make an informed decision that leads to the best solution for your needs.

Why you need an IoT platform?

There are many reasons to consider investing in an IoT platform. Essentially, the job of an IoT platform is to act as a ready-made framework for all your IoT infrastructure, pulling everything together and helping you start getting the benefits as quickly as possible. Here are some of the biggest advantages of a good IoT platform:

  • It saves money, by making it more likely that your project will succeed and reducing the amount of time you’ll need to spend developing your own systems and fixing problems. Without relying on an IoT platform, it’s more likely that your project will fail and cost money. IoT platforms also centralize the management of your IoT network which is much more cost-efficient than trying to manage a scattered collection of devices.
  • It helps provide security, ensuring your devices are safe, keeping your valuable data safe from the hands of hackers and cybercriminals, and giving you peace of mind.
  • It helps you go to market quicker. IoT platforms take care of many aspects of your IoT project, saving you significant time and allowing you to roll out a prototype quickly.
  • Good IoT platforms come packed with ready-made features, from help with billing to data analytics support, all geared towards helping you get the most out of your IoT infrastructure and providing valuable support to every member of your team.
  • Device and data integration. IoT platforms bring all your devices together and integrate them into one central system. This way, you can integrate the data with your enterprise systems and enhance your organization’s existing processes. The result is a more cohesive network with each part supporting the whole, as opposed to a disparate collection of individual devices.
  • It helps improve and streamline operations across your entire business by bringing IoT data together with data from external sources, allowing for a more holistic view of your entire organization which can drive better working processes and help you hit your goals in various areas.

What to look for in an IoT platform?

The best IoT platforms can provide a whole host of major advantages to your project and business as a whole. By providing connectivity as a service, they simplify the process of managing IoT devices with various connectivity technologies and remove the need to establish a contract with multiple network providers. 

But it’s important to pick the right platform for your specific needs. Here are some things to consider to ensure you make the right choice.

Connectivity management

Connectivity is a huge factor when it comes to IoT. Each project and organization has its own specific connectivity requirements, and this will have a direct impact on which IoT platform is the best fit.

Some IoT platforms are more specialized in certain technologies than others. Ideally, you should choose a platform that’s able to orchestrate a range of different connectivity technologies like LoRaWAN, Sigfox, NB-IoT, LTE Cat. M1, 4G, 5G, and WIFI.

Geographical location is also something to consider. Your IoT platform should be able to support IoT applications and devices in all the different geographical regions you need it to.


Your IoT project will almost certainly grow over time. As this technology expands and becomes more widely used, almost every business is likely to find itself using more and more IoT devices and functions across multiple use cases.

Your IoT platform should be prepared for this. Select a platform that can comfortably scale as the project grows and is fit for all IoT project states from just a handful of devices in one area to thousands spread across many regions.

The best IoT platforms should be able to scale across a range of different deployment models, such as:

  • In a public cloud
  • In a private cloud
  • On your business premises


Another major concern for IoT networks is security. Attacks on IoT devices are on the rise, with 33% of infected devices now part of the IoT. It’s essential to make sure you choose an IoT platform that prioritizes security.

If you don’t take security seriously, you’re putting your IoT infrastructure at risk of cyberattacks, which could result in downtime, the loss of sensitive data, and serious reputational damage. On top of this, many companies have to comply with strict requirements when it comes to data ownership and security, which means you could face legal penalties if your data is breached.

It’s no longer enough to simply secure your business premises — in our increasingly remotely connected world, you have to keep your devices safe wherever they are. Your IoT platform should also be able to integrate with common cloud infrastructures like Google Cloud, Microsoft Azure, and Amazon AWS.


The whole point of IoT is to make your life and business processes easier. It shouldn’t add an extra layer of difficulty and complexity to your systems. The best IoT platforms are straightforward and easy to integrate with existing processes.

The main user groups to consider here are:

  • The people who will actually be using the system — your end-users
  • The people whose job it is to maintain the system like your company’s internal engineers

For both of these groups, the IoT platform should be as user-friendly as possible with minimal friction and challenges. This not only helps you get the most out of your technology but also keeps your team happy and stress-free.

End-user application

It is crucial to make sure that your IoT platform can be integrated with your final application. Typically, you want the platform to have a standardized interface (REST API) that allows you to connect your end-user smart application and make use of the data for your particular business case.

Your chosen platform should also support the visualization of data during a pilot, as this helps you understand your IoT systems as closely as possible and communicate this to other members of your organization.

Resilience to technological change

If there’s one thing we can be sure of when it comes to technology, it’s that constant change is unavoidable. This is a good thing for businesses and ensures constant progress and development, but when it comes to IoT systems it’s essential to prepare for this ongoing change.

Your hardware, connectivity, and applications need to be adaptable and resistant to change. Otherwise, you’ll run into issues like technological lock-in where you’re forced to use technology that is no longer sufficient for the demands of the time.

One way to ensure resistance to change is to make it possible to exchange the components of your IoT solution at any time, without negatively impacting the overall final application. This allows you to modify and upgrade your infrastructure bit-by-bit over time without major delays and downtime.

When it comes to IoT platforms, there is no one-size-fits-all answer. You need to take the time to figure out which platforms are the best fit for your unique set of needs and challenges, and pick one that can help you get the most out of your network.

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IoT in Mining

Flowchart of IoT in Mining

by Vaishali Ramesh

Introduction – Internet of Things in Mining

The Internet of things (IoT) is the extension of Internet connectivity into physical devices and everyday objects. Embedded with electronics, Internet connectivity, and other forms of hardware; these devices can communicate and interact with others over the Internet, and they can be remotely monitored and controlled. In the mining industry, IoT is used as a means of achieving cost and productivity optimization, improving safety measures and developing their artificial intelligence needs.

IoT in the Mining Industry

Considering the numerous incentives it brings, many large mining companies are planning and evaluating ways to start their digital journey and digitalization in mining industry to manage day-to-day mining operations. For instance:

  • Cost optimization & improved productivity through the implementation of sensors on mining equipment and systems that monitor the equipment and its performance. Mining companies are using these large chunks of data – 'big data' to discover more cost-efficient ways of running operations and also reduce overall operational downtime.
  • Ensure the safety of people and equipment by monitoring ventilation and toxicity levels inside underground mines with the help of IoT on a real-time basis. It enables faster and more efficient evacuations or safety drills.
  • Moving from preventive to predictive maintenance
  • Improved and fast-decision making The mining industry faces emergencies almost every hour with a high degree of unpredictability. IoT helps in balancing situations and in making the right decisions in situations where several aspects will be active at the same time to shift everyday operations to algorithms.

IoT & Artificial Intelligence (AI) application in Mining industry

Another benefit of IoT in the mining industry is its role as the underlying system facilitating the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI). From exploration to processing and transportation, AI enhances the power of IoT solutions as a means of streamlining operations, reducing costs, and improving safety within the mining industry.

Using vast amounts of data inputs, such as drilling reports and geological surveys, AI and machine learning can make predictions and provide recommendations on exploration, resulting in a more efficient process with higher-yield results.

AI-powered predictive models also enable mining companies to improve their metals processing methods through more accurate and less environmentally damaging techniques. AI can be used for the automation of trucks and drills, which offers significant cost and safety benefits.

Challenges for IoT in Mining 

Although there are benefits of IoT in the mining industry, implementation of IoT in mining operations has faced many challenges in the past.

  • Limited or unreliable connectivity especially in underground mine sites
  • Remote locations may struggle to pick up 3G/4G signals
  • Declining ore grade has increased the requirements to dig deeper in many mines, which may increase hindrances in the rollout of IoT systems

Mining companies have overcome the challenge of connectivity by implementing more reliable connectivity methods and data-processing strategies to collect, transfer and present mission critical data for analysis. Satellite communications can play a critical role in transferring data back to control centers to provide a complete picture of mission critical metrics. Mining companies worked with trusted IoT satellite connectivity specialists such as ‘Inmarsat’ and their partner eco-systems to ensure they extracted and analyzed their data effectively.


Cybersecurity will be another major challenge for IoT-powered mines over the coming years

 As mining operations become more connected, they will also become more vulnerable to hacking, which will require additional investment into security systems.


Following a data breach at Goldcorp in 2016, that disproved the previous industry mentality that miners are not typically targets, 10 mining companies established the Mining and Metals Information Sharing and Analysis Centre (MM-ISAC) to share cyber threats among peers in April 2017.

In March 2019, one of the largest aluminum producers in the world, Norsk Hydro, suffered an extensive cyber-attack, which led to the company isolating all plants and operations as well as switching to manual operations and procedures. Several of its plants suffered temporary production stoppages as a result. Mining companies have realized the importance of digital security and are investing in new security technologies.

Digitalization of Mining Industry - Road Ahead

Many mining companies have realized the benefits of digitalization in their mines and have taken steps to implement them. There are four themes that are expected to be central to the digitalization of the mining industry over the next decade are listed below:



The above graph demonstrates the complexity of each digital technology and its implementation period for the widespread adoption of that technology. There are various factors, such as the complexity and scalability of the technologies involved in the adoption rate for specific technologies and for the overall digital transformation of the mining industry.

The world can expect to witness prominent developments from the mining industry to make it more sustainable. There are some unfavorable impacts of mining on communities, ecosystems, and other surroundings as well. With the intention to minimize them, the power of data is being harnessed through different IoT statements. Overall, IoT helps the mining industry shift towards resource extraction, keeping in mind a particular time frame and footprint that is essential.

Originally posted here.

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From a salt shaker with a built-in speaker to smart water devices that bring clean water to communities with weak infrastructure, connected devices are increasingly advancing into all areas of our lives. But more connectivity brings more possibilities for crippling issues that can impact product development, operations, and maintenance. IoT developers must consider how to plan for firmware architecture that leads to a better, stickier product.

Competition among connected device manufacturers is swelling in every corner of the industry, and user patience for clunky products won’t get the benefit of the doubt that developers might otherwise have had in the IoT’s nascent days. As users become more dependent on connected devices, consumer demands that those devices consistently function well - and securely - become the expectation. There remains, of course, work to be done: a quick Google search reveals stories like the Fitbit firmware update that destroyed the device battery, or the Tesla key fobs that could be overwritten and hijacked until a patch was rolled out.    

These stories underscore that the IoT ecosystem’s connected nature requires that hardware developers approach product development differently - and take firmware updates seriously. It used to be that developers could write static firmware for specific device use cases or commoditized products and, once released, have no further interaction or engagement with the product. That system no longer works. To have a successful product, IoT device manufacturers need to invest in design and in firmware development equally.

Whether it’s BLE on phones or LTE or Zigby and other mesh networks, IoT devices are connected, regularly transmitting sensitive and personal data to and from the cloud. The near limitless reach of modern connected devices across all areas of our lives, paired with the high price point of most IoT devices underscores that IoT developers must have a plan (and not an after-the-fact reaction) for firmware maintenance. Putting that plan in motion requires three considerations:

Device monitoring

Ubiquitous connectivity brings with it major challenges, but it also brings opportunities. Among other things, it allows automated device health monitoring. The typical process of releasing a product relies on users’ reporting a problem and requiring them to physically return the device to be evaluated, repaired, and returned. Simply put, this is a huge waste of money and time, and it also risks frustrating the customer to the point of losing them entirely. Using customers as your testers is simply a terrible business decision. (Maybe you could get away with it if you were the only game in town, but IoT device makers don’t have that luxury anymore). Automated device monitoring is the solution. By regularly analyzing the health of devices and flagging potential problems immediately, a monitoring system can help device makers catch and fix issues in hours that would have otherwise taken them weeks to root cause. Designing embedded systems with such capabilities gives critical observability into performance, stability, and overall health - either of a single device or of a fleet of millions. 


Shipping products that require an update or patch is inevitable for even the most talented and thorough teams. Just ask NASA. While no one can avoid updates entirely, it is possible to detect fleet-wide issues and solve them without burdening users. The key is to roll out updates incrementally, starting with a small number of devices and ramping up over time. This limits the impact of any new issues and insulates most of your users from the churn of getting a few bugfix releases in a row.  Another good option is to implement an A/B update system if you have enough flash memory. This allows your device to download an update in the background with no user impact and simply prompts the user to reboot once the update is ready. Fast and simple update flows like A/B updates are key to compliance, and prevent too much fragmentation across your fleet. Last but not least, it is important to pair regular updates with a monitoring system so you can quickly identify problems with the update, and rollouts can be paused or aborted altogether.

Building with security in mind

The ubiquity of IoT devices has accelerated customer demands for robust device security in lockstep, with regulatory bodies becoming more serious (and punitive) about security requirements and standards. For those building smart devices, I would offer these principles as table stakes for security: 

  1. Devices must be updateable. 
  2. Trusted boot is no longer optional. You need a chain of trust to control the firmware running on your device.
  3. Rotate secrets and don’t use a master secret. Whether that means a set of encryption keys or other secrets to make devices functional, they must be dynamically changed, so the compromise of one device does not lead to the compromise of others. 

Software teams have long embraced iterative processes, and IoT device developers can learn much from this process. Focusing on firmware architecture that is responsive, observable, and proactive, lets device manufacturers ship a better product and create a happier customer base.

François Baldassari is the Founder and CEO of Memfault, a cloud-based observability platfrom for hardware devices. Prior to Memfault, François worked on developer infrastructure initiatives at Pebble and Oculus.

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Nearly every embedded software developer working in the IoT space is now building secure devices. Developers have been mostly focused on how to handle secure applications and the basic microcontroller technologies such as how to use Arms TrustZone or leverage multicore processors. A looming problem that many companies and teams are overlooking is that figuring out how to develop secure applications is just the first step. There are three stages to secure product lifecycle management and in today’s post, we will review what is involved in each stage.

As a quick overview, the stages, which can be seen in the diagram below, are:

  • Development
  • Test and Production Deployment
  • Maintenance and In-field Servicing

Let us look at each of these stages in a little more detail. 

Stage #1 – Development

Development is probably the area that most developers are the most familiar with, but at the same time, the area that they are learning to adapt to the most. Many developers have designed and built systems without ever having to take security into account. Development involves a lot more than just deciding which components to isolate and how to separate the software into secure and non-secure regions.

For example, during the development phase developers now need to learn how to develop in the environment where a secure bootloader is in place. They need to consider how to handle firmware fallbacks, if they are allowed and if so, under what conditions. Firmware images may need to be compressed on top of the need for authentication.

While the development stage has become more complicated, developers should not struggle too much to extrapolate their past experiences to developing secure firmware successfully.

Stage #2 – Test and Production Deployment

The area that developers will probably struggle with the most is the test and production deployment stage. Testing secure software requires additional steps to be taken that authenticate debug hardware so that the developer can access secure memory regions to test their code and successfully debug it. Even more importantly, care must be taken to install that secure software onto a product during production.

There are several ways this can be done, but one method is to use a secure flashing device like SEGGERS Flasher Secure. These devices can follow a multistep process that involves validating a user ID which allows the secure firmware to be installed on the device. The devices themselves limit how many and on what devices the firmware can be installed which helps to protect a team’s intellectual property and prevents unauthorized production of a product.


Stage #3 – Maintenance and In-field Servicing

Finally, there is the maintenance and in-field servicing stage which is a partial continuation of the development phase. Once a product has been deployed into the field, it needs to be securely updated. Updates can be done manually in-field, or they can be done using an over-the-air update process. This involves a device being able to contact a secure firmware server that can compress and encrypt the image and transport it to the device. Once the device has received the image, it must decrypt, decompress and validate the contents of the image. If everything looks good, the image can then be loaded as the primary firmware for the device.


 There is much more to designing and deploying a secure device than simply developing a secure application. The entire process is broken up into three main stages that we have looked at in greater detail today. Unfortunately, we have only just scratched the surface!

Orignally posted here.

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In this blog, we’ll discuss how users of Edge Impulse and Nordic can actuate and stream classification results over BLE using Nordic’s UART Service (NUS). This makes it easy to integrate embedded machine learning into your next generation IoT applications. Seamless integration with nRF Cloud is also possible since nRF Cloud has native support for a BLE terminal. 

We’ve extended the Edge Impulse example functionality already available for the nRF52840 DK and nRF5340 DK by adding the abilities to actuate and stream classification outputs. The extended example is available for download on github, and offers a uniform experience on both hardware platforms. 

Using nRF Toolbox 

After following the instructions in the example’s readme, download the nRF Toolbox mobile application (available on both iOS and Android) and connect to the nRF52840 DK or the nRF5340 DK that will be discovered as “Edge Impulse”. Once connected, set up the interface as follows so that you can get information about the device, available sensors, and start/stop the inferencing process. Save the preset configuration so that you can load it again for future use. Fill out the text of the various commands to use the same convention as what is used for the Edge Impulse AT command set. For example, sending AT+RUNIMPULSE starts the inferencing process on the device. 

Figure 1. Setting up the Edge Impulse AT Command set

Once the appropriate AT command set mapping to an icon has been done, hit the appropriate icon. Hitting the ‘play’ button cause the device to start acquiring data and perform inference every couple of seconds. The results can be viewed in the “Logs” menu as shown below.

Figure 2. Classification Output over BLE in the Logs View

Using nRF Cloud

Using the nRF Connect for Cloud mobile app for iOS and Android, you can turn your smartphone into a BLE gateway. This allows users to easily connect their BLE NUS devices running Edge Impulse to the nRF Cloud as an easy way to send the inferencing conclusions to the cloud. It’s as easy as setting up the BLE gateway through the app, connecting to the “Edge Impulse” device and watching the same results being displayed in the “Terminal over BLE” window shown below!

Screen_Hunter_229_Feb_16_23_45_26c8913865.jpgFigure 3. Classification Output Shown in nRF Cloud


Edge Impulse is supercharging IoT with embedded machine learning and we’ve discussed a couple of ways you can easily send conclusions to either the smartphone or to the cloud by leveraging the Nordic UART Service. We look forward to seeing how you’ll leverage Edge Impulse, Nordic and BLE to create your next gen IoT application.  


Article originally written for the Edge Impulse blog by Zin Thein Kyaw, Senior User Success Engineer at Edge Impulse.

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The LLDP protocol is a Link Layer Discovery Protocol used by network devices to identify their neighbors and their capabilities.

If you want to integrate LLDP protocol in your Linux/Embedded system, there are mainly two open-source codes. The first is lldpd and the other is openlldp. When I needed to integrate the LLDP in my network device, I studied both open-source codes. I am writing this article hoping that it will be useful for others who also want to use LLDP open-source code in their systems or network devices.

Below are the key points which should be considered when selecting the LLDP open-source code.

1. License

License is an important point to consider when you want to integrate an open-source code in your application. The lldpd is published under ISC License, whereas the openlldp is published under GPL-2.0 License. The difference between two licenses is that the ISC License is more permissive than the GPL-2.0 License.

If you use GPL-2.0 licensed open-source code in your application, you need to publish the changes back to the community. In case of ISC License, it is not required to publish your changes back to community. Please note that the scope of the article does not cover the full licensing requirements. Please understand the license before using it in your project.

2. Active Community Support

When picking up open-source code, we should also make sure that the development is active for that code. The development and support in lldpd are more active than the openlldp. When writing this article, there are a total of 8 tags in openlldp and 54 tags in lldpd. This indicates how quickly bugs are fixed and new version is released in lldpd.

3. Supported Protocols

There are other protocols like LLDP to discover the network devices, for example EDP, CDP. When selecting the LLDP open-source code, one should also make sure that it supports other protocols as well. This will make sure that the network devices with other protocols are also discovered. Though I have not verified the protocols listed in the documentations, from the document I can say that the lldpd supports EDP, CDP, FDP, SONMP and the openlldp supports EDP, CDP, EVB, MED, DCBX, VDP.

4. Custom Interface Support

In most of the cases the LLDP would run on standard Ethernet Interface but in some specific cases it may require executing LLDP on non-Ethernet interfaces, like Serial or I2C. In this case, it would be very helpful if the open-source code supports other interfaces. Though both open-source code does not support custom interfaces, the lldpd at least have documentation on how to add the custom interfaces. Adding custom interfaces on openlldp may require more time to understand and implement than lldpd.

5. Multiple Neighbour Support

This is one of the most important features when selecting the LLDP open-source code. Multiple neighbour support is needed if you are supposed to capture more than one LLDP enabled neighbour (network devices) on the same interfaces. As per my understanding, this is very basic feature which should be supported in all LLDP code. But I was surprised to know that this feature is not available in openlldp. Multiple neighbour support is available in lldpd.

6. Daemon Configuration Tool

Daemon configuration tool helps to configure the LLDP parameters, get status, enable/disable interfaces. Both lldpd and openlldp has their configuration tools. The lldpd has lldpcli/lldpctl and the openlldp has lldptool for configuration.

7. LLDP Statistics

Both lldpd and openlldp supports display of interface and neighbour statistics through there configuration tools. The statistics includes Total Frame Outs, Total Error Frame Outs, Total Age Out Frames, Total Discarded Frames, Total Frame In, Total Frame In Errors, Total Discarded Error Frames, Total TLVs in Errors, Total TLV’s Accepted etc.

8. Custom TLV Support

Both the lldpd and openlldp supports reception and transmission of custom TLV’s. The custom TLV’s can be set or get using their configuration tools.

9. SNMP Agent

Both lldpd and openlldp supports SNMP agent.

Comparison table

Based on above points the below table is populated for comparison purpose. One can decide whether lldpd or openlldp should be used in their system or network devices.



As per my opinion it is better to choose the lldpd open-source code over the openlldp considering the license, features and community support. The licensing of lldpd is more permissive than the open-lldp. There are more features in lldpd compared to open-lldp. The community support for lldpd is more active than the open-lldp. So unless you have direction from your client to use specific open source lldp package, go for lldpd. eInfochips has in-depth expertise in the areas of firmware design for embedded systems development. We offer end-to-end support for firmware development starting from system requirements to testing for quality and environment.

Originally posted here.

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How IoT Tools Are Mining Manufacturing's Gold

IIoT will allow assets to perform more cost-effectively – so the better the data, the greater the savings.

Ricardo Buranello

The IoT is enabling advances across multiple market sectors, but it is the Industrial IoT (IIoT) that is having the most impact. It is already the biggest IoT vertical and covers multiple types of projects across industry, from simple data collection to more complex projects incorporating just-in-time manufacturing and predictive quality control.

The biggest benefit of the IIoT is how it is creating innovative solutions to help manufacturers achieve their business objectives by delivering better services and products to their customers. There are three principle reasons for implementing an IIoT application – to make money, to save money, or to stay compliant – and sometimes all three can be delivered. Certainly, at Telit, we would not counsel anyone to consider investing in an IIoT project unless it meets one or more of those three objectives.

Data is the New Gold

A properly implemented IIoT should enable manufacturers to collect data from every step in the process. Every machine can and should produce data, and the processing of that data should deliver invaluable information that helps create more efficient processes and factories. Look back 10-15 years, and there was a big shift in production, with manufacturing operations leaving the U.S. and Europe for China because labor cost was the most important consideration.

The IIoT is set to have the same effect as labor costs; data is the new gold. Information from the IIoT will make manufacturers’ assets perform in a more cost-effective manner – so the better the data, the greater the improvements.

Let’s look at some examples of the transformational effect of the IIoT. One of the largest car vendors in the world implemented a replacement IIoT solution that significantly reduced latency in their systems.This reduction was so relevant that in just one plant it created 3,000 minutes more of uptime. This plant produces at a rate of about $30,000 per minute, so that’s an extra $90 million.

Additionally, integrating the solution operator by operator, line by line and shift by shift, there is now a continuous link between what is being produced and how it is being produced, increasing productivity and quality control. Based on the data gathered, the manufacturer achieved significant reductions in both set-up time and line downtime.

Global names like Mitsubishi and Honda rely on the IIoT to remotely connect sophisticated machinery with technicians and engineers who constantly check manufacturing performance levels, ensure preventative maintenance, and quickly react to any issues that may affect production. Chip giants utilize the IIoT to maintain top-level cybersecurity to protect its IPR from hackers. Multinational pharmaceutical companies use the IIoT to audit every step in the manufacture of their products to ensure full compliance with regulations and laws. 

The IIoT isn’t limited to high end manufacturing. Anything can be connected. In Brazil, the IIoT is used to transmit data about the condition of the sewer network and sends alerts to maintenance crews when cleaning is required. The IIoT can also be used to explain unusual behavior.

At a manufacturing plant In Mexico, an application measuring the productivity of each machine was able to show how one machine was producing less at night than during the morning and afternoon shifts. Upon investigation, it was revealed that the operator on the evening shift was leaving the machine on a regular basis – to chat with his girlfriend.

Manufacturers are embracing the technology and investing, and without needing to hire an army of software engineers to rewrite protocols. There are experts in the IoT space that can deliver guaranteed connectivity across all systems – reducing the implementation time to a couple of days.

The IIoT is changing the face of manufacturing, from predictive maintenance and supply chain management to condition monitoring. Yet only a fraction of the market potential has been explored so far. If you look at the Fortune 500, there isn’t one company that doesn’t have an IIoT application, but in most the technology is yet to permeate the whole organization.

There are huge untapped possibilities, and work to be done to achieve the true revolution that the IIoT promises. This applies not only to the actual manufacturing processes, but throughout the supply chain, leveraging connectivity for better traceability and quality control. The IIoT can, and will, touch, impact, and improve every step.


Ricardo Stefanato Buranello is the Global VP - IoT Factory Solutions for Telit, and has over 14 years of experience in the M2M/IoT industry. Buranello is responsible for Telit’s global factory solutions, which is a leading provider in industrial solutions for remote connectivity, edge logic automation, OT and IT integration.


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