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IoT Paradigms for EV Charging Future Growth

IoT (Internet of Things) in today’s era is one of the most significant technologies having dynamic applications across every industry. Its advanced connectivity and ability to gather and process data in real-time makes it beneficial for all sectors. The automotive industry, too, leverages this tremendous technology to make itself more advanced. 

The days of gasoline fuel vehicles and stations being obsolete are not far away now. Many countries worldwide have begun their journey to facilitate a fully electric vehicle system, while others are catching up with them. One of the major purposes of IoT in EV systems is the development of robust charging infrastructure. The ability to remotely manage the charging stations is a big challenge that IoT systems seamlessly handle. 

So in this blog, we will discuss the role and uses of IoT in EV systems and how it is changing the automotive dynamics for the future. Let us start!

Overview: IoT in EV Charging

IoT is fundamentally a convergence of IT (Information Technology) and OT (Operational Technology). The OT focuses more on devices and sensors established in the system. At the same time, IT deals with the digital transformation aspects of the system. 

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In the EV charging station landscape, the system is connected to multiple IoT devices integrated with several third-party service providers like e-MSPs, energy suppliers, and charge point operators. 

The devices established in the charging system utilize a back-end cloud infrastructure that is run through different protocols & connectivity options to ensure seamless charging operations. 

The major services carried out at an EV station are

  • Processing payments 
  • Scheduling
  • Software updates
  • Predictive maintenance
  • Usage analytics

IoT in an EV charging system consists of three major elements:

1. Charging Equipment

It is a hardware unit established at a charging station that provides a physical connection between the power grid and the EV. The unit comprises different connectivity options, power electronics, charging protocols, and sensors. All these devices perform operations like 

  • Engagement and disengagement of the port 
  • Start and stop the process of charging
  • Energy Metering
  • Fault Detection
  • Health Status

2. Mobile App

The next most important element of IoT in the EV charging system is a web-based smartphone app. The app is responsible for connecting The EV charging network to the EV owners. Some of the major operations include

  • User Authentication
  • Navigating A Charging Network
  • Charger Onboarding
  • Scheduled Charging
  • Slot Reservation
  • Billing, And Payments

3. Management Platform

It is a cloud-based platform that aims to gather data from IoT Sensors and devices to perform data analytics. It consists of operations such as

  • Load Balancing
  • Remote Monitoring
  • Configurations Management
  • Firmware Upgrades
  • Alerts and Notifications

IoT in the EV charging system enables continuous monitoring of operations and gathering of data to present it in reports & dashboards. Also, it can be leveraged to notify users during critical failures. 

IoT is a great technology for EV automobiles and charging stations as most of its failures can be troubleshot effortlessly with remote operations. Hence, IoT is unquestionably the next big technology in the automotive sector. 

The Four Pillars of IoT in Electric Vehicle Management System

The IoT Electric vehicle management system consists of four aspects on which it majorly works:

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Battery Management System

As EVs are powered with batteries, so the primary role of the battery management system is to monitor and manage the battery processes. It includes charging, discharging, and checking key parameters like voltage, current, and temperature while charging operations. 

IoT enables the battery system to be controlled and fixed remotely when required. Besides, the battery system continuously sends data to the servers to generate insights on the next course of action to enhance performance. 

Safety and Smart Driving

Providing higher safety to passengers commuting in a vehicle is an important element of using IoT in automobiles. IoT sensors and devices planted inside the EVs provide features like

  • Theft prevention through real-time tracking, immobilization, and geo-fencing.
  • It consistently monitors the performance of vehicles based on different attributes like driving conditions, geography, weather, etc. The accumulated data helps in making the system more efficient. 
  • The IoT devices established in vehicles also capture the car parameters like speed and acceleration and accordingly provide ti[ps in real-time. 

Preventive Maintenance System

Though EVs are designed with care, there can be incidents of component failures. Therefore, there are IoT-based fault alert systems installed in the system that notifies the driver about the failing component. 

It helps them to analyze the situation and act accordingly. As the issue gets addressed ahead of time, the driver gets time to prevent a breakdown. In addition, the problem can be fixed remotely in certain conditions. It enhances the customer experience and provides higher vehicle reliability to the user. 

Telematics Data

IoT is important and is used widely in different sectors today due to its ability to collect data for improved operations. In the automotive industry, data is gathered when connected to vehicle sensors. This accumulated data can be displayed via widgets and used to generate automatic reports. Some of the most beneficial factors of using telematics for EVs are:

  • It provides the details of battery usage data. 
  • It generates a charging report for every charging session.
  • It monitors and provides insights on driver behavior data. 
  • It alerts users with nearby charging station alerts. 

How Does IoT Transform the EV Charging Experience?

Here are some crucial benefits and use cases of IoT in EV charging:

  1. User Authentication

The customer uses an RFID card/tag to access the charging machine. As soon as they tap their tag, the charging station transmits the data to the IoT platform. The IoT platform then checks the user profile and performs an authentication process to ensure secure and safe billing. 

       2. Charger Availability

The IoT sensors and devices deployed inside your car notify you about the nearby available charging stations. In addition, you can utilize the smartphone app to reserve a slot and check the rates of the charging service for different times.  

      3. Automated Operations

IoT has powered the charging stations to work automatically without any user help. Besides, the system notifies the users about the left charging time, due payments, and any charging errors.   

      4. Smart Charging

Due to the availability of IoT sensors, charging stations can work more smartly. When there is abundant sunlight and energy production, the chargers automatically start charging, which invariably helps grid operators to manage energy more efficiently.

     5. Remote Management

The IoT devices installed in the system generate real-time metrics & insights. The metrics may include charger availability, utilization, and fault monitoring. It helps in fixing the issues remotely when required. Further, it helps in predictive maintenance and minimizing operational downtime. 

     6. EVSE Control

There are several sensory nodes through which the IoT platform collects information. The data may include energy tariffs, grid limit, EV battery capacity, and state of charge. Information on these metrics helps manage the EV charging infrastructure and deliver better service. 

     7. Support and Management

IoT enables EV charging stations to become smarter, connected, and accessible for everyone. Besides, it presents crucial information such as charging time, charging queues, weather conditions, etc., that aids in a better support system for the users.

     8. Data Collection and Analysis

Advanced cloud solutions powered by IoT significantly help in data collection and enable users, service providers, and maintenance workers to optimize their work more efficiently. 

     9. Geo-Dashboard

Geo dashboard is an impressive feature of the EV charging module where the user is informed about the nearby charging stations to schedule their trip more effectively. 

Should You Invest in IoT EV Charging Solutions?

EVs are the future of automobiles and will get mainstream in the next couple of years around the globe. Hence, building refined EV charging solutions now can earn you a monopoly in this service industry. So if you wish to build your own IoT-based EV charging solution, get in touch with our Intuz expert team. Intuz is a leading IoT development company who have built impressive and unique IoT solutions for different market verticals. You, too, incorporate with them to build your next IoT solution.    

 

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According to a 2021 IBM report, the average organization did not detect a data breach for up to 212 days—and then did not fully contain the issue for another 75. In many instances, malicious hackers attack a company using publicly available information: open-source intelligence often referred to as OSINT.

However, pentration testers can also use OSINT to protect organizations. This guide discusses what OSINT is and explains how penetration testers can apply OSINT tools and frameworks to improve an organization’s security.

What Is Open-Source Intelligence, and How Is It Used?

What is OSINT (Open Source Intelligence)? - sunnyvalley.io

Cyberattackers usually start by profiling the organization or individual they’re looking to attack. Attackers can use publicly available data on the internet to locate exploitable targets with the objective of collecting as much data as possible about the individual or organization. Likewise, ethical hackers and penetration testers can use OSINT to identify a company’s vulnerabilities so that they can be fixed before malicious actors find them.

OSINT is raw data that is openly available to the public. It may include information like names, addresses, interests, and other personal details. Location and behavioral data, affiliations, and daily patterns are all important pieces of information that can provide an inside look into a target’s life.

Social Media Intelligence (SOCMINT)

Social media intelligence, known as SOCMINT, is a subcategory of OSINT. SOCMINT refers to publicly available information on social media websites.

One aspect of an OSINT-based penetration testing framework is the use of social media for reconnaissance. Most employees have social media accounts, which can give hackers access to a wealth of sensitive information. Penetration testing with SOCMINT can locate information such as:

  • Social media posts, messages, and images
  • Person-to-person communications
  • Group-to-group communications

How Do Penetration Testers Find Information?

Cybersecurity professionals perform penetration testing using OSINT as a proactive measure to protect organizations. Using publicly available information, the tester can determine which areas are open to exploits. Once they have this data, they can then implement appropriate measures to prevent an attack.

Penetration testers gather OSINT in various ways. One method is to manually view content posted in specific groups or on certain pages. Another approach is to review results from searches the tester has performed. Testers may also find information by extracting data from websites using web scraping tools.

A variety of tools have been developed to automate tasks for penetration testers, improving efficiency compared with manual testing. These automated testing tools can also be used to find items that manual testing doesn’t identify. Penetration testers have many OSINT tools available to collect information (Nordine, 2017).

  • Google dorks. One of the most popular OSINT tools is Google dorks. Google dorking is the technique of using Google search operators to find sensitive information and vulnerabilities.
  • Metagoofil is an OSINT tool that scans Google and Bing for email addresses. Testers use it to find people’s contact information, collect it in a list, and save that list as a CSV file.
  • Recon-ng is a framework to automate intelligence gathering that supports several data sources. Recon-ng provides five data sources: Google, Bing, Maltego CE, ShodanHQ, and Dnsdumpster.
  • SpiderFoot scans over 100 data sources to locate information about a target. The tool can find information such as IP addresses, domain names, and emails.

Why Pursue a Career in Penetration Testing?

Recent data from cybersecurity ventures  indicates that cybersecurity professionals are in high demand, with the cybersecurity job market expected to grow 350% by 2025 (Morgan, 2022). If you’re interested in obtaining one of these in-demand positions, consider getting certified with EC-Council as a Certified Penetration Testing Professional (C|PENT).

In the comprehensive, hands-on C|PENT program, you’ll take a deep dive into how to use OSINT in penetration testing. You’ll also cover many of the other most-desired skills for penetration testers today, including:

  • How to penetration test Internet of Things (IoT) devices
  • How to use social engineering tactics in a penetration test
  • How to conduct penetration testing in the cloud

With the C|PENT certification, you’ll have a proven record of your expertise in the tools and techniques used in this rewarding field.

 
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IoT Drives Digital Transformation

Digital transformation is the integration of digital technology into all areas of a business, resulting in fundamental changes to how businesses operate and how they deliver value to customers. It’s a journey of continuous improvement that can help organizations drive growth, become more agile and efficient, and create new customer experiences.
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2019 was the year that IoT solutions started to become a reality. The internet of things has been predicted for years now, but the implementation of IoT solutions has been slower. The impact that IoT will have on business and society cannot be understated, and many companies are aiming to gain a competitive advantage by implementing IoT solutions.

Every year, more entrepreneurs tend to jump on the IoT bandwagon to leverage the benefits of this rapidly evolving technology. Tapping into the IoT, businesses can achieve a plethora of benefits, including increased revenues, better customer services, and enhanced operations. All over the world, companies are turning to the Internet of Things solutions, especially in high-tech industries, such as automotive and aerospace, and in sectors such as manufacturing and retail.

Artificial intelligence and machine learning (AI/ML) deployed on sensors, devices, and networks through the Internet of Things (IoT) are helping enterprises transform the way they do business. Although IoT adoption rates have increased in recent years, IoT adoption is still relatively low. However, by 2025, the number of connected devices will grow to 75.44 billion from 16.2 billion in 2017, according to Statista.

This article will explore the effect of the Internet of Things on digital transformation and its importance to businesses. Before delving into the subject further, it is necessary to understand the significance of enterprise digital transformation.
 
Importance of Digital Transformation in Modern Enterprise
 
Digital transformation is the process of harnessing the power of technology to fundamentally transform an organization's operations, products, services, and customer experiences. It enables businesses to uncover innovative opportunities, reduce costs, and increase efficiencies. By leveraging digital capabilities, businesses can unlock new value and enhance their competitiveness in the marketplace.
 
The digital transformation of the modern enterprise is no longer optional, but a critical part of success and growth. As the world continues to move toward a more digital-first approach, businesses of all sizes must embrace digital transformation in order to remain competitive. Digital transformation is a complex process that requires a holistic approach, starting with the redefinition of the organization’s mission and culture and extending to the deployment of new technology, processes, and products. Each of these elements is essential for enabling organizations to become more agile, improve customer service, and reduce operational costs.

Digital transformation is not only about technology – it is about transforming the way a business works and interacts with its customers. By leveraging the power of digital technologies, organizations can drive innovation and create real value for their customers and business. Digital transformation is a process of continuous evolution, with organizations constantly on the lookout for new ways to optimize their operations and improve customer experience.
 Companies must now find ways to use technology to their advantage in order to remain successful in an increasingly complex and rapidly changing business landscape
 
 

What does IoT mean for digital transformation?

A digital transformation enterprise is not just about the technology or the platform. It is about a new approach to business. IoT is revolutionizing the way enterprises think about their business and the way in which customers and partners interact with them, providing new opportunities for revenue growth and customer engagement.

The Internet of Things (IoT) presents a wealth of opportunities for businesses to transform their processes and operations, leading to more efficient and effective services. By connecting physical devices and systems to each other and the cloud, businesses can gain greater insight into their operations, access real-time data, and automate processes. This can help businesses to save time, money and resources, as well as improve customer experience and reduce operational costs. IoT can also enable new business models, allowing businesses to develop new products and services and create new revenue streams. In short, IoT is an essential part of any digital transformation strategy

The implementation of IoT within modern enterprises offers numerous advantages. A multitude of startups has based their entire operations around IoT technology. Businesses are able to digitally transform their processes through the utilization of IoT solutions. Here are some of the key business benefits of incorporating IoT into digital transformation:
 

Automation: IoT devices can be used to automate tedious and labor-intensive tasks. Automation can be used to streamline processes, increase efficiency and reduce errors, ultimately speeding up the innovation process. can also be used to streamline data collection, allowing businesses to collect and analyze data in real-time to gain valuable insights and make data-driven decisions. This not only accelerates the development process but also reduces the cost associated with data collection and analysis.


Connectivity: IoT devices can be used to connect disparate systems and enable data and information sharing. This can be used to facilitate collaboration and data sharing, which can speed up the process of digital transformation. By leveraging the power of connectivity, businesses can develop a range of products and services that can bring about a whole new level of efficiency, cost savings and customer satisfaction. This can be achieved by integrating data sources and creating better ways to monitor and manage the connected devices. 


Monitoring and analytics: IoT devices can be used to monitor and analyze data in real-time, providing valuable insights and helping to inform decisions and improve the decision-making process. This can help businesses identify trends, identify potential issues before they arise, and reduce downtime. It also provides a way to better understand customer behavior and gain valuable insights into customer preferences. With this data, businesses can tailor their products and services to better meet customer needs, resulting in improved customer loyalty and profitability.


Security: IoT solutions can provide additional layers of security to protect data and systems from potential threats. This can help to reduce the risk of data breaches and other malicious activities.  IoT solutions can also help to automate security-related processes and procedures. This can help to reduce the time and effort required to maintain a secure environment, allowing organizations to focus on other areas of their operations. Additionally, by having automated security, organizations can be sure that their security measures are consistently up-to-date and effective in protecting their data and systems.


Scalability: IoT solutions can be used to easily scale up or down resources to meet the changing needs of the organization. 

 

 

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With the advent of the Internet of Things, Big Data is becoming more and more important. After all, when you have devices that are constantly collecting data, you need somewhere to store it all. But the Internet of Things is not just changing the way we store data; it’s changing the way we collect and use it as well. In this blog post, we will explore how the Internet of Things is transforming Big Data. From new data sources to new ways of analyzing data, the Internet of Things is changing the Big Data landscape in a big way.

 

 

How is the Internet of Things transforming Big Data?

The Internet of Things is transforming Big Data in a number of ways. One way is by making it possible to collect more data than ever before. This is because devices that are connected to the Internet can generate a huge amount of data. This data can be used to help businesses and organizations make better decisions.

Another way the Internet of Things is transforming Big Data is by making it easier to process and analyze this data. This is because there are now many tools and technologies that can help with this. One example is machine learning, which can be used to find patterns in data.

The Internet of Things is also changing the way we think about Big Data. This is because it’s not just about collecting large amounts of data – it’s also about understanding how this data can be used to improve our lives and businesses.

The Benefits of the Internet of Things for Big Data

  1. The internet of things offers a number of benefits for big data.
  2. It allows for a greater volume of data to be collected and stored.
  3. Also, it provides a more diverse range of data types, which can be used to create more accurate and comprehensive models.
  4. It enables real-time data collection and analysis, which can help organizations make better decisions and take action more quickly.
  5. It can improve the accuracy of predictions by using historical data to train predictive models.
  6. Finally, the internet of things can help reduce the cost of storing and processing big data.

The Challenges of the Internet of Things for Big Data

The internet of things is transforming big data in a number of ways. One challenge is the sheer volume of data that is generated by devices and sensors. Another challenge is the variety of data formats, which can make it difficult to derive insights. Additionally, the real-time nature of data from the internet of things presents challenges for traditional big data infrastructure.

Conclusion

The Internet of Things is bringing a new level of connectivity to the world, and with it, a huge influx of data. This data is transforming how businesses operate, giving them new insights into their customers and operations.

The Internet of Things is also changing how we interact with the world around us, making our lives more convenient and efficient. With so much potential, it's no wonder that the Internet of Things is one of the most talked-about topics in the tech world today.

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IoT is disrupting almost every industry sector including communications. As power consumption has become a challenge for IoT devices, cellular IoT has introduced some standards that are cutting-edge. Let’s take a look at those standards and their device categories.

Remember the days when the “E” icon on the notification bar of our phones used to make us excited? 

Well, if we compare that to today, technology has skyrocketed like anything. It was just a matter of time before that E icon turned to 4G LTE.

Today, there are billions of devices that run on the 4G network providing lightning-fast internet to the users. And it does not end here. The wave of 5G is ready to take on the world. Though some countries have already deployed 5G, it is yet to conquer the entire world.

Now, IoT is not a buzzword anymore. It is an awesome technology that connects various internet-enabled devices and is known to everybody. The use of IoT allows devices to share data at a faster pace. But, there is one challenge!

As these devices are connected to cellular networks like 3G and 4G LTE, they consume a lot of power. In a way, it is acceptable, but not if the devices are sending a small amount of data occasionally. So what’s the solution here? Cellular IoT!

Cellular IoT deals with some of the best IoT standards and devices that make the existing cellular technology fit for low-powered devices. If you are interested to know how; read ahead and find out!

Why are IoT LTE devices necessary?

Well, the need for IoT devices comes into the picture when we analyze applications like predictive maintenance, asset tracking, fleet management, inventory management, remote service, etc.

All these applications are backed by powerful yet sensitive devices that transmit data to ensure that all your business processes are running fine. LTE is the technology that helps them. IoT devices under LTE can be classified based on the LTE standards!

LTE-M/ Cat-M1:

This standard covers devices that run under the bandwidth of 1.4 MHz. Most of the devices under the standard are smart meters, fleet management devices, and asset tracking devices.

Cat-1:

The operating bandwidth of Cat-1 devices is 20 MHz which allows for devices like ATMs, POS terminals, and wearables to operate.

Cat-4:

The devices under Cat-4 have the maximum download and upload speed, which makes them ideal for applications like autonomous vehicles, real-time video, and in-car infotainment.

NB-IoT/ Cat-NB1:

The IoT LTE devices under NB-IoT have the maximum latency, which makes them crucial for applications like parking sensors, street lighting, industrial monitors, and more.

What are the various IoT LTE devices categories?

Well, if we talk about the device categories, IoT LTE devices can be classified into four categories based on cellular IoT standards. The newest of these four standards are LTE-M and NB-IoT.

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Let’s read ahead and find out about the IoT LTE device categories!

 

1. LTE-M/ Cat-M1

Let’s begin with the LTE-M standard. The LTE-M standard is an excellent discovery that is ideal for devices that require less power and less bandwidth. Here are some key pointers related to the device categories of LTE-M!

  • The devices based on the LTE-M standard have an upload speed of 1 Mbps, and the same is the download speed.
  • On top of that, the latency in the case of LTE-M devices is 10-15 milliseconds. The latency is enough to ensure that the required data is transmitted at regular intervals.
  • The bandwidth of the LTE-M is enough to ensure that the devices are able to function well in the prevailing 2G and 3G applications.
  • The best thing about the LTE-M standard is handoff for devices. It allows seamless handoff that makes the standard ideal for applications like asset tracking and fleet management where devices are on the move.
  • Cat-M1 was created as an integral part of Release 13 of the 3GPP’s LTE standards.

2. Cat-1

Apart from the above-described device categories, Cat-1 is a category that is a part of Release 8 of the 3GPP standard. Though it is a part of the old technology, it is still widely used across the globe. Here are some features of the Cat-1!

  • The Cat-1 standard is made for IoT device categories that have low and medium bandwidth needs.
  • The speed of the Cat-1 device is more than that of LTE-M. The upload speed of the Cat-1 devices is 5 Mbps, and the download speed is 10 Mbps.
  • One of the best things about Cat-1 is that it has less latency. The latency of the signals is just 50-100 milliseconds.
  • The Cat-1 standard uses a massive bandwidth of 20 Mhz in a full duplex. The full duplex capability of the devices allows for smooth handoff, making it ideal for wearables, ATMs, POS terminals, etc.

3. Cat-4

Well, the Cat-4 standard is what it takes to support applications like autonomous cars. The speed of devices in this standard is way more than Cat-1. It can provide you with 50 Mbps upload speed, and 150 Mbps download speed.

The best advantage of the Cat-4 standard is that it supports in-car infotainment, in-car hotspots, and video surveillance.

4. NB-IoT/ Cat-NB1

After the LTE-M, there is NB-IoT or Cat-NB1 standard. Just like LTE-M, there are many aspects that make it a bit different and unique. Here are some key pointers about the devices supporting the NB1 standard.

  • The low-cost technology makes use of DSSS modulation technology vs. LTE spread technology to ensure connectivity.
  • The cost factor of the technology is not the only USP. The devices that come under Cat-NB1 have less power consumption, offer excellent in-building coverage, and have longer battery life.
  • If we talk about the upload and download speed of the NB-IoT device category, it is relatively less compared to LTE-M. The upload speed is 66 kbps, and the download speed is 26 kbps. This is in half duplex mode.
  • The latency of NB-IoT is also more than the LTE-M. It oscillates between 1.6 to 10 seconds. Though it seems way more, there are advantages to it. The latency is ideal for small, intermittent data transmissions.
  • NB-IoT is also part of Release 13 of the 3GPP’s LTE standard. It is an LPWAN technology that works on a licensed spectrum.
  • The devices that come under this standard are smart gas, street lights, parking sensors, etc.

Other than these device and standard categories, there are two more standards:

5. Cat-0

As there is a need for low-cost devices and processes, Cat-0 lays the groundwork for that. It eliminates the need for features that require a high data rate in Cat-1. On top of all, Cat-0 is slowly doing the groundwork for Cat-M by replacing 2G.

6. EC-GSM

It is a standard that does not have as much buzz as the LTE-M and NB-IoT. But, it has been tested by brands like Ericsson and Intel for supreme practicality and modularity.

Why Do We Need To Care?

Well, if you are a cellular carrier service provider, you have to care about it. There are many factors that need to be considered while choosing the IoT LTE device category. Here is a brief elaboration of some of the critical ones!

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1. Power consumption:

Out of all the IoT LTE devices listed above, those who come under the Cat-4 consume the maximum power. After that come the devices under Cat-1. Cat-M1 and NB-IoT devices are the ones that have the minimum power consumption.

2. Battery life:

Battery life is the key factor if the devices are placed in remote locations like the agricultural field. If you are choosing LTE IoT devices, go for devices under standards Cat-M1 and NB-IoT.

3. Cost:

If cost is your concern, then again, Cat-M1 and NB-IoT are the ideal picks for you. They are best for high-volume device applications. Devices under Cat-1 and Cat-4 are more pricey.

4. Adoption:

When it comes to adoption, the adoption of LTE-M and NB-IoT are quickly being adopted by carrier service providers across the globe.

5. Latency:

Latency is the highest in NB-IoT, which makes it ideal for applications that do not need to send continuous data. LTE-M is a bit faster than NB-IoT. Cat-4 is the fastest, which makes it ideal for video applications.

Conclusion

So, now we are clear about what type of IoT devices are under each standard of LTE. LTE-M and NB-IoT are the standards that are being quickly adopted as they are low cost, consume less power, and have max battery life. To make an informed choice, it is necessary for you to analyze each aspect closely. As of now, carrier companies are inclined toward adopting  NB-IoT and LTE-M as they can serve vast applications while being balanced in all aspects.

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What is GNSS positioning technology?

GNSS is the general term for all navigation and positioning satellites, that is, the Global Navigation Satellite System (Global Navigation Satellite System). BDS, GLONASS in Russia, GALILEO in Europe, etcetera. We can also simply understand it as a positioning system based on artificial earth satellites, which can provide accurate geographic location, speed and time anywhere in the world and in near-Earth space information.

The principle of GNSS positioning is NB Module based on the constant propagation speed of radio waves and the linear nature of the propagation path, by measuring the propagation time of the radio waves in the space to determine the distance difference between the satellite and the user receiver antenna. The distance difference, distance and measurement value, and then use these distance differences as the radius to meet the three spheres, and solve the user position according to the simultaneous equations;

First of all, any location on the earth's surface has its three-dimensional coordinates, that is, longitude, latitude and elevation. The GNSS satellite above its head also has its own three-dimensional coordinates. We can regard the entire space as a coordinate system, and we can draw a cube. The two opposite corners of the cube are the user and the satellite;

Secondly, based on the knowledge of solid geometry, we can know the distance △L between the satellite and the user (this distance is also called "pseudorange"); the equation is as follows:

The coordinates of the satellite are (x', y', z'), which are known, and the coordinates of the user are (x, y, z), which are unknown. At the same time, the satellite can send a signal to the user terminal, and the transmission speed of the signal is basically equal to the speed of light c, and the satellite has a highly accurate atomic clock, so it knows its own time is t.

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The Internet of Things is changing the way we consume and interact with things in our everyday lives. IoT gives objects digital identity. This means that they can be monitored, controlled, and synced with other devices wirelessly. The article looks at how the IoT will affect the electric vehicle industry in the future.

Let's begin!

Table of contents

  • How will the IoT affect the Electric Vehicle Industry?
  • What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of the IoT in the EV industry?
  • What Industries Have Benefited from the IoT?
  • Final Thought

 

How will the IoT affect the Electric Vehicle Industry?

The IoT has the potential to change the way we interact with the world around us, and it is already having an impact on the electric vehicle (EV) industry.

One way that the IoT is affecting EVs is by making it possible for cars to communicate with each other and with infrastructures, such as traffic lights and parking spaces. This communication can make driving more efficient and safer. For example, if two connected cars are approaching an intersection at the same time, they can communicate with each other to decide who has the right of way. This eliminates the need for one car to stop and wait for the other to pass.

Another way that the IoT is impacting EVs is by providing data that can be used to improve the efficiency of charging stations. Connected chargers can communicate with each other and with EV batteries to optimize charging times and reduce congestion at charging stations. This data can also be used to help plan future charging infrastructure.

The IoT also has the potential to change how we think about ownership of EVs. In a traditional ownership model, a person buys a car and then pays for its maintenance, fuel, and insurance. With an IoT-enabled EV, it would be possible for someone else to own the vehicle and provide these services as part of a subscription service. This could make EVs more affordable.

What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of the IoT in the EV industry?

As the electric vehicle industry continues to grow, so too does the role of the IoT. The advantages of the IoT in the EV industry include increased efficiency and accuracy in data collection, improved safety and security, and enhanced customer experience. Meanwhile, some of the disadvantages of the IoT in the EV industry include potential privacy concerns and data breaches, as well as the need for a reliable and secure network infrastructure.

The Advantages of the IoT in the EV industry

  • It makes it easier for you to control your car's climate and other functions remotely while you're not in it.
  • You can use an app on your phone or laptop to control things like lights, power windows, etc., even if they're not connected directly to your vehicle's system (like a garage door opener). You could also use this tech for home automation systems like Nest or Harmony which allow you to control all kinds of things from anywhere in your house.
  • You can share information about where you parked your car with friends who might need help finding it later on or help them find it.

The Disadvantages of the IoT in the EV industry

The IoT is a great way to increase your EV industry's efficiency and success, but it can also be difficult to implement. Here are some disadvantages of using the IoT in the EV industry:

  • The cost of implementation is high. This may be because there are many different types of devices that need to be connected, and each requires different types of software and hardware.
  • The amount of data that needs to be collected can be overwhelming for some businesses, especially if they don't have experience with big data collection or storage systems.
  • There are many different types of devices that need to be connected some may not work together well or may require additional programming. So it can take time and money before you're able to see any benefits from your investment in the IoT system.

What Industries Have Benefited from the IoT?

The Internet of Things (IoT) has had a significant impact on the automobile sector. One of the most major developments has been in the manufacturing of cars. The introduction of sensors and other linked devices has enabled manufacturers to collect data on how cars are used, leading to changes in the production process. As a result, automobiles are of higher quality and more efficient.

Another area where IoT technology is making a difference in car safety is. Automakers can discover possible safety hazards and solve them by gathering data from sensors and other linked systems. As a result, automobiles are safer and there are fewer accidents.

Finally, IoT technology is transforming how customers engage with their automobiles. Customers are increasingly utilizing their cell phones and other linked devices to manage their automobiles.

Everything from starting the engine to opening the doors and controlling the temperature control is covered. As this trend continues, it is probable that even more capabilities that allow consumers to operate their automobiles in novel ways will be added.

Final Thought

The IoT will play a major role in the electric vehicle industry by providing real-time data that can be used to improve the efficiency of production and distribution. In addition, the IoT can also be used to monitor the performance of electric vehicles and provide feedback to drivers in order to help them optimize their routes and usage. Ultimately, the goal is to make electric vehicles more efficient, reliable, and affordable for everyone.

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Mesh Networking Application of E104-BT10

 

E104-BT10 is a SIG MESH-based networking module that supports SIG MESH's Generic on/off, HSL model, and data transparent transmission model. Users can use it to quickly build a MESH network, which can be used in smart homes, parking lots, warehouse logistics, building lighting control and other scenarios.

 

The following picture shows the concept of mesh network

ble module

Application scenario introduction

 

  scene one

  As shown in the following scenario, the E104-BT10 is in the smart home application block diagram.

ble mesh module

  In the above figure, the E104-BT10 is applied to the smart home. The advantage is that the E104-BT10 can transmit the information of the entire network to any node in the network. You can add a networked device to any node to The status information of the network is transmitted to the cloud, or the cloud sends instructions to control the home appliance. The entire network only needs one gateway to make the smart home network. In addition, the mobile phone Bluetooth can be used to connect any node to control and collect the entire network.

  Compared with the traditional wifi solution, the E104-BT10 uses Bluetooth mesh to reduce the burden on the home router and reduce the hardware cost of the smart home appliance.

  Scene two

  The following scenario shows the use of E104-BT10 in building automation.

ble module

  In the above picture, we use E104-BT10 in building automation. Each “small white point” in the above figure represents an E104-BT10, and the dotted line represents the message transmission path. Send out the control node using any E104-BT10 node! The entire network can respond in a very short time. In the place where the message cannot be directly delivered, the intranet module will automatically relay the message.

  Scene three

  The following scene shows the use of E104-BT10 in the intelligent parking lot.

wirelss module

  In the above picture, we apply E104-BT10 to the intelligent parking lot. The number of E104-BT10 network can reach 10922, and the signal is Bluetooth signal, suitable for all kinds of large underground parking lots.

  Detailed application: Install one user's own detection device on each parking space. The information exchange between the devices adopts E104-BT10, so that the information between each device can be quickly exchanged. Users can install E104- on the terminal monitoring device. BT10, collect parking space information! It can also be used for fire extinguishing pipe valves and underground light switch control. As long as you are on a network, messages are relayed.

 

Ssummary

  The E104-BT10 is suitable for a variety of complex networking environments. When a single wireless device has insufficient signal coverage, it can be used to build a peer-to-peer network. E104-BT10 has the following advantages: support data relay multi-hop, support 10922 maximum number of networking, single node removal does not affect the overall communication, low data delay, primary distribution network lifetime network access, network access quickly.

 

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In battery-powered microcontroller applications, energy savings are critical. Reduce battery charging times and replacement time by reducing current consumption. Microcontroller software design should follow these guidelines to reduce current consumption:

1、Using the appropriate energy model

Utilize low-energy peripherals

Close unused modules/peripherals

Disable clock to unused modules/peripherals

Reduce the clock frequenc

Operating voltage reduction

Optimize the code

2、Using the appropriate energy model

The most effective way to save energy is to spend as little time as possible in active mode.

Five custom energy modes allow the microcontroller to operate in an energy-optimal state at any given time.

3、Utilize low-energy peripherals

All peripherals are built on energy consumption and can be used in a variety of energy modes. Whenever possible, select the appropriate peripheral to let it work while the CPU is sleeping (or performing other tasks).

A few examples:

Use RTC and sleep instead of waiting for a certain loop

Transfer data between memory and U(S) using DMA

Monitor sensors with low energy sensor interface (LESENSE) instead of wake up and poll

4、Close unused modules/peripherals

There are modules/peripherals that are not in use at any given time for each microcontroller application. Turn these off and save energy. This also applies to the CPU itself. If the core is idle (for example, waiting for data reception), you can turn it off and save energy. This is one of the main features of the different EFM32 energy modes. Remember to consider start and stop conditions when disabling peripherals. For example, if it is completely turned off, the ADC needs some time to warm up before the conversion can be initiated. Similarly, USART simultaneous transmissions should be allowed on the progress. Thus, the receiver's shift register will not be in an indeterminate state.

5、Disable clocks to unused modules/peripherals

Even if a module/peripheral device is disabled (for example, TIMER0 stops), the various circuits in the module will still consume energy if its clock is running. Therefore, it is important to turn off the clocks of all unused modules.

6、Reduce clock frequency

Current is plotted at clock frequency. Generally speaking, a task or peripheral device should run at the lowest possible frequency.

For example, if a timer requests interruption every few milliseconds, it should be locked at several kHz instead of several MHz. This can be easily achieved by pre-scaling in CMU. Similarly, one way to choose CPU frequency is that it should be so low that the CPU will not be idle (some blanks should be added). However, in many cases, it is best to complete the current task quickly and then enter the appropriate energy model until new tasks have to be addressed.

7、Reduce working voltage

By reducing the working voltage, the energy consumption is further reduced. The Gecko series of microcontrollers can operate at low voltage.

There are absolute minimum values in the data table of each device

8、Optimization code

Optimizing code usually reduces energy consumption byincreasing the speed and efficiency of programs.A faster program spends less time in active mode, and in amore efficient program, each task executes fewer instructions. A simple way tooptimize code is to build it in release mode with the highest optimizationsettings rather than in debug mode.

9、Energy model

The EFR32 provides features that make it easier to configurelow-power peripherals and switch between energy modes. The EFR32 providesfeatures that make it easier to configure low-power peripherals and switchbetween energy modes.
Let's take a look at several modes

9.1 Operation mode (EM0)

This is the default mode. In this mode, the CPU fetches and executesinstructions from flash or RAM, all peripherals may be enabled, and theoperating power consumption is only 63 μA/MHz.

9.2 Sleep mode (EM1)

In sleep mode, the CPU's clock is disabled. All peripherals, as wellas RAM and flash memory, are available. Automated execution of multipleoperations can be achieved by using a Peripheral Reflection System (PRS) andDMA. For example, a timer can trigger an ADC conversion at regular intervals.When the conversion is complete, the result is moved to RAM by the DMA. When agiven number of conversions are performed, the DMA can request and interrupt towake up the CPU. Enter the sleep mode or the "Wait for Event (WFE)"instruction by executing "Wait for Interrupt (WFI)". Use the functionEMUILATEMEM1 () to enter sleep mode

9.3 Deep sleep mode (EM2)

In deep sleep mode, no high frequency oscillator is running, whichmeans only asynchronous and low frequency peripherals are available.This model further increases energy efficiency while still allowing arange of activities, including:

Low energy sensor interface(LESENSE) monitoring sensor,

LCD monitor drives LCD monitor,

LEUART that receives ortransmits one byte of data,

Perform address matching check.

RTC wakes up the CPU after theprogram is coded.

Analog Comparator (ACMP) tocompare voltage to programmed threshold

A GPIO to check the conversionon the I/O line.

The deep sleep mode isto first set the sleep depth in the system control register (SCR), and thenexecute the "Wait for Interrupt (WFI)" or "Wait for Event(WFE)" instruction. Use the function EMU_EnterEM2() to enter the deepsleep mode.

9.4 Stop mode (EM3)

The stop modediffers from the deep sleep mode in that no oscillator (except ULFRCO orAUXHFRCO) is running.
Modules/functions, if present on the device, canstill be used in stop mode when the appropriate clock source remains active:

I2C address

Supervision

GPIO interrupt

Pulse counter (fund)

Low energy timer (LETIMER)

Low energy sensor interface (LESENSE)

Real-time counter and calendar (RTCC)

Analog comparator (ACMP)

Voltage monitoring (VMON)

Ultra-low energy timer/counter(CRYOTIMER)

TemperatureSensor

Stop mode is the same as deep sleepmode, except that the low frequency oscillator must be manually disabled

9.5 Sleep mode (EM4H)

This feature is called EFM32'shibernate mode and wireless SoC Series 1, and is enabled using dedicatedcontrol register logic. Write the sequence 0x2, 0x3, 0x2, 0x3, 0x2, 0x3, 0x2,0x2, 0x2, 0x2, 0x2 to the EM4ENTRY bit field in the EMU_EM4CTRL register, andplace the device in hibernate mode when the EM4STATE bit is set; otherwise, Thedevice enters shutdown mode as usual. In sleep mode, most peripherals areturned off to reduce leakage power. There are some selected peripheralsavailable. System memory and registers do not retain values. The GPIO PADstatus and RTCC RAM are reserved. Wake up from EM4 sleep requires a reset tothe system and return to the EM0 activity. Sleep mode wake-up is possible, fromthe same shutdown mode to the power loop, nRESET, and the user-specified pinsource, as well as:

RTCC

CRYOTIMER

 

Measuretemperature outside the defined range (TEMPCHANGE)

9.6 Shutdown mode (EM4S)

The shutdown mode is the lowest energystate of the EFM32 Series 0, EFM32 or Wireless SoC Series 1 microcontroller.
The power is turned off to most devices, includinginternal RAM, and all clocks are disabled. Only recovery logic, if the GPIO padstatus is explicitly enabled, is retained. Wake up from off mode alwaysrequires a reset. When resetting from a RESETn pin or through one of a set ofdevice-specific pins explicitly enabled for this purpose, the current drawingin off mode can be as low as 20na. Some devices can replace pin-based wakeups;however, waking up from these sources requires a low-frequency oscillator toremain active, increasing the current attractiveness.

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Leveraging Salesforce IoT Cloud

What is so unique about IoT technology? With IoT, there is neither a need for human-to-computer nor human-to-human interaction. In other words, everything is connected yet independent. 

If we bring Salesforce to the picture, we have an intelligent solution, i.e., Salesforce IoT Cloud, that can get all your data in a single place. Sounds interesting, right? So, what is Salesforce IoT cloud, and how does it benefit businesses? It makes sense to partner with a reliable Salesforce consultant to know more about this robust solution. 

What is Salesforce IoT cloud?

Salesforce IoT Cloud allows organizations to create and enrich customer profiles and enter data irrespective of location, channel, time, or device. The robust solution helps implement interaction IoT laws, personalizes outcomes, or allows for simple integration with the Salesforce mobile app. The platform supports organizations to handle enormous volumes of data gathered from different processes, network devices, and locations.

Its practical approach helps develop excellent customer relationships, improving client retention and engagement. By assisting organizations to monetize their IoT investment, Salesforce IoT cloud allows organizations to provide a competitive edge over any connected device. The Salesforce IoT Cloud platform can be integrated with other Salesforce services such as Salesforce sales cloud, service cloud, community cloud, and marketing cloud.

Top Benefits of Salesforce IoT cloud?

Data Analysis with Einstein Analytics: Salesforce IoT cloud utilizes the Einstein Analytics platform to process data gathered from different sources and analyze it. This helps users better understand consumer behavior and preferences while undertaking the necessary steps to attract and retain them.

Augments Customer Experience: All the historical data regarding customer interaction gets stored on the Salesforce IoT cloud platform, which considers their location, service background, and more to provide organizations with a complete view of customer behavior. In the long run, organizations will become more proactive by anticipating customer demands, thereby providing a superior customer experience.

Low or No Code Approach: Due to its low code approach, the Salesforce IoT Cloud allows business executives to carry out their IoT processes without bothering the IT department. The orchestration rules can be set up in a way like that of a Salesforce marketing cloud feature, i.e., 'customer journey.' IoT will automate your business operations by placing triggers and responses in place.

Customer Context: This feature entails the machine learning aspect of Salesforce IoT cloud records and analyses past actions and behaviors of customers to make real-time decisions. The feature considers Customer History, location, and Service History and pools it with IoT device data to provide you with a complete picture of what's occurring.

More Visibility: The process involved in implementing a Salesforce IoT system is a primary consideration in choosing it. Businesses, too, could get a bird's eye view of the process in progress from the traffic view, which is a visual representation of an organization's ROI in different aspects. The visual panel allows organizations to see how IoT products perform in a constantly evolving consumer landscape.  

Increases Client Referrals: Clients expect hassle-free connectivity with businesses. Implementing the Salesforce IoT cloud platform makes it possible to build strong customer relationships by being accessible to them all the while.

Enhances R&D Activities: Businesses can make necessary changes to suit customer needs and requirements by tracking consumer behavior and preferences. Besides this, it is also possible to predict the taste of future customers from a pre-emptive perspective. Businesses can make quick decisions or fix the problems by getting a brief understanding of what's operative and what isn't. This improves service delivery.

Increases Lead Generation Process: Besides B2B transactions, the Salesforce IoT cloud can help the sales department gain information about the products linked with the Salesforce IoT cloud. With this information, the Sales team will be able to identify expired items, whose warranty expiration is approaching, and more. They can leverage this data to upgrade their sales processes and reach targeted customers. Businesses can create personalized deals or pitch a new product to the customers if their existing product isn't working well. Most of the data gathered can be used to forecast customer needs in several ways.

Provide Complete Perspective of Customers: By leveraging the personalized reports, Salesforce IoT provides businesses with a 360-degree view of their customers. Based on an organization's requirements, it is possible to modify the advantages.

Seamless Integration with Other Systems: Besides empowering organizations to provide services independently by gathering and processing data, Salesforce IoT cloud is capable of expanding its functionality, permitting third-party integration. Consequently, businesses get to access data from multiple sources, enabling them to explore other aspects of a business.

Final Words:

The Salesforce IoT cloud provides a complete and exact picture of how customers utilize the goods and services by integrating data gathered by their apps, irrespective of their position. The data collected can be leveraged by businesses to create personalized sales and marketing strategies while influencing customer opinion. So, implementing Salesforce IoT cloud will take the client management of every company to a new level. The innovative cloud solution offers infinite potential, which businesses can leverage to make informed business decisions. So, companies now need to integrate the Salesforce IoT cloud into their operations. However, if you wish to integrate the Salesforce IoT cloud within your business ecosystem, ensure you get in touch with a certified Salesforce Consulting Partner. 

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What is edge acquisition?

1. Introduction to edge acquisition

Edge acquisition is to abstract data (such as ModBus registers) on external devices (such as ModBus devices) into internal data points of the device (E870-D1). Configuring and reading internal data points is equivalent to configuring and reading corresponding external data ( such as ModBus registers). External devices can be ModBus devices or other communication protocol devices, such as IIC, CAN and other bus protocol devices. Currently, Ebyte E870-D1 only supports ModBus devices. (This article takes E870-D1 as an example)

2. The principle of edge acquisition

Implementation principle of edge acquisition (taking ModBus device as an example): As shown in the following edge acquisition application topology diagram, when edge acquisition data points are configured, the edge acquisition device (E870-D1) polls and reads the data in the external device through the ModBus protocol. The register is transmitted to the cloud platform through 4G;GPS Module when the cloud platform configures the data point, the edge acquisition device configures the corresponding register of the external device through the ModBus protocol, thus realizing the transparent transmission and control of the cloud platform and the external device.

The data structure of each data point includes the following attributes: "Enable", "Keyword", "Slave Address", "Register Type", "Register Address", "Data Type", "Report Mode", "Report Time" ", "Range of variation", "Number of decimal places", "Read-write property", "Up formula", "Down formula".

Among them, "keyword", "slave address", "register type", "register address", "read and write attributes" are used to realize the association between data points and ModBus registers.

The "keyword" is the name of the data point, and the name cannot be repeated in an edge acquisition device (E870-D1). When the cloud platform reads/configures the external device through the data point name ("keyword"), the edge acquisition The device (E870-D1) automatically translates the data point into the corresponding ModBus register according to its "Slave Address", "Register Type", "Register Address", and "Read-Write Attribute" information.

"Enable" controls whether the data point is valid. Only valid data points can be read, configured and polled.

Other attributes "Report Mode", "Report Time", "Variation Range", "Number of Decimals", "Upstream Formula", "Downstream Formula" can implement simple edge computing, which will be described in detail below.
2. The difference between edge collection and edge computing: Huawei's definition of edge computing (URL)

Huawei's definition of edge computing is: Edge computing is a distributed and open platform that integrates network, computing, storage, and application core capabilities at the edge of the network near the source of things or data to provide edge intelligent services nearby. To put it simply, edge computing is to analyze the data collected from the terminal directly in the local device or network where the data is generated, without the need to transmit the data to the cloud data processing center.

It is not difficult to see from the comparison between Huawei's definition of edge computing and the first description of the nature and principle of edge collection in this article. Edge collection belongs to a part of edge computing, that is, the part where the terminal collects data. At the same time, Ebyte E870-D1 has the function of transmitting data to the platform.
3. Problems solved by Ebyte E870-D1 edge acquisition:

1. Communication between ModBus and the platform: The traditional ModBus device is only short-distance communication. It is difficult to achieve communication with the Internet platform. Using Ebyte E870-D1, you can use its edge acquisition function to seamlessly connect to the local area. ModBus device and remote cloud platform, so as to realize unified monitoring and deployment of many ModBus devices by cloud platform.

2. Reduce the pressure on the platform server: Ebyte E870-D1 can easily add and delete data points through the "enable" attribute of data points, reduce unnecessary data point uploads, and at the same time "report mode", "report time" ” and “Variation range” can control the reporting timing of data points and reduce unnecessary reporting times of data points. The above can achieve a data filtering effect.

3. Simple edge computing can be realized: through the "upstream formula" and "downstream formula", custom addition, subtraction, multiplication and division calculations can be performed inside the Ebyte E870-D1.
Fourth, the advantages of Ebyte E870-D1 edge acquisition over ModBus_TCP:

1. Another way to achieve remote control of local ModBus devices is to use ModBus_TCP mode, but ModBus_TCP is not suitable for frequent data exchange and small amount of data each time, because it will consume a lot of network resources and platform resources. .

Today's sharply increased number of edge devices are all small, sophisticated, and highly specialized, such as a variety of sensors, each of which cannot be equipped with networking capabilities, and a huge number of edge devices are directly connected to the platform through ModBus_TCP , the pressure on the platform can also be imagined. Ebyte E870-D1 edge acquisition function can solve this problem very well.

2. Can connect to multiple external devices at the same time:Wireless modem Ebyte E870-D1 can connect to multiple edge acquisition devices at the same time, and ModBus_TCP can generally only communicate one-to-one.

3. The built-in IO can also be abstracted into data points: I explained how to abstract external device data into edge collection data points. At the same time, the DI, DO, AI, and AO that come with Ebyte E870-D1 can also be abstracted into structures. The same data points, thus eliminating the difference between built-in IO and external device data (such as DI, DO, AI, AO, etc.), reading/configuring built-in IO can use the same data structure, which is very helpful for platform development .

5. Usage scenarios

1. Connect multiple industrial DI, DO, AI, AO equipment to realize the network upgrade and transformation of traditional equipment.

2. Connect multiple ModBus sensors to realize environmental monitoring of an area.

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Against the backdrop of digital technology and the industrial revolution, the Internet of Things has become the most influential and disruptive of all the latest technologies. As an advanced technology, IoT is showing a palpable difference in how businesses operate. 

Although the Fourth Industrial Revolution is still in its infancy, early adopters of this advanced technology are edging out the competition with their competitive advantage. 

Businesses eager to become a part of this disruptive technology are jostling against each other to implement IoT solutions. Yet, they are unaware of the steps in effective implementation and the challenges they might face during the process. 

This is a complete guide– the only one you’ll need – that focuses on delivering effective and uncomplicated IoT implementation. 

 

Key Elements of IoT

There are three main elements of IoT technology:

  • Connectivity:

IoT devices are connected to the internet and have a URI – Unique Resource Identifier – that can relay data to the connected network. The devices can be connected among themselves to a centralized server, a cloud, or a network of servers.

  • Data Communication:

IoT devices continuously share data with other devices in the network or the server. 

  • Interaction

IoT devices do not simply gather data. They transmit it to their endpoints or server. There is no point in collecting data if it is not put to good use. The collected data is used to deliver IoT smart solutions in automation, take real-time business decisions, formulate strategies, or monitor processes. 

How Does IoT work?

IoT devices have URI and come with embedded sensors. With these sensors, the devices sense their environment and gather information. For example, the devices could be air conditioners, smart watches, cars, etc. Then, all the devices dump their collected data into the IoT platform or gateway. 

The IoT platform then performs analytics on the data from various sources and derives useful information per the requirement

What are the Layers in IoT Architecture?

Although there isn’t a standard IoT structure that’s universally accepted, the 4-layer architecture is considered to be the basic form. The four layers include perception, network, middleware, and application.

  • Perception:

Perception is the first or the physical layer of IoT architecture. All the sensors, edge devices, and actuators gather useful information based on the project needs in this layer. The purpose of this layer is to gather data and transfer it to the next layer. 

  • Network:

It is the connecting layer between perception and application. This layer gathers information from the perception and transmits the data to other devices or servers. 

  • Middleware

The middleware layer offers storage and processing capabilities. It stores the incoming data and applies appropriate analytics based on requirements. 

  • Application

The user interacts with the application layer, responsible for taking specific services to the end-user. 

Implementation Requirements

Effective and seamless implementation of IoT depends on specific tools, such as:

  • High-Level Security 

Security is one of the fundamental IoT implementation requirements. Since the IoT devices gather real-time sensitive data about the environment, it is critical to put in place high-level security measures that ensure that sensitive information stays protected and confidential.  

  • Asset Management

Asset management includes the software, hardware, and processes that ensure that the devices are registered, upgraded, secured, and well-managed. 

  • Cloud Computing

Since massive amounts of structured and unstructured data are gathered and processed, it is stored in the cloud. The cloud acts as a centralized repository of resources that allows the data to be accessed easily. Cloud computing ensures seamless communication between various IoT devices. 

  • Data Analytics

With advanced algorithms, large amounts of data are processed and analyzed from the cloud platform. As a result, you can derive trends based on the analytics, and corrective action can be taken. 

What are the IoT Implementation Steps?

Knowing the appropriate IoT implementation steps will help your business align your goals and expectations against the solution. You can also ensure the entire process is time-bound, cost-efficient, and satisfies all your business needs. 

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Set Business Objectives 

IoT implementation should serve your business goals and objectives. Unfortunately, not every entrepreneur is an accomplished technician or computer-savvy. You can hire experts if you lack the practical know-how regarding IoT, the components needed, and specialist knowledge. 

Think of what you will accomplish with IoT, such as improving customer experience, eliminating operational inconsistencies, reducing costs, etc. With a clear understanding of IoT technology, you should be able to align your business needs to IoT applications. 

Hardware Components and Tools

Selecting the necessary tools, components, hardware, and software systems needed for the implementation is the next critical step. First, you must choose the tools and technology, keeping in mind connectivity and interoperability. 

You should also select the right IoT platform that acts as a centralized repository for collecting and controlling all aspects of the network and devices. You can choose to have a custom-made platform or get one from suppliers. 

Some of the major components you require for implementation include,

  • Sensors
  • Gateways
  • Communication protocols
  • IoT platforms
  • Analytics and data management software

Implementation

Before initiating the implementation process, it is recommended that you put together a team of IoT experts and professionals with selected use case experience and knowledge. Make sure that the team comprises experts from operations and IT with a specific skill set in IoT. 

A typical team should be experts with skills in mechanical engineering, embedded system design, electrical and industrial design, technical expertise, and front/back-end development. 

Prototyping

Before giving the go-ahead, the team must develop an Internet of Things implementation prototype. 

A prototype will help you experiment and identify fault lines, connectivity, and compatibility issues. After testing the prototype, you can include modified design ideas. 

Integrate with Advanced technologies

After the sensors gather useful data, you can add layers of other technologies such as analytics, edge computing, and machine learning. 

The amount of unstructured data collected by the sensors far exceeds structured data. However, both structured and unstructured, machine learning, deep learning neural systems, and cognitive computing technologies can be used for improvement. 

Take Security Measures

Security is one of the top concerns of most businesses. With IoT depending predominantly on the internet for functioning, it is prone to security attacks. However, communication protocols, endpoint security, encryption, and access control management can minimize security breaches. 

Although there are no standardized IoT implementation steps, most projects follow these processes. But the exact sequence of IoT implementation depends on your project’s specific needs.

Challenges in IoT Implementation

Every new technology comes with its own set of implementation challenges. 

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When you keep these challenges of IoT implementation in mind, you’ll be better equipped to handle them. 

  • Lack of Network Security

When your entire system is dependent on the network connectivity for functioning, you are just adding another layer of security concern to deal with. 

Unless you have a robust network security system, you are bound to face issues such as hacking into the servers or devices. Unfortunately, the IoT hacking statistics are rising, with over 1.5 million security breaches reported in 2021 alone. 

  • Data Retention and Storage 

IoT devices continually gather data, and over time the data becomes unwieldy to handle. Such massive amounts of data need high-capacity storage units and advanced IoT analytics technologies. 

  • Lack of Compatibility 

IoT implementation involves several sensors, devices, and tools, and a successful implementation largely depends on the seamless integration between these systems. In addition, since there are no standards for devices or protocols, there could be major compatibility issues during implementation. 

IoT is the latest technology that is delivering promising results. Yet, similar to any technology, without proper implementation, your businesses can’t hope to leverage its immense benefits. 

Taking chances with IoT implementation is not a smart business move, as your productivity, security, customer experience, and future depend on proper and effective implementation. The only way to harness this technology would be to seek a reliable IoT app development company that can take your initiatives towards success.

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MEMS Sensor Advantages and Applications

MEMS sensor (Microelectro Mechanical Systems) refers to an industrial technology that combines microelectronic circuit technology with micromechanical systems. Its internal structure is generally in the order of micrometers or even nanometers. Simply put, MEMS is to miniaturize the mechanical components of traditional sensors, and then fix the device on the silicon wafer through three-dimensional stacking technology, such as three-dimensional through-silicon TSV technology, and finally adopt special customized packaging forms according to different applications. Cut and assembled.

Advantages
1.) Miniaturization:
MEMS devices are small in size, and generally the size of a single MEMS sensor is measured in millimeters or even micrometers. Light weight and low energy consumption. At the same time, the miniaturized mechanical components have the advantages of small inertia, high resonance frequency, and short response time. MEMS have a higher surface-to-volume ratio, which can increase the sensitivity of surface sensors


2.) Silicon-based processing technology:
Compatible with traditional IC production processes: Silicon has strength, hardness, and Young's modulus comparable to iron, density is similar to aluminum, and thermal conductivity is similar to molybdenum and tungsten.


3.) Mass production:
Taking a single 5mm*5mm MEMS sensor as an example, about 1000 MEMS chips can be cut simultaneously on an 8-inch silicon wafer by silicon micromachining technology, and mass production can greatly reduce the production cost of a single MEMS.


4.) Integration:
Generally speaking, a single MEMS often integrates an ASIC chip while packaging a mechanical sensor, controls the MEMS chip, and converts analog to digital output. At the same time, different packaging processes can integrate multiple sensors or actuators with different functions, different sensitive directions or actuation directions into one, or form micro-sensor arrays, micro-actuator arrays, and even integrate devices with multiple functions. form complex microsystems.
图片16.png

For example, the inertial sensor MPU6050 integrates a 3-axis MEMS gyroscope, a 3-axis MEMS accelerometer, and a scalable digital motion processor DMP.

5.) Multi-domain crossover:
MEMS involves a variety of disciplines such as electronics, mechanics, materials, manufacturing, information and automatic control, physics, chemistry and biology, and integrates many cutting-edge achievements in today's scientific and technological development


Application
1.) Medical field: Based on the MEMS acceleration sensor of VTI Company, a non-invasive fetal heart rate detection method is proposed, and an easy-to-learn, intuitive and accurate clinical diagnosis and pregnant woman between the fetal heart stethoscope and the Doppler fetal monitor are developed. Self-checking medical aids. The fetal heart rate is converted into an analog voltage signal by the acceleration sensor, and the difference is amplified by the instrument amplifier used for pre-amplification. Then a series of intermediate signal processing such as filtering is performed, and the analog voltage signal is converted into a digital signal with an A/D converter. The optical isolation device is input to the single-chip microcomputer for analysis and processing, and finally the processing result Sensor is output.


2.) The field of mobile phone photography: With the breakthrough of MEMS in volume and power consumption, the latest technology MEMS Drive senses the instantaneous jitter during the photographing process through the gyroscope, and relies on precise algorithms to calculate the movement range of the motor and make quick compensation. . This series of actions must be completed within one hundredth of a second, and the image you get will not be blurred by jitter.


3.) Motion tracking system: In the daily training of athletes, MEMS sensors can be used to measure 3D human movement, record each movement, and coaches analyze the results and formulate corresponding training plans to improve the performance of athletes.


4.) Prospects
It can be foreseen that large-scale downstream applications in the future will mainly use new consumer electronics such as AR/VR, and the Internet of Things such as smart driving, smart logistics, and smart home. As the perception layer, sensors are an indispensable part of the key basic physical layer. The rapid development of the Internet of Things will bring huge development dividends to the MEMS industry!

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The advent of the internet of things on Metaverse is expected to change its overall market outlook in the future. The IoT Includes a plethora of features which, in turn, will highly benefit the Metaverse Market in the upcoming years. With a growth rate of 38.25 per cent CAGR, the metaverse market size was estimated to be worth USD 124.04 billion in 2022 and USD 1655.29 billion in 2030.

The IoT, which was first launched in 1999, links hundreds of devices, including thermostats, voice-activated speakers, and medical equipment, to a variety of data. IoT is now poised to revolutionize the Metaverse as it effortlessly connects the 3D environment to a wide range of physical objects. One of the renowned & largest private software firms in the UK, IRIS Software Group, offers software solutions and services that significantly improve operational compliance, efficiency, and accuracy.

The identity environment will expand enormously as the Metaverse takes traction and new applications and access points emerge alongside it, creating additional entry points for potential bad market players. Already, 84% of corporate executives concur that their company now manages significantly more digital identities than it did ten years ago (up to 10x). Additionally, 95% of firms say they have trouble keeping track of all the identities that are currently a part of their organization (human and machine). We have a perfect storm of rising complexity and expanding threat vectors that may be exploited, which can lead to breaches, business disruption, and material expenses when we add in the Metaverse and the rise in IoT usage that will accompany it.

Top features of IoT:

 a.) A 360-degree enhanced and real-world training: 

Using the IoT, we are able to develop and test training methods in situations where we are unable to do so in the real world due to the scope and authenticity of training on extreme real-world situations (such as severe weather or cyber events) that can be done through virtual simulations using digital twins in the Metaverse. Io Train-sim will aid in preparing people and AI/software to cooperate to better recognize issues and lessen the impact in real life as virtual metaverse environments develop to more closely resemble reality.

b.) Smarter and better long-term planning along with its near-term response: 

The metaverse system will increasingly closely resemble our real world as it fills up with digital duplicates of real-world objects (such as cars, buildings, factories, and people). We will be able to run different long-term planning scenarios, identify the most optimal designs for our energy, transportation, and healthcare systems, and dynamically operate these techniques as the real world evolves thanks to this system-of-systems complicated virtual simulation (e.g., more renewable sources, new diseases, population migrations or demographic changes). These simulations will assist teams of humans in responding to current events and solving an issue utilizing monthly, weekly, or day-ahead planning, in addition to long-term planning. AI will then be used to learn from the outcome and enhance the response during the next event.

Conclusion

Brands are utilizing a variety of cutting-edge technologies to fuel the Metaverse with the aim of making the virtual as real-time and authentic as possible. These technologies include AR, VR, Blockchain, AI, and IoT. Sensors, cameras, and wearables are already implemented and in use due to the present IoT development. These gadgets are the engines that make it possible for the Metaverse to reflect the real world in real-time when they are connected to it. A metaverse representation of a physical site, such as Samsung's 837x recreation of its 837 Washington St. experience centre in New York City's Meatpacking District, might, for instance, be updated continuously and in real-time as objects enter and exit the physical location

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The wireless module is a modular product of digital data transmission radio. It refers to a high-performance professional data transmission radio module realized with the help of single-chip microcomputer technology and radio technology. The wireless transceiver module is mainly used to control wireless data transmission and reception through a single-chip microcomputer. Generally, it is FSK, GFSK modulation mode. If it is divided by operating frequency, there are 170MHz, 230MHz, 315MHz, 433MHz, 868MHz, 915MHz, 2.4GHz and so on.

 

The Internet of Things is an important part of the new generation of information technology and an important stage of development in the "informatization" era. The Internet of Things is a network that extends and expands its user end to any item and item for information communication and exchange to achieve intelligence.


With the increasing number of IoT product forms, on the one hand, module prices will continue to fall; on the other hand, IoT modules will continue to develop in a diversified direction to meet the functional requirements of more and more different types of equipment. In the next few years, wireless communication modules for the Internet of Things will develop in the direction of more integration and miniaturization, and more and more chips and functions will be integrated into the IoT module.

 

From the current development situation, the typical applications of wireless modules in the field of Internet of Things are as follows:

 

Industrial applications

Industry is an important area for wireless module applications in the Internet of Things. Various types of terminal sensors with environmental awareness capabilities communicate data collected through wireless modules to achieve intelligent monitoring and intelligent control in the production process. This greatly improves production efficiency, improves product quality, reduces production costs, and reduces traditional industrial Ascension to a new stage of smart industry.

  

For example, parts processing enterprises use various sensors and wireless modules to achieve real-time monitoring of the width, thickness, and temperature of processed parts during the production process, thereby improving production efficiency and optimizing production processes.

  

Agricultural applications

The application of the wireless module in the agricultural field is to collect the temperature, humidity signals and environmental parameters such as light, soil temperature, leaf surface humidity, etc. in the greenhouse in real time, and realize the automatic stop or start of specified equipment through the Internet of Things technology. It can be processed at any time according to user needs, providing a scientific basis for automatic monitoring of agricultural ecological information, automatic control of the environment, and intelligent management. The temperature and humidity signals are collected through sensors, and the data is transmitted through the wireless module to achieve remote control of the temperature and humidity in the greenhouse, and record the scene conditions to ensure the temperature and humidity balance in the greenhouse.

  

Smart home applications

Smart home is the automation of various home devices (such as audio and video equipment, network appliances, curtain control, air conditioning control, lighting systems, security systems, etc.) through smart home network networking. Through wireless networks, remote control of home devices can be realized. . Smart home is an important area for wireless module applications. Compared with ordinary homes, smart homes not only provide comfortable, pleasant and high-quality home living spaces, and realize more intelligent home security systems; they also transform the home environment from the original passive still structure into a tool with active wisdom, providing a full range of tools Information interaction function makes you feel more comfortable and worry-free.

  

Smart medical applications

The intelligent medical system uses simple and practical home medical sensing equipment to monitor the physiological indicators of the patients or the elderly in the home in real time, and transmits the generated physiological indicator data to the caregiver or the relevant medical unit through the wireless module. According to customer needs, relevant value-added services have now begun to be provided, such as emergency call assistance services and expert consulting services.

  

Smart city security application

Smart city security system is a unified monitoring of the safety of the city. The electronic equipment equipped with wireless modules is used to network decentralized and independent image collection points to remotely monitor, transmit, store, and manage in real time, to achieve unified monitoring, unified storage and unified management of city security, and to provide city management and builders with A new, intuitive, and extended audiovisual management tool.

  

Environmental monitoring applications

The environmental monitoring system monitors the water quality of the earth's surface water in real time, thereby realizing timely grasp of the water quality status of the main sections of the main river basin, early warning and forecast of major or river basin water pollution accidents, resolving water pollution accident disputes across administrative regions, and monitoring the total Implementation of control system. The West Lake Environmental Monitoring Project provides water quality data of West Lake to environmental protection departments through various monitoring wireless modules installed in the West Lake area, monitors the water quality of West Lake waters in real time, and reports the data of monitoring points to relevant management departments via the Internet. .

  

Intelligent transportation applications

Intelligent transportation system is the real-time monitoring and management of the car's position and speed, image information inside and outside the car, and other vehicle parameters, effectively meeting the various needs of vehicle owners for vehicle management. The wireless video surveillance system for the bus industry uses the wireless video surveillance and GPS positioning functions of on-board equipment to monitor the running status of the bus in real time. The intelligent bus station interacts with the data of the electronic station board through the media distribution center, and realizes the functions of public transport dispatch information data and multimedia data. It can also use the electronic station board to realize the function of advertising.

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 The internet-based global digital landscape comprises a plethora of complex software and hardware systems spread on-premise and across the cloud. Also, there are software applications within embedded devices that are connected to the internet a la the Internet of Things (IoT). When we envision the future of the digital world, the IoT, along with other technologies, seems to be the harbinger. It has the potential to usher in a world driven by smart technologies to make lives more convenient and qualitatively superior. According to statistics, the number of IoT devices is likely to surpass 25.4 billion by 2030. Also, the IoT can generate an economic value ranging from $4 - $11 trillion by 2025 (Source: dataprot.net). The data shows how the Internet of Things (IoT) is going to define the digitized future of the world. 

However, notwithstanding the tremendous potential of IoT as a technology to drive the next digital revolution, it offers several challenges as well. IoT testing has become critical given that the success of the IoT ecosystem depends on the seamless functioning of its associated software and hardware systems. Let us discuss the challenges in some detail in the below-mentioned segment: 

Digitalization Challenges with IoT

The Internet of Things QA testing ensures IoT devices function safely and reliably. However, this type of testing has a host of challenges to grapple with, as mentioned below:

Testing in an omnichannel environment: The IoT ecosystem comprises various devices, platforms, and systems spread across on-premise and cloud environments. To ensure effective utilization of such systems, IoT testing should be conducted rigorously. Since IoT devices generate data at high velocity, their veracity needs to be ensured in real-time. However, this can be easier said than done, for the data generated is mostly unstructured. Also, IoT testing services need to test several devices with varying capabilities across platforms. Hence, creating a real IoT environment for testing can be a challenge, for there are many devices that require testing on the platform they operate upon. Besides, there are device upgrades in terms of software and firmware, which need to be considered by IoT device testing solutions for effective test outcomes. Thus, cross testing for IoT devices in an omnichannel environment comprising various versions and platforms can be an uphill task.

Cybersecurity risks: Given that IoT devices generate a large quantum of data (structured and unstructured), they may be vulnerable to hacking. Even so, statistics suggest that around seventy percent of IoT devices have security-related issues. Therefore, such devices should be subjected to rigorous IoT security testing. It involves identifying vulnerabilities in the architecture of devices using IoT penetration testing and fixing them. Testers should focus on checking and verifying the devices’ passwords and authorization policies.

Different protocols of IoT communications: IoT devices follow a range of protocols when it comes to communicating among themselves and with the server. These may include AMPQ, XMPP, CoAP, and MQTT. Besides, various components in an IoT ecosystem can use different protocols for communication. Hence, such components need to be tested over communication protocols to preclude functional and security risks. For instance, when embedded software within devices runs on low memory due to higher loading requests, they balance load requests among components using an IoT gateway. Testing IoT applications can verify the load balance among different components, thereby ensuring their smooth functioning.

Lack of standardization: Creating standards for IoT devices can be a challenge across four levels - application, business model, connectivity, and platform. The lack of a uniform standard across the IoT landscape makes it a difficult case for testers. This is because different companies build devices with competing and often conflicting standards. The common IoT testing approach is based on the intended use of the system or the use case. The best way to wriggle out of the situation is to establish uniform standardization across the above-mentioned levels.

Battery life: A large number of IoT devices are powered by batteries, which need to function at their optimum at all times. To ensure IoT devices are energy efficient, they need to have low-power components. Thus, the battery needs to be tested under different conditions and scenarios to maximize the life of such devices. Also, testers should check whether the device is able to report the low-battery status to the cloud platform properly.

Conclusion

The quality of an IoT ecosystem can only be ensured if the above-mentioned challenges are addressed by stringently testing IoT applications. Business enterprises building and utilizing IoT devices can look at various benefits by implementing stringent IoT testing. These include driving innovation and speeding up risk-free initiatives; facilitating time-to-market; improving interoperability; and achieving a higher ROI.

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