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What is the focus of LoRaWAN and LoRa?

LoRaWAN (Long Range Wide Area Network) and LoRa (Low Power Wide Area Network) are communication technologies used in Internet of Things (IoT) applications, including monitoring traffic, parking, and air quality in smart cities. Although they use similar underlying LoRa modulation technology, their focus and applications are different.


Focus: LoRaWAN is a wide-area network protocol whose main focus is to provide a long-distance, low-power wide-area IoT communication solution. It focuses on connecting large numbers of low-power sensors and devices to enable communication over long distances.

Network Topology: LoRaWAN usually adopts a star network topology, where end nodes (sensors and devices) are connected to a central network server through a gateway. This structure is suitable for large-scale sensor deployment, such as sensor networks in smart cities.

Security: LoRaWAN has strong security features, including data encryption and authentication, to ensure that transmitted data maintains confidentiality and integrity.

Device Management: LoRaWAN supports device management and remote device configuration to simplify large-scale device deployment and maintenance.

Open Standards: LoRaWAN uses open standards, allowing devices and networks from different vendors to work together, improving interoperability.


Focus: LoRa is the underlying physical layer technology of LoRaWAN, which mainly focuses on providing long-distance, low-power communication. It can be used for a variety of different communication protocols and applications, not just LoRaWAN.

Communication flexibility: LoRa is generally more flexible and can be used for point-to-point communication, point-to-multipoint communication or other communication with specific needs. It can be customized according to the requirements of the specific application.

Low power consumption: LoRa's low power consumption characteristics make it suitable for battery-powered sensors and devices, allowing long-term operation.

Proprietary or custom protocols: LoRa can be used with custom or proprietary communication protocols, customized to the needs of specific applications.

In general, LoRaWAN is more suitable for large-scale IoT deployments, such as monitoring systems in smart cities. It provides a standardized, secure, and low-power communication solution. LoRa is more flexible and can be used for various specific purposes of communication, but usually requires more customization and configuration. In practical applications, the choice of which technology to use depends on the specific needs and deployment situation.

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IoT Applications In Hazardous Locations

IoT represents the fourth-generation technology that facilitates the connection and transformation of products into smart, intelligent and communicative entities. IoT has already established its footprint in various business verticals such as medical, heath care, automobile, and industrial applications. IoT empowers the collection, analysis, and transmission of information across various networks, encompassing both server and edge devices. This information can then undergo further processing and distribution to multiple inter-connected devices through cloud connectivity.

IoT Application in Oil & Gas Industry:

IoT is used in the Oil and Gas Industry for two basic reasons: First - low power design, a fundamental requirement for intrinsically safe products, Second - two-way wireless communication. These two advantages are a boon for the products used in Oil and Gas industries. The only challenge is for the product design to meet the hazardous location certification.

An intrinsic safe certification is mandatory for any device placed in hazardous locations. The certification code depends on the type of protection, zone, and the region where the product shall be installed.

In the North American and Canadian markets, the area classification is done in three classes:

Class I: Location where flammable gases and vapors are present.

Class II: Location where combustible dust is present.

Class III: Location where flying is present.

The hazardous area is further divided into two divisions, based upon the probability that a dangerous fuel to air mixture will occur or not.

Dvision-1: Location is where there is a high probability (by underwriting standards) that an explosive concentration of gas or vapor is present during normal operation of the plant.

Division-2: Location is where there is a very low probability that the flammable material is present in the explosive concentration during normal operation of the plant; so, an explosive concentration is expected only in case of a failure of the plant containment system.

The GROUP is also one of the meaningful nomenclatures of the hazardous area terms.

The four gas groups were created so that electrical equipment intended to be used in hazardous (classified) locations could be rated for families of gases and vapors and tested with a designated worst-case gas/air mixture to cover the entire group.

The temperature class definitions are used to designate the maximum operating temperatures on the surface of the equipment, which should not exceed the ignition temperature of the surrounding atmosphere.

Areas classified per NEC Article 505 are divided into three zones based on the probability of an ignitable concentration being present, rather than into two divisions as per NEC article 501. Areas that would be classified division 1 are further divided into zone 0 and zone 1.  A zone 0 area is more likely to contain an ignitable atmosphere than zone 1 area. Division 2 and zone 2 areas are essentially equivalent.

Zone-0: Presence of ignitable concentration of combustible gases and vapors continuously, or for long periods of time.

Zone-1: Intermittent hazard may be present.

Zone-2: Hazard will be present under abnormal conditions.

IoT-based products can be designed for various applications, a few of them are listed below:

  1. Temperature Sensor
  2. Pressure Monitoring
  3. Gas Monitoring
  4. Flow Monitoring

A typical block diagram of the IoT application is shown below:

Figure 1: IOT Block Diagram



An IoT product might consist of a battery as a power source or can be powered externally from either 9V ~ 36V DC supply available in the process control applications or 110/230Vac input.

The microcontroller can be selected based on the applications, power consumption, and the peripheral requirements. The microcontroller converts the analog signal to digital and based on the configuration can send the data on wired/wireless to the remote station. Analog signal conditioning stands as a pivotal component of the product, bridging the connection between the sensor and facilitating the conversion of analog signals for compatibility with the microcontroller. The Bluetooth interface suggested in the example is due to its wide acceptance and low power consumption. The wireless interface depends on the end-application of the product.

Electronics Design Consideration

The electronics design of an IoT product for a hazardous location is very complex and needs a careful selection of the architecture and base components as compared to the IoT developed for commercial applications. In case the IoT is for a hazardous location, the product must be intrinsically safe and should not cause an explosion under fault conditions. The product architecture should be designed considering various mechanical, and electronics requirements as defined in the IEC 60079 standards, certification requirements and the functional specifications.

Power Source: This is one of the main elements in an IoT-based product. Battery selection should meet the overall power budget of the product, followed by the battery lifetime. In case of intrinsic safety, special consideration is required for where the battery in charged. IEC 60079-11 clause 7.4 provide details for the type of battery and its construction details. Separation distance from the battery and electrical interface should be done as per Table-5 of IEC 60079-11. If the battery is used in the compartment, sufficient ventilation must be provided to ensure that no dangerous gas accumulation occurs during discharge or inactivity periods. In scenarios where IoT operates on DC power sources such as 9~36Vdc (nominal 24Vdc), the selection of power supply barrier protection becomes a critical consideration, particularly when catering to intrinsic safety norms. This necessitates a thorough analysis of the product’s prerequisites and the mandatory certifications. Adding to the complexity is the existence of IoT devices functioning on 230Vac, demands intrinsic safe calculations and certifications aligned with Um = 250V.


Microcontroller: Its central processing unit of the IoT product. The architecture of the microcontroller, power, and clock frequency processing must be carefully selected for a particular application. The Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC) part of the microcontroller should be selected based on the required accuracy, update rate, and resolution. Microcontroller should have enough sleep modes so that the power is optimally utilized for IoT applications and should have sufficient memory/peripheral interface to meet the product specifications.

Analog Signal Conditioning: The front-end block should meet the intrinsic safe requirements as per the IEC 60079 standards and should also protect the product from EMI-EMC testing. Barrier circuit should provide enough isolation for meeting the spark-gap ignition requirements and impedance requirement of the transducer. Also, along with the safety requirements, the designer should ensure that extracted sensor signal is not degraded from the excessive noise present in outside environment. All the sensors used for collecting data from the process parameters to the signal conditioning block must be certified for the particular zone.

Wireless Communications: There are various wireless options available for sending data from the IoT product to the sensor such as (6LOWPAN, ZigBEE, ZWave, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, Wireless HART). Selection of a particular wireless interface requires knowledge of end application, RF-power, antenna, and protocol. Selection of the interface for a particular IoT application should be done keeping these basic things in mind:

  1. The amount of data to be shared to the server.
  2. RF power.
  3. Power consumed for each bit of data transferred.
  4. Update rate of the data and distance of communication.
  5. Security of data.

In case of intrinsic safe applications, it’s important to note that the use of certified modules does not directly confer suitability for deployment in hazardous locations. The product must undergo fresh testing within an intrinsic safe lab to assess both quantifiable and non-quantifiable ffaults, along with spark testing. or the countable and non-countable faults and spark testing. The RF power transmitted from the devices should be limited as per Table-1x of IEC 60079-0.


When building IoT solutions for hazardous locations, special conditions relating to creepage and clearance, encapsulation, and separation distance must be carefully considered. Also, when battery and RF signals are used, it’s expected the designer should be aware of the applicable standards and limitation of these standards for such products.

With more than 25 years of experience in designing mission-critical and consumer-grade embedded hardware designs, eInfochips is well poised to make products which are smaller, faster, reliable, efficient, intelligent and economical. We have worked on developing complex embedded control systems for avionics and industrial solutions. At the same time, we have also developed portable and power efficient systems for wearables, medical devices, home automation and surveillance solutions.

eInfochips, as an Arrow company, has a strong ecosystem of manufacturing partners who can help right from electronic prototype design, manufacturing, production, and certification. eInfochips works closely with the contract manufacturers to make sure that the designs are optimized for testing (DFT) and manufacturing (DFM) to reduce design alterations on production transfer. To know more about this contact us.



  1. "IEC 60079–0" in Explosive Atmospheres - Part 0: General Requirements, Geneva. Switzerland.
  2. "IEC 60079–11 Part 11" in Equipment Protection by Intrinsic Safety “i”, Geneva, Switzerland.
  3. "UL 2225" in Standard for Safety; Cables and Cable Fittings for Use In Hazardous (Classified) Locations, Northbrook. IL:UL.
  4. "CSA C22.1–18 Rule 18–092" in Canadian Electrical Code Part I, Toronto, Canada:CSA Group.
  5. "NFPA 70" in National Electrical Code, Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association.
  6. "CAN/CSA C22.2 No.60079–0" in Explosive Atmospheres - Part 0: General Requirements, Toronto, Canada:CSA Group.


About Authors:

Kartik Gandhi, currently serving in the capacity of Senior Director of Engineering, possesses a distinguished career spanning over two decades, marked by a profound expertise in fields including Business Analysis, Presales, and Embedded Systems. Throughout his professional journey, Mr. kartik has demonstrated his proficiency across diverse platforms, notably Qualcomm and NXP, and has contributed his talents to several esteemed product-based organizations.

Dr. Suraj Pardeshi has more than 20 years of experience in Research & Development, Product Design & Development, and testing. He has worked on various IoT-enabled platforms for Industrial applications. He has more than 15 publications in various National and International journals. He holds two Indian patents, Gold Medalist and Ph.D (Electrical) from M.S University, Vadodara.


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Automated liquid packaging has emerged as a critical component in enhancing efficiency and accuracy in modern production lines. This process involves the use of advanced technology to automate the filling and packaging of liquids in an array of production processing businesses in the food, beverage, cannabis, pharmaceutical, chemical, and cosmetic industries. For instance, the food and beverage industry benefits immensely from automation by ensuring precise measurement and hygiene standards, elevating the quality and safety of products.

Similarly, the cannabis industry relies heavily on automated liquid packaging for accurate dosages and secure packaging, instrumental in sustaining consumer trust. In the pharmaceutical sector, precision and consistency are paramount; automating liquid packaging addresses these needs, ensuring that each product adheres to stringent industry standards and regulations. These are just some examples of how automation transforms liquid packaging operations. 

This blog post will highlight how this helps improve manufacturing speed and accuracy.

1. Increased Production Speeds through Continuous Operations

Automating liquid packaging processes greatly enhances production speeds by enabling continuous operations, significantly reducing the downtime usually seen with manual processes. Automated systems can function round the clock, maintaining a constant production speed, which is particularly beneficial in meeting high demand promptly and efficiently. The systems are designed to facilitate faster production turnarounds. By harmonizing the speed of all packaging processes, you achieve a more streamlined and faster production line, enhancing overall productivity and meeting market demands in a timely manner.

Beyond just speed, automation brings in the element of reliability in production. Businesses can anticipate a steady output without the unpredictability brought about by human labor — such as unexpected sick days or variations in individual worker pace. This results in a significant improvement in meeting delivery timelines, establishing a trustworthy reputation for the business. With continuous operations, there is also a reduced need for rushed processes, which often compromise the quality of the final product. This balance of speed and quality ensures a steady, reliable supply of superior products to the market.

2. Enhanced Precision and Consistency

Automation ensures a high degree of precision and consistency in liquid packaging. By utilizing sophisticated algorithms and sensors, these automated systems are capable of dispensing exact quantities of liquids into the packaging, maintaining a uniformity that is hard to achieve through manual efforts. This reduces wastage arising from overfilling or underfilling and ensures that products meet regulatory standards consistently. It also guarantees customer satisfaction as each product maintains a consistent quantity, establishing trust in the brand.

Additionally, precision in automation extends to the accurate labeling of products, a crucial factor in industries where a minor error can result in serious consequences, including legal repercussions. Automated labeling processes ensure each package contains the correct information, enhancing brand loyalty while avoiding costly recalls. This meticulous approach to packaging engenders a reputation for reliability and quality, as products maintain a standard of consistency that is trusted by consumers and meets the stringent demands of regulatory bodies.

3. Integration with Advanced Quality Control Systems

Automated packaging lines also benefit from integration with advanced quality control systems. These systems provide real-time monitoring and feedback, enabling a swift response to any deviations in product quality. It ensures that only products that meet the specified standards reach the consumers, safeguarding the brand's reputation and maintaining a high level of customer satisfaction. The data collected during the packaging process also offers insights into the production process, assisting in making informed decisions and optimizing operations over time.

Real-time quality control goes a step further in establishing a brand's reliability and commitment to quality. Automated systems can immediately identify and reject products that deviate from the set standards, ensuring a consistent quality in the products that reach the market. The integration allows for seamless product tracking and tracing, offering stakeholders a transparent view of the production process and enhancing compliance with regulatory requirements. It creates a system where quality is assured and verifiable. 

4. Reduction in Human Error

Automation significantly reduces the potential for human error, a common occurrence due to fatigue or oversight in manual operations. Automated systems follow programmed protocols meticulously, guaranteeing uniform output at all times. This not only prevents errors in the quantity of liquid packaged but also avoids mislabeling, ensuring that the right products reach the right consumers, therefore mitigating risks such as product recalls or damages to the brand reputation arising from inconsistent product quality.

The reduction of human error also means safer products for consumers. Issues such as contamination can be significantly reduced, ensuring that products maintain a high standard of hygiene. Automation also facilitates a rapid response to any issues identified, with systems often able to automatically rectify errors, reducing the downtime associated with stopping production lines to address issues manually. In a broader perspective, it creates an environment where quality and safety are paramount, providing products that consumers can count on.

5. What Is an IoT Device and What Is Its Impact on Manufacturing?

An IoT device is a physical device that connects to the Internet. These devices are all around you, and include pool heaters, fitness trackers, thermostats, appliances, locks, smart homes, and more! The Internet of Things is already very present in our lives and will introduce incredible opportunities over the next five years. For manufacturing, IoT devices can provide efficiency and real-time updates and insights. However, it’s essential to have customer confidence, and to do so, companies must ensure that their security and privacy protections are up-to-date and robust. Unfortunately, not all companies do so in a rush to get products on the market.

Without security norms and responsible practices, we’re reaching a crossroads where regulation may be required. Yet, in reality, legislation by itself will not be effective. Passing a law will take too long and will never keep pace with the evolving threat landscape. Companies will individually need to be proactive and increase the level of security for their IoT devices and related services to protect consumers and the privacy of their data going forward.

6. Scalability to Meet Production Demands

Automated liquid packaging systems have the distinct advantage of scalability, adapting easily to meet changing production demands. These systems can be scaled up to accommodate business growth or scaled down in low-demand periods without compromising the speed or accuracy of the packaging process. This ensures that manufacturers can respond swiftly to market demands, fostering business agility and maintaining a competitive edge in the market.

Scalability also allows for experimentation and innovation. Businesses can easily adapt their production lines to introduce new products to the market, testing them on a smaller scale before ramping up production if they are well-received. This flexibility encourages innovation, allowing businesses to rapidly respond to changing consumer preferences and trends. It also facilitates efficient resource management, as businesses can allocate resources more effectively based on the scaled production needs, optimizing costs and enhancing profitability.

7. Optimized Labor Allocation

Automation of repetitive and labor-intensive tasks in liquid packaging processes means employees can focus on more strategic, value-added activities. This not only leads to a more skilled and engaged workforce but also facilitates improved production strategies and fosters innovation. In addition, automating dangerous tasks can create a safer work environment, reducing the potential for accidents and enhancing worker well-being.

By freeing up human resources from repetitive tasks, businesses can nurture creativity and strategic thinking, fostering a culture of continuous improvement and innovation. It encourages employees to upskill, adding more value to the organization and building a team that can strategize for growth and efficiency. Optimized labor allocation also means a happier workforce, as employees find their roles more fulfilling, which can lead to increased job satisfaction and retention, creating a more harmonious and productive work environment.

8. Compliance with Regulatory Standards and Norms

In industries such as food, beverage, cannabis, pharmaceutical, chemical, and cosmetic, adherence to stringent regulatory standards is paramount. Automating liquid packaging facilitates easy compliance with such norms through precise control over the packaging process, ensuring that products meet the requisite safety and quality benchmarks.

For instance, in the pharmaceutical and food sectors, there is a necessity for exact measurements and stringent quality controls to ensure consumer safety. Automation enables integrating systems that can automatically maintain these exact measurements and control standards, reducing the risk of non-compliance. Automated systems can also be equipped to generate automatic reports and documentation required for regulatory compliance, thereby ensuring transparency and adherence to the required norms.


While automating liquid packaging addresses the pivotal needs of a variety of industries, it's important to understand that different industries have distinct requirements. There's no one-size-fits-all approach. A customized liquid packaging solution caters to specific industry needs, offering flexibility and optimizing the production process to meet unique demands effectively. Customization accommodates diverse requirements, offering a tailored approach that ensures optimal performance.

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I'm working on an IoT project where I need to connect multiple devices to a LoRa network. Although I have some knowledge about LoRa technology, I am still a little confused when it comes to handling multi-device communication. I want to be able to connect sensors, controllers, and other devices and efficiently manage the communication between them.

Are there any best practices or suggestions for handling multi-device communication in LoRa networks? I need to know how to manage conflicts between devices, keep communication stable, and how to extend the LoRa network to support more devices.

Here are the suggested methods found:

Using LoRaWAN protocol: If your LoRa network supports the LoRaWAN protocol, it provides powerful features for device management and communication scheduling. LoRaWAN allows you to efficiently connect and manage large numbers of devices.

Assign a unique device ID: Assign a unique device ID to each device to identify them on the network. This helps prevent conflicts between devices.

Use appropriate data transmission frequencies: Consider using appropriate data transmission frequencies and duty cycles to avoid interference between devices. Reasonable planning of communication frequency can improve network performance.

Implement a device sleep mode: For devices that are active from time to time, a sleep mode can be implemented to reduce power consumption and avoid network congestion.

Data conflict resolution: When multiple devices try to send data at the same time, conflicts may occur. The LoRaWAN protocol includes a data conflict resolution mechanism, but reasonable device queuing and scheduling are required to reduce the occurrence of conflicts.

Device Management Platform: Using a device management platform can help you remotely configure, monitor, and manage multiple devices. This is very useful for large-scale IoT applications.

Optimize network topology: Based on project needs, consider optimizing network topology, including gateway location and device distribution, to ensure optimal coverage and communication efficiency.

Regular maintenance and monitoring: Perform regular maintenance and monitoring of devices to ensure their performance and battery status. Timely detection and resolution of problems can improve system reliability.

The above suggestions can help you handle multi-device communication effectively in LoRa network. Based on your specific application scenarios and needs, choose the appropriate strategies and tools to manage and expand your LoRa IoT.

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IoT-connected devices have evolved from being an emerging technology to becoming a mainstream technology. But the one sector where this technology is enjoying wide usage is the travel and tourism industry.

IoT has become a game-changer for the travel and tourism industry. It is poised to bring about significant disruptions for the tourism industry especially in terms of personalized services, security enhancements and operational optimization.

Whether you run hotels, own a travel agency, or offer any sort of travel services, you need to consider investment in IoT technology as it can bring substantial changes for your business. But what kind of changes are we talking about, and why is it being called a game changer?

This article attempts to answer these questions and offers an insight into how IoT-enabled devices are proving productive for this industry.

#01 IoT for Personalization

Personalization is a crucial aspect of tourism, but IoT in travel and tourism industry can help here by gathering and analysing customers’ data and learning about their preferences. This data can then be used by travel apps to send personalized information to tourists.

If a tourist has previously expressed an interest in vegan food, then they could be sent information about top-rated vegan eateries in their areas. Similarly, IoT devices can be used to track the location of tourists and alert them about nearby markets, events, or cultural centres that they might be interested in.

Personalization can offer a more memorable travel experience to tourists. Other ways in which IoT can personalize the travel experience include:

- Recommendation engines for suggesting eateries, and other tourist attractions based on their interests

- Location-based services to notify tourists about on-going events that they might be interested in

- Virtual assistants to answer tourists’ questions and offer them personalized services like translating foreign languages

#02 Help at Fingertips

Security and safety of tourists have emerged as a grave concern for tourists and travellers, especially when they are visiting foreign countries that require communicating in a different language. With the help of IoT-enabled devices, the tourism departments can fortify security in the following ways:

- Utilization of IoT-powered surveillance systems in tourist destinations, hotels, and transportation hubs for real-time video monitoring and location updates

- Dissemination of critical information like emergency contact numbers, nearest police stations, and hospitals by airports, hotels, and tourism departments to provide immediate assistance to tourists

- Implementation of IoT devices to establish virtual boundaries or geo-fences around certain critical areas like forests or sensitive locations, and triggering alerts if tourists accidentally breach these boundaries, enabling swift emergency responses by authorities

#03 More Control through Automation

One of the most prevalent applications of IoT-based IT solutions for the travel industry thus far involves enhancing personalization in hotels and during flights. This can be achieved by offering customers greater control over certain amenities and services through a centralized device, like a tablet or their own smartphone.

In hotels, customers can use IoT-powered devices to control the temperature, and lighting in their room. Similar settings can be utilized on flights to control the seat lights, and AC temperature.

#04 Smooth Travel Experience

IoT offers an excellent opportunity to simplify, optimize, and offer a graceful travel experience to tourists. In airports, these devices can be used to relay information like informing users when their luggage is nearby so that they can quickly retrieve it.

Hotels can use IoT-powered devices to offer a seamless check-in experience. For example, electronic key cards can be transmitted directly to the smart-devices of guests who can use it to automatically complete the check-in procedure. Such devices can also be used in restaurants and cafes for automatic allocating tables.

Guests can be informed about waiting time during the peak time and also offer customers with recommendations after taking their food preferences.

#05 Smart Savings

A huge benefit of IoT-enabled devices is their contribution in making smart savings, especially in accommodations. IoT sensors can be used to automatically adjust the room temperature and turn lights on and off.

A great example is that of IoT-enabled taps, which automatically turns on by detecting the heat signal of your hands. Such devices will not only help to reduce energy consumption but also save money.

Smart thermostats can also be used to automatically adjust the temperature of the hotel room based on the occupancy and the weather. This can save energy by preventing the heating or cooling system from operating when it is not needed.

#06 Assisting in Nature Tourism

Nature tourism has gained worldwide attention in recent times. Environmentalists constantly visit nature-enriched places to gather more information. IoT solutions can prove useful in assisting tourists by providing information on weather like wind speed, temperature, and humidity.

This data can then be used to inform tourists about proper attire and protection tips in case of emergencies. IoT devices can also be used for monitoring sensitive zones like bird nesting grounds. This can help in managing tourism and protect the environment as well.

Final Thoughts

IoT, undoubtedly, is all set to bring about significant changes in the travel and tourism industry. The incorporation of IoT with travel software and hospitality solutions will streamline processes like automatic hotel check-ins, simplified travel navigation, and increased tourist safety.

IoT also holds the potential to improve customer services, and improve ROI. In order to stay competitive and meet evolving tourist expectations, travel industry companies should start investing into IoT-powered systems.

IoT is rapidly becoming a necessity rather than a luxury, with tourists and industry managers alike adapting to this new era, which is expected to transform the entire travel industry in the near future.

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The iMCP HTLRBL32L is a system-in-package (SiP), a revolutionary solution that transforms the integration and prototyping of long and short range IoT solutions.imcp-htlrbl32l-lora-1.webp

By seamlessly combining the advanced ST Microelectronics BlueNRG SoC (ARM Cortex M0+ with Bluetooth Low Energy radio) and the powerful Semtech SX1262 LoRa radio transceiver, the iMCP HTLRBL32L achieves unparalleled performance while optimizing power consumption. The open MCU and 256KB internal memory, offers configurability and flexibility to diverse project requirements, ensuring seamless integration and adaptability to meet the unique needs of every application.

Designed to excel in multi-region LoRaWAN deployments, the iMCP HTLRBL32L empowers you with capabilities for device commissioning, wireless firmware updates, and even mesh networking. Leveraging the cutting-edge Bluetooth Low Energy 5.2 technology, it opens up a world of possibilities for connectivity and control.

It comes in two versions, with or without security element embedded (ST SAFE), allowing the developer to choose to add a security element to its IoT solution.

Additionally, HT Micron, together with its proprietary company Hana Micron, provides a complete training package and reference documentation, allowing any enthusiast to develop solutions in a simplified and agile way. Check out the materials on the following websites:



In order to facilitate the development and prototyping process, HT micron offers breakouts boards and also EVB (evaluation boards) that can be easily coupled to Arduino boards. Register your interest here:


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In the vast terrain of digital transformation, the Internet of Things (IoT) has emerged as a leading beacon. As businesses grapple with evolving demands, IoT serves as a cornerstone for innovation, operational efficiency, and superior customer engagement. This article delves into the intricacies of IoT and elucidates how businesses can embrace it to spur growth.

Understanding the IoT Landscape

The Internet of Things comprises a vast network of interconnected physical devices, all embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies to collect and exchange data. From household items like smart thermostats to complex systems such as industrial machinery, IoT technology is versatile and can be applied in various sectors. It even plays a role in enhancing the robustness and capabilities of virtual networks, including VPS hosting services. By integrating IoT technology, businesses can create a more efficient, data-driven, and automated operation.

The Value Proposition for Businesses

The impact of IoT on business is profound. When appropriately harnessed, IoT can provide actionable data that serves as the foundation for informed decision-making. In a world that is shifting toward data-driven strategies, the real-time analytics that IoT offers can be transformative.

The technology also has the potential to elevate productivity. IoT can automate various mundane and repetitive tasks, freeing human resources for more creative and complex responsibilities. When it comes to customer experiences, IoT brings an unprecedented level of personalization and convenience, thereby boosting customer satisfaction and loyalty.

But the benefits don't stop there. Implementing IoT can lead to a more cost-efficient operation. One way it achieves this is by enabling predictive maintenance. This ensures that machinery and equipment are serviced before they break down, thus reducing downtime and extending the lifespan of the asset.

Implementing IoT in Your Business Strategy

As with any significant business undertaking, the effective implementation of IoT starts with the identification of specific business needs and objectives. Are you seeking operational efficiency or striving for superior customer engagement? Knowing what you aim to achieve helps you choose the right devices and platforms tailored to meet those objectives.

Choosing the right IoT devices is vital to the success of your venture. IoT has a broad spectrum of applications, and the range of devices available is equally diverse. Whether it's a smart camera to enhance security or a temperature sensor in a manufacturing line, selecting devices that suit your specific needs is critical.

The next stage involves integrating IoT technology into your existing infrastructure. Seamless integration is crucial to achieving a streamlined operation. Whether your business is purely online and reliant on VPS hosting, or you operate from a brick-and-mortar establishment, the IoT architecture should be compatible with your existing systems.

Security is another critical consideration. The interconnected nature of IoT increases the potential risk of cyber threats. As such, robust security measures are required to safeguard against unauthorized access and data breaches. You'll need to deploy strong encryption techniques and continually monitor the network to protect against vulnerabilities.

However, implementing IoT is not a "set it and forget it" deal. Continuous monitoring and data analysis are key to maximizing the benefits. IoT generates large volumes of data, and you need a comprehensive analytics strategy to sift through this data and extract actionable insights.

Finally, the system should undergo periodic evaluations for performance and security. These reviews help in iterating and optimizing your IoT setup, ensuring it evolves with changing business requirements and technological advancements.

Taking the Plunge

IoT technology offers an unmatched opportunity for businesses to elevate operational efficiency, enrich customer experiences, and drive growth. With a clear strategy in place— one that identifies your business needs incorporates the right devices, and follows a secure and data-driven approach— the benefits can be substantial.


In a rapidly digitizing world, IoT is not merely a fad but a transformative force that can help businesses stay competitive and reach new heights. Therefore, it's not a question of whether to adopt IoT but how best to do so for sustainable business growth.

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The manufacturing industry is on the brink of a transformative journey with the integration of 5G technology. As we step into the future, the powerful combination of 5G and the Internet of Things (IoT) is revolutionizing the manufacturing landscape, promising unparalleled levels of efficiency, innovation, and success. The potential for growth is immense, as indicated by the projected expansion of the global 5G in the manufacturing market. According to a report by Global Market Estimates, the market is expected to experience a remarkable compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of around 27.5% during the forecast period from 2021 to 2026. The momentum continues to build, with another study conducted by Allied Market Research revealing that the global industrial 5G market's value reached $12.47 billion in 2020 and is projected to surge to an astounding $140.88 billion by the year 2030, growing at the same impressive CAGR of 27.5%. This surge in demand and implementation of 5G technology is set to redefine manufacturing operations, unleashing a new era of connectivity, data-driven decision-making, and technological advancement in the industry.

Let's explore the game-changing areas where 5G is shaping manufacturing:

  • Enhanced Automation and Robotics: Brace yourself for a world where machines, robots, and control systems communicate seamlessly in real time. With the lightning-fast speed and ultra-low latency of 5G, automation reaches new heights. Human operators collaborate harmoniously with their mechanical counterparts, driving productivity to soaring levels and creating a manufacturing ecosystem buzzing with flawless precision.
  • IoT Expansion: Prepare to be captivated by the power of connectivity as 5G and IoT converge. An interconnected web of devices and sensors revolutionizes manufacturing environments. Real-time data flows effortlessly, empowering manufacturers with unparalleled insights into production processes, equipment performance, and inventory levels. Welcome to the era of smart factories and a thriving industrial IoT ecosystem where innovation knows no boundaries.
  • Real-time Analytics and Predictive Maintenance: Unlock the door to real-time analytics with 5G's extraordinary bandwidth and lightning-fast transmission. Advanced algorithms analyze production data on the spot, equipping manufacturers with invaluable insights. Witness the magic of predictive maintenance strategies that detect and address potential equipment failures before they disrupt operations. Say goodbye to downtime, watch maintenance costs plummet, and witness equipment performance reach peak efficiency.
  • Remote Operations and Monitoring: Embrace a paradigm shift as 5G propels us into the era of real-time remote control and monitoring. Manufacturers gain the power to oversee and manage operations from anywhere on the globe. Multiple production sites become effortlessly manageable, critical information is at your fingertips, and operational streamlining becomes second nature. Flexibility reigns supreme, decisions are lightning-quick, and the need for on-site personnel diminishes, optimizing resources and reducing costs.
  • Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) Integration: Immerse yourself in a new manufacturing era as 5G unleashes the full potential of AR and VR. Experience lightning-fast speeds and ultra-low latency as AR glasses guide workers through assembly processes troubleshoot with ease, and perfect quality control in real-time. Witness accuracy soaring, errors vanishing, and worker productivity reaching unparalleled heights.
  • Supply Chain Optimization: Let 5G permeate your supply chain, igniting a transformative revolution. Real-time connectivity, data sharing, and analytics illuminate supply chain visibility like never before. Bid farewell to stockouts and delays as inventory tracking becomes a breeze, logistics management reaches new heights of efficiency, and distribution networks optimize with precision. Elevate inventory management and delight customers with enhanced satisfaction.


Here is a more detailed explanation of using 5G for real-time quality monitoring in medical device manufacturing:

Real-Time Quality Monitoring with 5G

Maintaining rigorous quality control is crucial in medical device manufacturing to ensure patient safety. However, traditional testing and inspection processes can be time-consuming, costly, and unable to catch all defects. 5G enables real-time quality monitoring by connecting production equipment with smart sensors and analytics.

With 5G, sensors can stream massive amounts of real-time data on product specifications, equipment performance, environmental conditions, and more. 5G's high bandwidth and low latency allow huge volumes of sensor data to be transferred continuously without lag.

This data feeds into edge devices running advanced analytics algorithms. The algorithms identify anomalies, detect deviations from quality parameters, and predict potential defects. Operators are notified of issues for immediate corrective action.

For example, vibration sensors may reveal the out-of-tolerance operation of a cutting tool indicating impending tool failure. Temperature probes may show unacceptable fluctuations in a curing oven negatively impacting material properties. These insights can prompt remedial measures before defective products are created.

5G-enabled real-time monitoring provides a holistic view of production quality. It shifts quality control from periodic testing to proactive prevention by enabling predictive capabilities. This allows medical device manufacturers to achieve significant improvements in product quality, output, and compliance with regulatory standards.

The manufacturing industry is reaching new pinnacles of greatness as we move forward into the future with 5G steering the ship. Leverage the power of 5G technology to gain a competitive advantage, respond quickly to changing demands in the market, and deliver products with an efficiency that is unmatched by any other method. Join the manufacturing revolution, and you will be able to observe the growth of invention, the ascent of efficiency, and the unbounded expansion of success.



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It seems like everything in our lives is now connected, from TVs to fridges to doorbells to fitness mirrors. Recent research found there are an average of 15 smart devices per household, up 25% from 2020, with “power users” having as many as 34. And these smart products are often a bad actor's prime target due to lax security. It only takes one vulnerability to become an entry point for threat actors to access the entire home network. In 2021 cyberattacks on IoT devices more than doubled from 2020.

With the surging volume of IoT products and cyberattacks, consumers are increasingly vulnerable to security breaches. Over the past few years, there has been a steady stream of security flaws, from hacked baby monitors with strangers spying or talking to kids to 600,000 GPS trackers manufactured in China and shipped globally with various vulnerabilities, including a default password of 123456. Making the situation worse: these devices were helping parents track their children.

Security as a Best-Effort or Worse, an Afterthought

A lot of time and money is invested in the features and functionality of smart products. However, in the rush to capitalize on consumer interest, security is often woefully neglected. The devices are vulnerable due to limited computing resources, lack of security features, and the reliance on internet connectivity. With many, the software is not updated frequently to address emerging threats like malware, or the product is secured with a default password.

These inadequate security practices put consumers in a risky situation as hackers can easily access the home network and carry out various nefarious activities, including spying on the house, spoofing the tracker’s location, intercepting emergency calls, or obtaining personal identification information to commit fraud.

Due to the lax policies, there are a range of common vulnerabilities spanning:

  • Passwords: Password reuse coupled with weak or default credentials all make it fairly easy for bad actors to gain unauthorized access.
  • Encryption: If data is not encrypted or it’s out of date when it’s transmitted between the IoT device and the network, it makes it easy to access without authorization.
  • Patches: If manufacturers don’t regularly update and patch flaws, this leaves the solution at the mercy of hackers to exploit.
  • Privacy: Some products collect more data than needed or share data without consent, which can lead to breaches.
  • Apps: Many solutions, like smart thermostats, have accompanying apps to control and configure them. These can also have security flaws, such as poor or insecure data storage or authentication mechanisms.
  • Firmware checks: Without these, attackers can modify firmware and potentially take control or steal sensitive data. For example, Bluetooth protocol vulnerabilities have been the source of several high-profile breaches involving IoT devices.
  • Network protocols: Some communicate using weak or outdated network protocols that make it easy for bad actors to circumvent.
  • Physical security: If an attacker gains access to the physical product, this can lead to data loss.

IoT devices must be tested to ensure vulnerabilities are found and fixed before they’re made available to purchase. It's clear that the status quo is not working. With consumers continuing to add smart products, industry regulators and government action is required to help address the seismic problem.

State of Regulation

Some progress has been made, including regulation passed in California to ensure that IoT manufacturers equip their products with some basic security features out of the box. In addition, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) laid out detailed recommendations for the labeling of consumer devices.

This has led to the White House announcing the Cyber Trust Mark IoT labeling program. To obtain the certificate, each consumer IoT device must pass a standardized set of security vulnerability tests that reflect the NIST recommendations for parameters like encryption and data protection. This is an important step to address cyber risks and build consumer confidence that they can trust intelligent products. In addition, the initiative provides a common framework for manufacturers to standardize and scale IoT security with defined tests to ensure each model meets the required benchmarks. The program is modeled on the Energy Star rating system for efficient household appliances.

With the label backed by a trusted set of security vulnerability tests, consumers can quickly and easily update the security on their IoT devices by scanning a QR code. This addresses a fatal flaw with many, the lack of software updates and patches, and it marks the first national cybersecurity specification to be introduced. In addition, it will provide visibility about the types of data the device collects and how it's used.

The Future is Connected

Connected solutions are reshaping the world and with the proliferation of IoT devices showing no sign of easing, cyber risks will continue to escalate. And as Anne Neuberger, Deputy National Security Advisor for Cyber and Emerging Technologies, stated, "The U.S. Cyber Trust Mark will give consumers a way to know if the smart devices they're purchasing are secure, and give companies a label to show their products meet cybersecurity standards. …..making our homes, classrooms, and workplaces safer and less vulnerable to cyberattacks."

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The convergence of various technologies is no longer a luxury but a necessity for business success. If you run an eCommerce store, you're already aware of the importance of Search Engine Optimization (SEO) for visibility, traffic, and ultimately, conversions. But have you ever considered how the Internet of Things (IoT) can further enrich your SEO strategy? As disparate as they may seem, IoT and SEO can intersect in fascinating ways to offer significant advantages for your eCommerce business. Let’s delve into the symbiosis between IoT data and eCommerce SEO.


Why Should eCommerce Care About IoT?

IoT can do wonders for the eCommerce sector by enhancing user experience, streamlining operations, and providing unparalleled data insights. Smart homes, wearables, and voice search devices like Amazon's Alexa or Google Home are becoming standard accessories in households, which means that consumers are using IoT for their online shopping needs more than ever. 

Integrating IoT Insights into UX Design

IoT data isn't just for SEO; it can also transform your site's User Experience (UX) design. By analyzing real-time user interactions captured by IoT devices, you can refine your site layout and navigation for optimal user engagement and conversion. This seamless blend of IoT insights and UX design elevates your eCommerce platform, making it more responsive to user needs and behaviours.

Unlocking User Behavior Insights

One of the most direct ways IoT can impact your SEO strategy is through enhanced data analytics. Devices like smartwatches or fitness trackers could provide valuable information on consumer habits, routines, and preferences. By integrating this IoT data into your SEO strategy, you can better understand your target audience, refine your keyword focus, and tailor your content to better suit the needs and search intent of potential customers.

Voice Search Optimization

Voice-activated devices are increasingly being used to perform searches and online shopping. As voice search is typically more conversational and question-based, you can use IoT data to understand the common phrases or questions consumers ask these devices. This can help you optimize your product descriptions, FAQs, and even blog posts to align with the natural language used in voice searches.

Local SEO and IoT

The "near me" search query is incredibly popular, thanks in part to IoT devices with geolocation capabilities. People use their smartphones or smartwatches to find the nearest restaurant, gas station, or store. If you have a brick-and-mortar store in addition to your online shop, IoT data can help you target local SEO more effectively by integrating local keywords and ensuring your Google My Business listing is up-to-date.

IoT and Page Experience

With IoT, user experience can go beyond the digital interface to incorporate real-world interactions. For example, a smart fridge could remind users to order more milk, directing them to your online grocery store. If your website isn’t optimized for speed and experience, you could lose these high-intent users. Incorporating IoT insights into your SEO strategy can help you anticipate these needs and optimize your site accordingly.

Real-Time Personalization

IoT devices can collect data in real-time, offering insights into user behaviour that can be immediately acted upon. Imagine someone just completed a workout on their smart treadmill. They might then search for protein shakes or workout gear. With real-time data, you could offer timely discounts or suggestions, personalized to the user's immediate needs, all while improving your SEO through higher user engagement and lower bounce rates.

Wrapping It Up

IoT and SEO may seem like different arenas, but they are more interconnected than you'd think. By adopting a holistic approach that marries the insights from IoT devices with your SEO strategy, you can significantly improve your eCommerce site's performance. From optimizing for voice search and improving local SEO to real-time personalization and superior user experience, the opportunities are endless.

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With the continuous development of Internet of Things technology, LoRa (Low Power Wide Area Network) modules are widely used in various fields. This article will discuss how the LoRa module plays a role in remote weather monitoring projects, providing an efficient and reliable solution for the collection, transmission and analysis of weather data.


Remote weather monitoring plays an important role in fields such as agriculture, meteorological research and environmental protection. As a communication technology with low power consumption and strong long-distance transmission capability, LoRa has gradually been applied in weather monitoring projects.

2. Overview of LoRa technology:

Based on the characteristics of long distance, low power consumption and low data rate, LoRa technology is suitable for long-running wireless sensor networks. The LoRa module can cover a wide area and has excellent penetration, making it excellent in remote weather monitoring.

3. Application of LoRa in remote weather monitoring:

E22-400T33S UART module

E22-400T33S LoRa Wireless Module

[Product size]:25*40.5mm

[Communication distance]:16km

[Transmit power]:33dBm

[Carrier frequency]:410.125~493.125MHz

[Chip solution]:SX1268

[Introduction]:E22-400T33S is a wireless serial port module (UART) based on SEMTECH's SX1268, working at 410.125 ~ 493.125MHz (default 433.125MHz),TTL level output, compatible with 3.3V and 5V IO port voltage. Compared with the traditional SX1278 solution, it has a longer transmission distance, faster speed, lower power consumption, and smaller size; it supports functions such as air wake-up, wireless configuration, carrier monitoring, automatic relay. communication keys and sub-package length setting. Ebyte provides customized development services on it. An obvious advantage is that SX1268 covers wider frequency range.

Meteorological data collection: LoRa nodes can be connected to a variety of meteorological sensors, such as temperature, humidity, air pressure and wind speed sensors, to collect meteorological data in real-time.

Data transmission: Through the LoRa module, the collected meteorological data can be remotely transmitted to the base station or cloud platform to realize real-time monitoring and data sharing.

Geographical distribution: Multiple LoRa nodes can be distributed in a wide weather monitoring area to achieve full coverage and ensure data accuracy and integrity.

Low power consumption: The low power consumption characteristics of the LoRa module make it suitable for long-term operation, and can be powered by batteries to reduce maintenance costs.

Advantages of LoRa in remote weather monitoring projects:

Cost-effectiveness: The deployment and maintenance costs of LoRa nodes are low, which is suitable for large-scale weather monitoring networks.

Long-range transmission: LoRa technology can realize data transmission in a long distance, which is suitable for meteorological monitoring in remote areas.

Stability: The LoRa module has strong signal penetration capability and can maintain stable data transmission in complex environments.

Real-time data: Through the LoRa module, meteorological data can be transmitted in real-time to help with timely warning and decision-making.

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Welcome to the world of IoT, where devices connect and communicate like never before. Imagine your coffee machine reordering beans when it's low – that's IoT. Now, think about how this clever tech is transforming payments. From smart fridges to wearable gadgets, IoT is changing how we buy things. In this article, we'll explore the exciting ways IoT is making payment smoother and why businesses are embracing this change. Let's dive in and discover how our daily transactions are getting a high-tech upgrade.

But, What Are IoT Payments? 

Defining IoT Payments

IoT payments, which stand for Internet of Things payments, bring together regular things and money tasks. This means adding smart abilities to common stuff using sensors and communication. They can then do money tasks all on their own. Think about a fridge restocking itself or a car paying tolls automatically – it's like a whole new way of handling money stuff!

But, what gave rise to the need for IoT payments? What are the driving forces or trends driving this change?

Trends Driving IoT Payments

IoT payments are buzzing with exciting trends that are shaping how we handle transactions. Here are three key trends that stand out:

1. Smart Shopping

In the world of IoT payments, shopping gets a smart upgrade. Imagine walking into a store, grabbing what you need, and just leaving – no lines, no checkouts. Smart sensors track what you've taken, and your payment is automatically done through your device. It's like magic shopping!

2. Connected Convenience

IoT payments are all about convenience. Your devices talk to each other, making payments seamless. Your phone talks to your car and parking fees are settled. Your wearable device pays for your morning coffee. Everything works together to make life easier.

3. Enhanced Security

Security is a big deal in IoT payments. Devices communicate sensitive information, so strong security measures are a must. Biometrics like fingerprints or facial recognition adds an extra layer of protection. With IoT payments, your data stays safe while you enjoy hassle-free transactions.

These trends show how IoT payments are transforming the way we handle shopping smarter, life more convenient, and transactions more secure.

Benefits of IoT-Based Payments: Transforming the Way We Transact

The world of IoT payments brings a bunch of great benefits that touch many parts of life. Let's look at three ways it's making things better for everyone:

Elevated Convenience and Efficiency for Consumers

IoT payments make life super convenient for us. We don't need to carry cash or cards – everything happens fast and smoothly. Think about paying with a simple wave of your device. It's like having your own virtual wallet!

Optimized Operations for Businesses

Businesses also get a boost from IoT payments. It helps them run things better. Payments become easy, so there's less hassle. That means less time dealing with money matters and more time for making customers happy.

Data-Driven Insights for Industries

IoT payments create big data that industries can use. This helps them figure out what's working and what's not. It's like a roadmap to improve things. When industries know what people like, they can make things even better for all of us.

So, IoT payments bring good things for consumers, businesses, and entire industries. It's like a win-win-win!

Navigating Challenges: Ensuring a Secure IoT Payment Ecosystem

Even though IoT payments have a lot of potential, there's a big challenge we need to tackle – security. Let's take a look at what's going on:

Addressing Vulnerabilities with Robust Solutions

When things are all connected, they can be vulnerable. This means there's a risk of bad people trying to mess with our money or information. To stop this, we need strong protection. Things like powerful encryption (a kind of code) and super strong ways to prove who we are can help. Wondering how to protect your data and transactions even more? Learning how to make a fintech app can give you insights into adding these protective layers. Plus, regular updates to the software that runs these devices can fix any weaknesses and keep us safe.

Preventing Unauthorized Access

One big worry is someone sneaking in where they shouldn't be. To stop this, we need to make sure only the right people can access these connected devices. It's like having a secret code only we know.

Building Trust for the Future

Security is a big deal for IoT payments to work well. If we can make sure everything is super secure, we can trust this tech more and use it for all kinds of things.

So, while IoT payments are exciting, we need to make sure they're super safe too. It's like locking the door to our digital money world!

Proposed Solutions: Safeguarding the Future of Transactions

Making sure IoT payments are safe needs a smart plan. Let's see how we can do that:

Integrating Security into Design

People who make smart things need to build safety right into them. They should use secret codes (encryption) to lock everything and keep fixing any problems (updates) all the time.

Using Clever Tools to Stop Bad Things

Companies that handle payments need to use smart tools to catch bad guys trying to trick the system. These tools can quickly find problems and stop them.

Helping People Trust and Feel Safe

If we know how things are kept safe, we'll trust them more. Companies should tell us how they're protecting our money and info. When we feel safe, we'll use it more.

So, if we work together, we can make sure IoT payments are safe and easy. It's like building a strong shield to keep our digital world super secure!

Business Use Cases: How Different Businesses Can Use IoT Payments For Their Advantage?

The spectrum of applications for IoT payments stretches across industries, offering an array of compelling business use cases.

Revolutionizing Retail with Smart Checkouts

Retailers can significantly enhance customer experiences through the deployment of smart checkout systems, empowering customers to shop and exit without conventional point-of-sale interactions.

Optimizing Logistics and Supply Chains

For logistics companies, the integration of IoT payments holds the potential to optimize supply chains by facilitating automated transactions between distribution centers and delivery vehicles, reducing operational intricacies.

Smart Cities and Enhanced Services

On the frontiers of smart cities, IoT payments can streamline utility payments and public service transactions, amplifying administrative efficiency and elevating citizen satisfaction.

Need for IoT-Based Payments in Business

Seizing the Competitive Edge

For businesses aiming to thrive in the digital era, embracing IoT payments is not just a choice – it's an imperative strategy.

Magnetizing Tech-Savvy Consumers

The allure of seamless, frictionless transactions magnetizes tech-savvy consumers, who prioritize convenience in their interactions.

Unlocking Efficiency and Uncharted Revenue Streams

Besides attracting customers, IoT payments also bring new ways to make money and work better. This helps a business become even stronger in the market.

Conclusion: Paving the Way for Tomorrow's Transactions

In the realm of commerce, a transformative era dawns with IoT payments reshaping how we interact financially. Challenges remain, but finding the right balance between convenience and security will steer the course of IoT payment adoption. As we stand on the brink of tomorrow's transactions, the promise of seamless, connected payments offers a glimpse into a future where transactions are effortless and secure, forever changing the way we engage with money.

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Speaking of the wireless communication technology of the Internet of Things, everyone must be familiar with LoRa, because it adopts the principle of spread spectrum modulation and a unique error correction mechanism to achieve ultra-long-distance wireless transmission. Wireless communication distance is longer.
Of course, the focus of this article is not to discuss the characteristics of LoRa, but to talk about several key core parameters in LoRa modulation.

1. Spreading Factor (SF)
LoRa spread spectrum employs multiple information chips to represent each bit of payload information. The speed at which spread information is sent is called the symbol rate (Rs), and the ratio between the chip rate and the nominal symbol rate is the spreading factor, which represents the number of symbols sent per information bit. The popular understanding is to represent a single data bit with multiple information chips.
To simplify the explanation in the digital domain, if we agree that 101110 means that the actual data bit is 1, a valid data packet such as 0xFF needs to be transmitted in the application, and the corresponding binary representation is: 1111 1111, then the information chip to be actually transmitted is:


Through the above method, the bit error rate of transmission can be reduced, thereby increasing the effective communication distance. However, when the number of transmitted information symbols is the same, the actual amount of effective data transmitted is reduced. Therefore, when other parameters are the same, The larger the SF parameter is set, the smaller the actual transmitted data rate.

LoRa spreading factor value range:


① The above table is taken from the SX127x data sheet;
② SF=6 can only be used in ImplicitHeader mode;
③ SX126x series can support SF=5
2. Modulation bandwidth BandWidth(BW)
Channel bandwidth is used to limit the frequency range allowed to pass through the current channel, which can be understood as a frequency passband.
The frequency allowed by a channel is usually 433.125MHz to 433.250MHz, and the corresponding BW=125kHz.
According to Shannon's theorem, increasing the channel bandwidth can increase the effective data rate to shorten the air delay time

Shannon's theorem
However, it can be seen from the digital sensitivity calculation formula that increasing the channel bandwidth will reduce the system sensitivity, thus shortening the wireless communication distance.
Receive sensitivity S = 10lg⁡(KTB) + NF + SNR, where B represents the channel bandwidth.
In LoRa modulation, the channel bandwidth is bilateral bandwidth (full channel bandwidth), while the BW of traditional FSK modulation refers to unilateral bandwidth or receiving bandwidth.

3. Coding Rate(CR)
In the process of LoRa communication, cyclic forward error correction technology is used internally, that is, part of the data in the actual data packet transmitted over the air is used for error correction decoding, and the ratio of the effective data length to the actual length of the air transmitted data packet is called encoding rate.
LoRa encoding rate value range and corresponding overhead ratio:


Note: The above pictures are taken from the SX127x data sheet
Based on the above, it can be seen that using the error correction algorithm will increase the link overhead and reduce the effective data transmission rate. However, due to the existence of the error correction code, the transmission has strong anti-interference ability and higher reliability.
Speaking of this, I feel that I need to go deeper, otherwise I will not be able to reflect my own level
Relationship between LoRa signal bandwidth BW, symbol rate Rs and data rate DR

Chip speed Rc:
As mentioned earlier, the bandwidth has a great relationship with the transmission rate of the signal. Here, the transmission rate of the chip is equal to the value of the bandwidth (unit Hz), that is:
Rc=BW = |BW|chips/s

Symbol rate Rs:
Each symbol has 2^SF chips, and the transmission rate of the chips is Rc, so the symbol transmission rate Rs is:
Rs= Rc/2^SF = BW/2^SF

Data transmission rate DR (or bit Rate):
DR= Rb(bits/sec) = SF * Rs * CR = SF * (BW/2^SF) * CR

4. Low Data Rate Optimization
In the cognition of many people, the core parameters of LoRa seem to be only SF, BW, and CR. The parameter value setting of Low Data Rate Optimization is easy to be ignored, but in the design process, this parameter is still very important, especially In the application process of low rate and large data packet transmission, the long-term continuous transmission of the transmitter may cause system frequency deviation and reduce the communication success rate. After enabling the Low Data Rate Optimization option, it can improve the communication robustness of LoRa under low rate conditions. sex.
The specific setting condition is that when the transmission time of a single symbol exceeds 16 milliseconds, the LowDataRateOptimize bit must be enabled, and both the transmitter and the receiver must have the same LowDataRateOptimize setting.
Take BW=500K, SF=9 as an example:

At this time RS =500kHz / 512, TS = 1 / RS = 512/500kHz= 1 ms
In this case, it is not necessary to enable Low Data Rate Optimization.
Take BW=25K, SF=10 as an example:
At this time RS =25kHz / 1024, TS = 1 / RS =1024/25kHz= 40.96 ms
In this case, Low Data Rate Optimization must be turned on.

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PHY physical layer, frame structure, parameters, data, energy, modulation, frame, format

1. What are the main functions of the PHY layer?

Activation and shutdown of radio transceiver

Energy detection (ED) in the current channel

Link quality indication (LQI) of received data packets

Idle channel evaluation (CCA) for carrier listening multiple access/conflict avoidance (CSMA-CA)

Channel frequency selection

Data transmission and reception

2. Physical parameters

868/915 MHz DSSS (direct sequence spread spectrum) adopts BPSK (binary phase shift keying) modulation

868/915 MHz DSSS (direct sequence spread spectrum) adopts O-QPSK modulation

868/915 MHz PSSS (parallel sequence spread spectrum) adopts BPSK and ASK (amplitude shift keying) modulation

2450 MHz DSSS (direct sequence spread spectrum) adopts O-QPSK modulation


3. PHY frame format


SHR: Synchronization header (including Preamble and SFD), allowing a receiving device to synchronize and lock to each stream at the same time.

PHR: PHY frame header (including Frame length and Reserved), the length information of the frame.

PHY Payload: A variable-length payload that carries the data frame of the MAC sublayer.

Among them, the SHR field: Preamble, which is used by the radio transceiver to obtain the chip and synchronization identification from the received data information. The length of the Preamble field is determined by the physical parameters as shown in the figure below.:


SFD, indicating the end of the SHR and the beginning of the packet, different physical parameters have different lengths as shown in the figure below:



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The first example of Internet of Things (IoT) devices dates back to the early 1980s. It was a Coca-Cola machine at Carnegie Mellon University that could remotely report on drinks availability and their temperature. Since then, IoT technology has become synonymous with digital automation, monitoring, and data analytics.

The Internet of Things is now a $662.21 billion industry on track to hit $3.3 trillion by 2030. Today—thanks to the ubiquity of low-cost computing, wireless connectivity, and AI technologies—the Internet of Things is commonplace in nearly every commercial industry. But for now, let’s explore the useful and exciting applications of IoT and connected devices in two of the most influential sectors: healthcare and finance.

Understanding The Internet of Things and Connected Devices

The Internet of Things refers to a network of interconnected devices, “things”, exchanging data over the internet. When interlinked via IoT, devices, such as home appliances, wearable gadgets, and surveillance cameras, can communicate in real time and even make decisions on their own. Such devices are known as IoT or connected devices.

The Internet of Things essentially merges the digital and physical worlds, making everyday digital interactions smarter, richer, and more responsive.

The sensors embedded in connected devices act like digital eyes and ears, constantly observing their environments and sharing what they see or hear. The data collected can then be analysed into actionable insights or turned into executable program instructions for devices in the network.

In a nutshell, that’s how the Internet of Things works.


IoT in healthcare

The Internet of Things is transforming the way healthcare services are delivered and the interactions between healthcare providers and patients. The end result is better care for patients in terms of improved early diagnosis, close monitoring, and data-driven medical recommendations.

Additionally, healthcare providers can offer higher-quality care by tapping into IoT capabilities. For instance, the use of connected devices minimises medical errors by increasing accessibility to accurate historic and real-time patient data.

Here are the two main IoT applications in healthcare demonstrating how using the technology is a win-win for patients and doctors.

Boosted telehealth

Telehealth or telemedicine refers to delivering healthcare, information, and education via remote technology solutions. A virtual clinic visit or doctor consultation over video call is a good example of telehealth in action.

The idea of telehealth is not exactly new. But it ramped up during the COVID-19 pandemic as a means to avoid the potential contagion risk posed by in-person hospital visits and one-on-one doctor consultations.

IoT healthcare solutions bring a whole new dimension to telehealth through remote health and fitness monitoring. Connected devices such as smartwatches, wristbands, and implanted sensors can monitor various aspects of the patient’s health in real time.

Such devices can track the following vitals and risk factors:

  • Heartrate and blood pressure
  • Blood sugar levels
  • Mood and general emotional wellness
  • Eyesight
  • Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease
  • Hand hygiene
  • Neuron activity
  • Exposure to health hazards

The patient information collected from the various data points is then channelled to a central repository, where it is stored, analysed, interpreted, and visualised.

Better treatment decisions

The data generated by healthcare IoT devices is essential for informing important decisions such as diagnoses, prescriptions, and treatment plans. Also, IoT data from multiple patients can help healthcare providers determine the effectiveness of certain treatments, the development of certain ailments, and the relationships between two or more health conditions.

IoT devices provide the raw materials for big data engines. And yes, big data has found its way into the healthcare industry, particularly in medical research. Big data systems analyse large sets of unstructured data using computational tools such as AI and machine learning to reveal meaningful trends, associations, and patterns.

According to a 2019 study, research institutions are already utilising big data systems fed by connected devices and other clinical information sources to gain valuable insights into complex healthcare problems.

IoT in finance

The future of banking is digital. The traditional brick-and-mortar banking system is quickly phasing out as more and more banks, credit unions, insurers, and investment/trading companies lean toward digital fintech solutions. This is exemplified by the growing trend of bank-fintech partnerships.

Among other technologies and innovations, IoT is a big part of the rapid digital evolution rocking the financial industry.

IoT brings value to the financial industry in the following ways:

Faster payment processing

NFC-powered IoT devices, including smartphone covers, wearables, and keychains, allow users to make instant one-touch payments without using credit or debit cards. This enables convenient and secure contactless payments for seamless financial transactions.

There’s also a growing trend of voice-activated financial transactions, where you can make payments simply by commanding your smart speaker system (AlexaNestHomePod, etc.).

Improved risk management

Information collected from IoT devices can help financial institutions to mitigate bad credit, security, and financial fraud risks.

When coupled with robust data analytics, connected devices can detect the slightest anomalies in users’ financial transactions that might indicate financial or insurance fraud. Such systems can also be tuned to accurately gauge an individual’s or company’s eligibility for credit, insurance, or investment.

You can also use IoT devices to monitor critical assets such as ATMs, physical branches, vehicles, cargo, and borrowers’ collateral in real time. Surveillance cameras, trackers, and other sensory devices can continuously monitor the status and whereabouts of important assets and flag any suspicious developments.

Better customer services

As we saw in the healthcare sector, IoT technology is a great source of insightful data. In this case, financial institutions can leverage IoT data to develop usage-based differentiated products and services.

Analysing IoT data gives you an idea of your customer’s preferences, spending behaviours, and lifestyles. You can leverage that knowledge to develop more personalised financial offerings. Such insights can also point to inefficiencies, barriers, and bottlenecks in your delivery model, highlighting areas in need of improvement.

IoT technology enables you to make informed decisions to offer seamless customer experiences.

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Advantages of FTTR technology

The advantage of FTTR technology lies in its fast transmission speed and low latency.As a transmission medium, optical fiber has extremely high bandwidth and transmission speed, which can meet the needs of users for high-speed networks.Compared with traditional network connection methods, FTTR technology can provide a more stable and faster network connection, and users can easily carry out high-bandwidth activities such as online videos, online games, and high-definition downloads.

In addition, FTTR technology also has better network coverage and signal quality.Due to the long transmission distance of optical fiber, every room in the room can obtain stable signal coverage, avoiding the problem of weak or unstable network signals caused by long distances or signal interference in traditional wiring methods.This means that users can enjoy the same high-quality Internet connection no matter which room they are in.

In addition, FTTR technology can also provide higher security.The network signal transmitted by optical fiber is not susceptible to external interference, making the user's network connection more secure and reliable.Especially for some places with high security requirements, such as banks, hospitals and enterprises, FTTR technology can meet their requirements for network security.

In general, FTTR technology transmits the Internet connection directly to each room through optical fiber, providing users with a high-speed and stable network connection.Compared with traditional network connection methods, FTTR technology has faster transmission speed, better network coverage and signal quality, and higher security.With the continuous development of science and technology, FTTR technology will be widely used in various fields.

Ebyte Electronic Technology Co., Ltd. specializes in the development and production of wireless data transmission modules with various functions in various frequency bands. The products have been widely used in the Internet of Things, consumer electronics, industrial control, medical care, security alarm, field collection, smart home, highway, property management, water and electricity meter reading, power monitoring, environmental monitoring and other application scenarios. 

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MQTT (Message Queuing Telemetry Transport, Message Queuing Telemetry Transport) is a lightweight messaging protocol based on publish/subscribe method under the ISO standard, which is usually used for communication between devices and applications such as the Internet of Things and smart homes.


The MQTT protocol consists of two parts: publisher/subscriber and message broker. As shown in Figure 1, the publisher is responsible for pushing the message to the broker, and the broker pushes the message to the matching subscriber.
Publisher: The device sends messages to subscribers through topics.
Subscriber: As a terminal device, the subscriber receives messages from the publisher through the topic.
Message broker (Broker): The server acts as a central hub and is responsible for organizational-level communication between publishers and subscribers.

There are two main versions of MQTT: v3 and v5.The principle of these two versions is basically the same, but there are some key differences between them. The following will introduce the differences between them from the following aspects.

Protocol format
MQTT v5 has added a Property field, which allows MQTT v5 to support more new features.In MQTT v3, MQTT has nothing to expand, which limits the possibility of MQTT expanding its functions.

Subject alias
Subject is the core concept in MQTT, which is used to identify the content and intent of the message.In MQTT v3, the subject is just a simple string, and its structure is composed of a series of words separated by slashes.

For example, an MQTT v3 theme can be sensors/temperature/room1, where sensors is the top-level theme, temperature is its sub-theme, and room1 is a specific device under the sub-theme.


However, in MQTT v5, the structure of the theme has been expanded and some more advanced features have been added.Specifically, MQTT v5 introduces a new concept called topic aliasing, which allows clients to map topic strings to pre-defined topic IDs, thereby reducing network traffic and message size.
Subject aliases are maintained by the client and the server, and the life cycle and scope of scope are limited to the current connection.


For a topic, set an alias when it is first published, and then you can use the topic alias to publish.This allows the client to send only the subject ID when sending a message, rather than having to send the complete subject string every time.This is very useful for IoT devices and environments with limited network bandwidth.

Subscription operation
MQTT v5 introduces a new subscription type called shared subscription.Other flags and filtering functions can be used to achieve more flexible subscriptions.As shown in the figure below, shared subscriptions allow multiple clients to share a subscription and allocate it according to certain rules.This subscription type is very useful for subscribing to high-load topics because it can balance subscription requests and reduce the load pressure on a single client.


In addition, MQTT v5 adds the concept of subscription options. You can specify subscription options, such as QoS level, Retain As Publish, Retain Handling, message life cycle, etc., to control subscription behavior more finely.

Will news
Will message is the ability that MQTT provides for devices that may be accidentally disconnected to gracefully send the will to a third party.In the payload of the CONNECT message, some fields have changed, among which Will Message (will Message) becomes Will Payload (will Load).


Will Properties (WILL Properties) is a new field in MQTT v5. Different types of packets have different attributes. For example, CONNECT packets have attributes such as maximum packet length and session expiration interval, and SUBSCRIBE packets have attributes such as subscription identifier.Moreover, compared with v3, MQTT v5 makes the content of messages more flexible, and can contain any topic and any message content.

Error handling
MQTT v5 supports a more detailed error handling mechanism, which can locate and solve problems through error codes and error causes.At the same time, MQTT v5 also introduces a new control message-Disconnect message, which can help clients and servers better handle error conditions.

Flow control
MQTT v5 introduces some new mechanisms for flow control on the basis of the v3 version, in order to better control the transmission and processing of messages, and avoid network congestion and excessive load caused by excessive message transmission speed.
Maximum Packet Size limit (Maximum Packet Size): MQTT v5 allows the client and the server to negotiate the maximum packet size when shaking hands.As shown in the figure below, this maximum packet size limit can be used to control the maximum message size transmitted between the client and the server to prevent network congestion and excessive load due to excessive transmission of messages.


Message Queue: When the message sent by the server exceeds the speed of the client's processing, the server can store the message in the message queue and wait for the client to process it.MQTT v5 defines the queue size and timeout time of the message queue to control the size and life cycle of the message queue.

Performance efficiency
Compared with MQTT v3, MQTT v5 can better handle large-scale data transmission and improve the efficiency and performance of communication.For example, MQTT v5 supports functions such as Batch Publish and Message Prefetch, which can greatly reduce the overhead of MQTT communication.
In short, compared with MQTT v3, MQTT v5 has more new features and security.However, it should be noted that MQTT v5 has added many new functions and concepts. Therefore, when using MQTT v5, it is necessary to have an in-depth understanding of the new features of the MQTT protocol so that this new protocol can be better used to build reliable applications.

Chengdu Ebyte Electronic Technology Co., Ltd. specializes in the research and development and production of various frequency bands and various functional wireless data transmission modules. The products have been widely used in the Internet of Things, consumer electronics, industrial control, medical care, security alarm, field collection, smart home, highway, property management, water and electricity meter reading, power monitoring, environmental monitoring and other application scenarios. 


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