Subscribe to our Newsletter | Join our LinkedIn Group | Post on IoT Central


Devices (310)

4 key questions to ask tech vendors

Posted by Terri Hiskey

Without mindful and strategic investments, a company’s supply chain could become wedged in its own proverbial Suez Canal, ground to a halt by outside forces and its inflexible, complex systems.

 

It’s a dramatic image, but one that became reality for many companies in the last year. Supply chain failures aren’t typically such high-profile events as the Suez Canal blockage, but rather death by a thousand inefficiencies, each slowing business operations and affecting the customer experience.

Delay by delay and spreadsheet by spreadsheet, companies are at risk of falling behind more nimble, cloud-enabled competitors. And as we emerge from the pandemic with a new understanding of how important adaptable, integrated supply chains are, company leaders have critical choices to make.

The Hannover Messe conference (held online from April 12-16) gives manufacturing and supply chain executives around the world a chance to hear perspectives from industry leaders and explore the latest manufacturing and supply chain technologies available.

Technology holds great promise. But if executives don’t ask key strategic questions to supply chain software vendors, they could unknowingly introduce a range of operational and strategic obstacles into their company’s future.

If you’re attending Hannover Messe, here are a few critical questions to ask:

Are advanced technologies like machine learning, IoT, and blockchain integrated into your supply chain applications and business processes, or are they addressed separately?

It’s important to go beyond the marketing. Is the vendor actually promoting pilots of advanced technologies that are simply customized use cases for small parts of an overall business process hosted on a separate platform? If so, it may be up to your company to figure out how to integrate it with the rest of that vendor’s applications and to maintain those integrations.

To avoid this situation, seek solutions that have been purpose-built to leverage advanced technologies across use cases that address the problems you hope to solve. It’s also critical that these solutions come with built-in connections to ensure easy integration across your enterprise and to third party applications.

Are your applications or solutions written specifically for the cloud?

If a vendor’s solution for a key process (like integrated business planning or plan to produce, for example) includes applications developed over time by a range of internal development teams, partners, and acquired companies, what you’re likely to end up with is a range of disjointed applications and processes with varying user interfaces and no common data model. Look for a cloud solution that helps connect and streamline your business processes seamlessly.

Update schedules for the various applications could also be disjointed and complicated, so customers can be tempted to skip updates. But some upgrades may be forced, causing disruption in key areas of your business at various times.

And if some of the applications in the solution were written for the on-premises world, business processes will likely need customization, making them hard-wired and inflexible. The convenience of cloud solutions is that they can take frequent updates more easily, resulting in greater value driven by the latest innovations.

Are your supply chain applications fully integrated—and can they be integrated with other key applications like ERP or CX?

A lack of integration between and among applications within the supply chain and beyond means that end users don’t have visibility into the company’s operations—and that directly affects the quality and speed of business decisions. When market disruptions or new opportunities occur, unintegrated systems make it harder to shift operations—or even come to an agreement on what shift should happen.

And because many key business processes span multiple areas—like manufacturing forecast to plan, order to cash, and procure to pay—integration also increases efficiency. If applications are not integrated across these entire processes, business users resort to pulling data from the various systems and then often spend time debating whose data is right.

Of course, all of these issues increase operational costs and make it harder for a company to adapt to change. They also keep the IT department busy with maintenance tasks rather than focusing on more strategic projects.

Do you rely heavily on partners to deliver functionality in your supply chain solutions?

Ask for clarity on which products within the solution belong to the vendor and which were developed by partners. Is there a single SLA for the entire solution? Will the two organizations’ development teams work together on a roadmap that aligns the technologies? Will their priority be on making a better solution together or on enhancements to their own technology? Will they focus on enabling data to flow easily across the supply chain solution, as well as to other systems like ERP? Will they be able to overcome technical issues that arise and streamline customer support?

It’s critical for supply chain decision-makers to gain insight into these crucial questions. If the vendor is unable to meet these foundational needs, the customer will face constant obstacles in their supply chain operations.

Originally posted here.

Read more…

By Ricardo Buranello

What Is the Concept of a Virtual Factory?

For a decade, the first Friday in October has been designated as National Manufacturing Day. This day begins a month-long events schedule at manufacturing companies nationwide to attract talent to modern manufacturing careers.

For some period, manufacturing went out of fashion. Young tech talents preferred software and financial services career opportunities. This preference has changed in recent years. The advent of digital technologies and robotization brought some glamour back.

The connected factory is democratizing another innovation — the virtual factory. Without critical asset connection at the IoT edge, the virtual factory couldn’t have been realized by anything other than brand-new factories and technology implementations.

There are technologies that enable decades-old assets to communicate. Such technologies allow us to join machine data with physical environment and operational conditions data. Benefits of virtual factory technologies like digital twin are within reach for greenfield and legacy implementations.

Digital twin technologies can be used for predictive maintenance and scenario planning analysis. At its core, the digital twin is about access to real-time operational data to predict and manage the asset’s life cycle. It leverages relevant life cycle management information inside and outside the factory. The possibilities of bringing various data types together for advanced analysis are promising.

I used to see a distinction between IoT-enabled greenfield technology in new factories and legacy technology in older ones. Data flowed seamlessly from IoT-enabled machines to enterprise systems or the cloud for advanced analytics in new factories’ connected assets. In older factories, while data wanted to move to the enterprise systems or the cloud, it hit countless walls. Innovative factories were creating IoT technologies in proof of concepts (POCs) on legacy equipment, but this wasn’t the norm.

No matter the age of the factory or equipment, everything looks alike. When manufacturing companies invest in machines, the expectation is this asset will be used for a decade or more. We had to invent something inclusive to new and legacy machines and systems.

We had to create something to allow decades-old equipment from diverse brands and types (PLCs, CNCs, robots, etc.) to communicate with one another. We had to think in terms of how to make legacy machines to talk to legacy systems. Connecting was not enough. We had to make it accessible for experienced developers and technicians not specialized in systems integration.

If plant managers and leaders have clear and consumable data, they can use it for analysis and measurement. Surfacing and routing data has enabled innovative use cases in processes controlled by aged equipment. Prescriptive and predictive maintenance reduce downtime and allow access to data. This access enables remote operation and improved safety on the plant floor. Each line flows better, improving supply chain orchestration and worker productivity.

Open protocols aren’t optimized for connecting to each machine. You need tools and optimized drivers to connect to the machines, cut latency time and get the data to where it needs to be in the appropriate format to save costs. These tools include:

  • Machine data collection
  • Data transformation and visualization
  • Device management
  • Edge logic
  • Embedded security
  • Enterprise integration
This digital copy of the entire factory floor brings more promise for improving productivity, quality, downtime, throughput and lending access to more data and visibility. It enables factories to make small changes in the way machines and processes operate to achieve improvements.

Plants are trying to get and use data to improve overall equipment effectiveness. OEE applications can calculate how many good and bad parts were produced compared to the machine’s capacity. This analysis can go much deeper. Factories can visualize how the machine works down to sub-processes. They can synchronize each movement to the millisecond and change timing to increase operational efficiency.

The technology is here. It is mature. It’s no longer a question of whether you want to use it — you have it to get to what’s next. I think this makes it a fascinating time for smart manufacturing.

Originally posted here.

Read more…

With a lot of buzz in the industry, the Internet of Things, a.k.a, IoT, has successfully gained traction. Confused about what an IoT is? Don't be because you have been using it literally in your everyday life, and if not you, then definitely someone you know, for example, smartwatches, fitness devices, self-driving cars, smart microwaves, etc.

An IoT is a network of connected devices where the data and information are interlinked in a way you might not know!

Now that the concept of IoT is briefly cleared, let's see how it could become the fifth revolution in the dairy industry.

2018 has seen a fourth industrial revolution, which was a new step in the production, automatization, and computerization of the processes by using the data provided by the IoT devices. One might think this concept is only used in industries like health & fitness or electronics, but the revolution is no less in agro.

As per a study, in 2016, an agro-tech company received a massive amount of $3.2 billion investment. This provides enough evidence to show the growing graph of the need for digitalisation in every aspect of dairy farming.

 

Why is the need for smart dairy farming?

 

With the vastly growing industry, it has become the need of the hour to be up-to-date with the essential technology for the growing competition. To keep up with the healthy living of the livestock, it is essential to prevent any illness by diagnosing it at an earlier stage.

For 97% of the U.S. dairy farms, it is more than just their source of income and is a family-owned business. This also means that most of them have been into livestock farming for generations, but the business is not the same as decades before.

Smart dairy farming using IoT can become revolutionary solutions to improve farm capacity, reduce animal mortality and increase dairy output.

To meet the growing demand for dairy with the increasing population, especially in the developed countries, better tools and specialized equipment are required. IoT integrated smart-collars serve the purpose.

 

How does the smart collar work?

 

The smart collar is a complete IoT-enabled cattle management system with a physical product linked with a digital screen.

The cattle tracking device with an inbuilt GPS gives a real-time location of the cattle and sends the signals to the owners every quarter of an hour.

The collars get connected with the routers installed near the farming field, where they will get signals from.

The vital sensitive devices will be bridged to the collar strap, continuously providing reports over the software dashboard screen. As the belt is installed, the data gets transferred and stored in the form of graphs and charts.

 

What are the benefits of smart dairy farming using IoT?

9316939680?profile=RESIZE_710x

 

Auto-Milking Process

 

Manual milking is a time-consuming process; instead, it also includes more staffing. IoT embedded smart collar belts can resolve the problem more efficiently with less manpower by introducing auto milking.

Since auto-milking is just a robotic system and is entirely automated, it is unaware of the temperature and any diseases affecting the cattle. The machine will yield all the cattle at the same time, the same way.

When we link IoT to the cattle, essential factors are looked upon, which otherwise can get ignored if done manually.

Temperature monitoring, disease tracking, and nutritional requirements are few, tracked down with a smart belt, and helps better quality milk production.

 

Tracking the heat cycle

 

Manually yielding milk to a cow that is not at its heat cycle would lead to low fertility. To continue the best quality milk, cattle must give birth to one calf a year to maintain the lactation period.

A lactating cattle undergo heat every 21-28 days but, is it possible to know that manually and that too accurately? It can be do-able but can take a lot of time.

The heat can stress down the cattle leading to lower milk production and, if yielded simultaneously, can further reduce the fat, protein, casein, and lactose content in milk.

To prevent such errors, smart collars would send alarms to the owner on its dashboard screen. It will notify when is the right time to yield, resulting in better milk production. 

 

Tracking the movement with GPS

 

The tracking collars installed with the GPS will give real-time data allowing individuals to know the accurate information and location of the animals.

The smart collar works best in the field of around 5-10 cattle, as each of them will work as a personal tracker and give owners a whole valuable time to focus on one livestock full time.

Investing over manpower comparatively seems less costly at the start. Still, as time passes by, IoT for cattle becomes a sustainable option and can help your business grow bigger in no time. 

 

Health tracking

 

Healthy eating leads to a healthier life. It works the same in all living entities on the planet. Many studies and experts say that "rumination in cattle is an indicator of health and performance"

The traditional method of visual analyses of ruminations was a process that required a workforce and was performed only when on the field. This is also limited to a particular population level; hence, the chances of errors increase.

What does one get to know about every cow's health quality by sitting idle at a comfortable place? The IoT-enabled software system will track individual cow's rumination data and will help producers to invite when one needs more attention.

Although visual observations can be trusted to access rumination activity in a cow, this method may not provide an accurate result when the challenge arrives to observe at a population level. It would hamper the health standards of the cattle. 

 

Decrease mortality with security alerts

 

What if one needs to know how much grazing a cow did on that particular day? It can only be possible by manually observing it. Furthermore, how to analyse if the rumination is being done effectively?

Monitoring the changes and behaviors of the herd is one of the most significant and time-consuming tasks.

Using IoT devices, such as smart neck belts, it gets easier to monitor fishy cattle movements. The belt sends alarms any time it detects that something is "Off."

The sensors will be embedded in the neck strap around the cow's neck, which will help farmers personally supervise the cow's movement and respond accordingly.

Smart sensors will automatically gather and store the data and will help farmers prevent any growing health issues. 

 

Control Disease Outbreaks

 

These speechless living are never going to deal with their health issues on their own. So whether or not there are any suspicious changes in their behavior, they are very likely to miss out upon some diseases.

The only way left to inspect the diseases is mostly by diagnosing yourself, which is almost certainly going to risk many other cattle lives too.

Lameness, foot and mouth disease, mastitis, and milk fever are some of the most common fatal diseases in cattle. These all can be avoided early and can save farmers from troublesome and financial crashes in the future.

The system will alert the farmer when it needs assistance with the help of an embedded smart vital monitoring device in the collar.

 

In the nutshell

 

In the world of "connecting everything," it not only connects the devices but information and data which can circulate within a span of milliseconds. So why not use the advantages of such devices when it comes to some unexpected outcomes?

Traditional methods of cattle farming are good enough. But, they might cripple milk quality and lead to a massive loss of cash flow if not looked upon. Cattle farming is not an easy job. It needs 24 hours of continuous monitoring and observations to have a successful income.

An IoT is a real-time data collection, precisely a replacement of manpower but a more refined version of it. By introducing the "smart cow" concept, the time and labor are reduced, and productivity increases.

Read more…

By Jacqi Levy

The Internet of Things (IoT) is transforming every facet of the building – how we inhabit them, how we manage them, and even how we build them. There is a vast ecosystem around today’s buildings, and no part of the ecosystem is untouched.

In this blog series, I plan to examine the trends being driven by IoT across the buildings ecosystem. Since the lifecycle of building begins with design and construction, let’s start there. Here are four ways that the IoT is radically transforming building design and construction.

Building information modeling

Building information modeling (BIM) is a process that provides an intelligent, 3D model of a building. Typically, BIM is used to model a building’s structure and systems during design and construction, so that changes to one set of plans can be updated simultaneously in all other impacted plans. Taken a step further, however, BIM can also become a catalyst for smart buildings projects.

Once a building is up and running, data from IoT sensors can be pulled into the BIM. You can use that data to model things like energy usage patterns, temperature trends or people movement throughout a building. The output from these models can then be analyzed to improve future buildings projects. Beyond its impact on design and construction, BIM also has important implications for the management of building operations.

Green building

The construction industry is a huge driver of landfill waste – up to 40% of all solid waste in the US comes from the buildings projects. This unfortunate fact has ignited a wave of interest in sustainable architecture and construction. But the green building movement has become about much more than keeping building materials out of landfills. It is influencing the design and engineering of building systems themselves, allowing buildings to reduce their impact on the environment through energy management.

Today’s green buildings are being engineered to do things like shut down unnecessary systems automatically when the building is unoccupied, or open and close louvers automatically to let in optimal levels of natural light. In a previous post, I talk about 3 examples of the IoT in green buildings, but these are just some of the cool ways that the construction industry is learning to be more sustainable with help from the IoT.

Intelligent prefab

Using prefabricated building components can be faster and more cost effective than traditional building methods, and it has an added benefit of creating less construction waste. However, using prefab for large commercial buildings projects can be very complex to coordinate. The IoT is helping to solve this problem.

Using RFID sensors, individual prefab parts can be tracked throughout the supply chain. A recent example is the construction of the Leadenhall Building in London. Since the building occupies a relatively small footprint but required large prefabricated components, it was a logistically complex task to coordinate the installation. RFID data was used to help mitigate the effects of any downstream delays in construction. In addition, the data was the fed into the BIM once parts were installed, allowing for real time rendering of the building in progress, as well as establishment of project controls and KPIs.

Construction management

Time is money, so any delays on a construction project can be costly. So how do you prevent your critical heavy equipment from going down and backing up all the other trades on site? With the IoT!

Heavy construction equipment is being outfitted with sensors, which can be remotely monitored for key indicators of potential maintenance issues like temperature fluctuations, excessive vibrations, etc. When abnormal patterns are detected, alerts can trigger maintenance workers to intervene early, before critical equipment fails. Performing predictive maintenance in this way can save time and money, as well as prevent unnecessary delays in construction projects.

Originally posted here.

Read more…

By Ashley Ferguson

Thanks to the introduction of connected products, digital services, and increased customer expectations, it has been the trend for IoT enterprise spend to consistently increase. The global IoT market is projected to reach $1.4 trillion USD by 2027. The pressure to build IoT solutions and get a return on those investments has teams on a frantic search for IoT engineers to secure in-house IoT expertise. However, due to the complexity of IoT solutions, finding this in a single engineer is a difficult or impossible proposition.

So how do you adjust your search for an IoT engineer? The first step is to acknowledge that IoT solution development requires the fusion of multiple disciplines. Even simple IoT applications require hardware and software engineering, knowledge of protocols and connectivity, web development skills, and analytics. Certainly, there are many engineers with IoT knowledge, but complete IoT solutions require a team of partners with diverse skills. This often requires utilizing external sources to supplement the expertise gaps.

THE ANATOMY OF AN IoT SOLUTION

IoT solutions provide enterprises with opportunities for innovation through new product offerings and cost savings through refined operations. An IoT solution is an integrated bundle of technologies that help users answer a question or solve a specific problem by receiving data from devices connected to the internet. One of the most common IoT use cases is asset tracking solutions for enterprises who want to monitor trucks, equipment, inventory, or other items with IoT. The anatomy of an asset tracking IoT solution includes the following:

9266380467?profile=RESIZE_710x

This is a simple asset tracking example. For more complex solutions including remote monitoring or predictive maintenance, enterprises must also consider installation, increased bandwidth, post-development support, and UX/UI for the design of the interface for customers or others who will use the solution. Enterprise IoT solutions require an ecosystem of partners, components, and tools to be brought to market successfully.

Consider the design of your desired connected solution. Do you know where you will need to augment skills and services?

If you are in the early stages of IoT concept development and at the center of a buy vs. build debate, it may be a worthwhile exercise to assess your existing team’s skills and how they correspond with the IoT solution you are trying to build.

IoT SKILLS ASSESSMENT

  • Hardware
  • Firmware
  • Connectivity
  • Programming
  • Cloud
  • Data Science
  • Presentation
  • Technical Support and Maintenance
  • Security
  • Organizational Alignment

MAKING TIME FOR IoT APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

The time it will take your organization to build a solution is dependent on the complexity of the application. One way to estimate the time and cost of IoT application development is with Indeema’s IoT Cost Calculator. This tool can help roughly estimate the hours required and the cost associated with the IoT solution your team is interested in building. In MachNation’s independent comparison of the Losant Enterprise IoT Platform and Azure, it was determined that developers could build an IoT solution in 30 hours using Losant and in 74-94 hours using Microsoft Azure.

As you consider IoT application development, consider the makeup of your team. Is your team prepared to dedicate hours to the development of a new solution, or will it be a side project? Enterprise IT teams are often in place to maintain existing operating systems and to ensure networks are running smoothly. In the event that an IT team is tapped to even partially build an IoT solution, there is a great chance that the IT team will need to invite partners to build or provide part of the stack.

HOW THE IoT JOB GETS DONE

Successful enterprises recognize early on that some of these skills will need to be augmented through additional people, through an ecosystem, or with software. It will require more than one ‘IoT engineer’ for the job. According to the results of a McKinsey survey, “the preferences of IoT leaders suggest a greater willingness to draw capabilities from an ecosystem of technology partners, rather than rely on homegrown capabilities.”

IoT architecture alone is intricate. Losant, an IoT application enablement platform, is designed with many of the IoT-specific components already in place. Losant enables users to build applications in a low-to-no code environment and scale them up to millions of devices. Losant is one piece in the wider scope of an IoT solution. In order to build a complete solution, an enterprise needs hardware, software, connectivity, and integration. For those components, our team relies on additional partners from the IoT ecosystem.

The IoT ecosystem, also known as the IoT landscape, refers to the network of IoT suppliers (hardware, devices, software platforms, sensors, connectivity, software, systems integrators, data scientists, data analytics) whose combined services help enterprises create complete IoT solutions. At Losant, we’ve built an IoT ecosystem with reliable experienced partners. When IoT customers need custom hardware, connectivity, system integrators, dev shops, or other experts with proven IoT expertise, we can tap one of our partners to help in their areas of expertise.

SECURE, SCALABLE, SEAMLESS IoT

Creating secure, scalable, and seamless IoT solutions for your environment begins by starting small. Starting small gives your enterprise the ability to establish its ecosystem. Teams can begin with a small investment and apply learnings to subsequent projects. Many IoT success stories begin with enterprises setting out to solve one problem. The simple beginnings have enabled them to now reap the benefits of the data harvest in their environments.

Originally posted here.

Read more…

By Tony Pisani

For midstream oil and gas operators, data flow can be as important as product flow. The operator’s job is to safely move oil and natural gas from its extraction point (upstream), to where it’s converted to fuels (midstream), to customer delivery locations (downstream). During this process, pump stations, meter stations, storage sites, interconnection points, and block valves generate a substantial volume and variety of data that can lead to increased efficiency and safety.

“Just one pipeline pump station might have 6 Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), 12 flow computers, and 30 field instruments, and each one is a source of valuable operational information,” said Mike Walden, IT and SCADA Director for New Frontier Technologies, a Cisco IoT Design-In Partner that implements OT and IT systems for industrial applications. Until recently, data collection from pipelines was so expensive that most operators only collected the bare minimum data required to comply with industry regulations. That data included pump discharge pressure, for instance, but not pump bearing temperature, which helps predict future equipment failures.

A turnkey solution to modernize midstream operations

Now midstream operators are modernizing their pipelines with Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) solutions. Cisco and New Frontier Technologies have teamed up to offer a solution combining the Cisco 1100 Series Industrial Integrated Services Router, Cisco Edge Intelligence, and New Frontier’s know-how. Deployed at edge locations like pump stations, the solution extracts data from pipeline equipment and is sent via legacy protocols, transforming data at the edge to a format that analytics and other enterprise applications understand. The transformation also minimizes bandwidth usage.

Mike Walden views the Cisco IR1101 as a game-changer for midstream operators. He shared with me that “Before the Cisco IR1101, our customers needed four separate devices to transmit edge data to a cloud server—a router at the pump station, an edge device to do protocol conversion from the old to the new, a network switch, and maybe a firewall to encrypt messages…With the Cisco IR1101, we can meet all of those requirements with one physical device.”

Collect more data, at almost no extra cost

Using this IIoT solution, midstream operators can for the first time:

  • Collect all available field data instead of just the data on a polling list. If the maintenance team requests a new type of data, the operations team can meet the request using the built-in protocol translators in Edge Intelligence. “Collecting a new type of data takes almost no extra work,” Mike said. “It makes the operations team look like heroes.”
  • Collect data more frequently, helping to spot anomalies. Recording pump discharge pressure more frequently, for example, makes it easier to detect leaks. Interest in predicting (rather than responding to) equipment failure is also growing. The life of pump seals, for example, depends on both the pressure that seals experience over their lifetime and the peak pressures. “If you only collect pump pressure every 30 minutes, you probably missed the spike,” Mike explained. “If you do see the spike and replace the seal before it fails, you can prevent a very costly unexpected outage – saving far more than the cost of a new seal.”
  • Protect sensitive data with end-to-end security. Security is built into the IR1101, with secure boot, VPN, certificate-based authentication, and TLS encryption.
  • Give IT and OT their own interfaces so they don’t have to rely on the other team. The IT team has an interface to set up network templates to make sure device configuration is secure and consistent. Field engineers have their own interface to extract, transform, and deliver industrial data from Modbus, OPC-UA, EIP/CIP, or MQTT devices.

As Mike summed it up, “It’s finally simple to deploy a secure industrial network that makes all field data available to enterprise applications—in less time and using less bandwidth.”

Originally posted here.

Read more…

The head is surely the most complex group of organs in the human body, but also the most delicate. The assessment and prevention of risks in the workplace remains the first priority approach to avoid accidents or reduce the number of serious injuries to the head. This is why wearing a hard hat in an industrial working environment is often required by law and helps to avoid serious accidents.

This article will give you an overview of how to detect that the wearing of a helmet is well respected by all workers using a machine learning object detection model.

For this project, we have been using:

  • Edge Impulse Studi to acquire some custom data, visualize the data, train the machine learning model and validate the inference results.
  • Part of this public dataset from Roboflow, where the images containing the smallest bounding boxes has been removed.
  • Part of the Flicker-Faces-HQ (FFHQ) (under Creative Commons BY 2.0 license) to rebalance the classes in our dataset.
  • Google Colab to convert the Yolo v5 PyTorch format from the public dataset to Edge Impulse Ingestion format.
  • A Rasberry Pi, NVIDIA Jetson Nano or with any Intel-based Macbooks to deploy the inference model.

Before we get started, here are some insights of the benefits / drawbacks of using a public dataset versus collecting your own. 

Using a public dataset is a nice-to-have to start developing your application quickly, validate your idea and check the first results. But we often get disappointed with the results when testing on your own data and in real conditions. As such, for very specific applications, you might spend much more time trying to tweak an open dataset rather than collecting your own. Also, remember to always make sure that the license suits your needs when using a dataset you found online.

On the other hand, collecting your own dataset can take a lot of time, it is a repetitive task and most of the time annoying. But, it gives the possibility to collect data that will be as close as possible to your real life application, with the same lighting conditions, the same camera or the same angle for example. Therefore, your accuracy in your real conditions will be much higher. 

Using only custom data can indeed work well in your environment but it might not give the same accuracy in another environment, thus generalization is harder.

The dataset which has been used for this project is a mix of open data, supplemented by custom data.

First iteration, using only the public datasets

At first, we tried to train our model only using a small portion of this public dataset: 176 items in the training set and 57 items in the test set where we took only images containing a bounding box bigger than 130 pixels, we will see later why. 

Rav03Ny7X2bh1iOSftwHgggWj31SyQWk-sl_k4Uot4Jpw3eMg9XgYYrIyajogGfGOfL8j7qttiAWAcsABUgcoHUIg1QfYQRxeZfF_dnSFpsSiXhiIHduAZI9x6qcgikCcluR24r1

If you go through the public dataset, you can see that the entire dataset is strongly missing some “head” data samples. The dataset is therefore considered as imbalanced.

Several techniques exist to rebalance a dataset, here, we will add new images from Flicker-Faces-HQ (FFHQ). These images do not have bounding boxes but drawing them can be done easily in the Edge Impulse Studio. You can directly import them using the uploader portal. Once your data has been uploaded, just draw boxes around the heads and give it a label as below: 

AcihTfl2wibfy9LOzSUuPKEcF7IupGPOzPOmMmNi2LUq8sV7I2IVT5W4-7GGS8wJVD1o7VIQ5e7utCkQ1qT2xLawW7mQsTGL_WNuWIVIp5v89sCZt9gZ9fX7fwHo0PG9A3SDBCqV

Now that the dataset is more balanced, with both images and bounding boxes of hard hats and heads, we can create an impulse, which is a mix of digital signal processing (DSP) blocks and training blocks:

_qwt-WMdXI4Oc7BkNQfyEYZKV5MvziDkt1UUl1Hrx-65u_Uf-L_qEUmHMx_qN5Xh-r5vpn8JxCgpJvcT2v4-hWD9ZHE_wJjDgCCXZXxTkOtcTKSKGizDx9ZQO0KnBvvmaBCA1QvD

In this particular object detection use case, the DSP block will resize an image to fit the 320x320 pixels needed for the training block and extract meaningful features for the Neural Network. Although the extracted features don’t show a clear separation between the classes, we can start distinguishing some clusters:

zr70Lpe0Rg3wap9FWoGrco1pfT6L3TWUxYds3NhM_uHMhFDDr89KcLTH_OXIgKs6BrMdP7iihoz8t64Mk2JtbpTfmBAXyRYukNS9zxLk9zuGjZLqvakkgw6oOBuIhiVAzcMcZu9E

To train the model, we selected the Object Detection training block, which fine tunes a pre-trained object detection model on your data. It gives a good performance even with relatively small image datasets. This object detection learning block relies on MobileNetV2 SSD FPN-Lite 320x320.    

According to Daniel Situnayake, co-author of the TinyML book and founding TinyML engineer at Edge Impulse, this model “works much better for larger objects—if the object takes up more space in the frame it’s more likely to be correctly classified.” This has been one of the reason why we got rid of the images containing the smallest bounding boxes in our import script.

After training the model, we obtained a 61.6% accuracy on the training set and 57% accuracy on the testing set. You also might note a huge accuracy difference between the quantized version and the float32 version. However, during the linux deployment, the default model uses the unoptimized version. We will then focus on the float32 version only in this article.

fWwhQWxxLkAdnsFKuIUc2Lf2Lzji9m2uXux5cr3CmLf2cP8fiE_RQHaqJxekyBI3oIzOS81Jwoe6aBPfi1OFgEJSS3XQWnzR9nJ3eTY2M5JNVG38H3Dro2WZH3ltruXn_pUZkVvw

This accuracy is not satisfying, and it tends to have trouble detecting the right objects in real conditions:

hardhat_bad_82fbd9a22a.gif

Second iteration, adding custom data

On the second iteration of this project, we have gone through the process of collecting some of our own data. A very useful and handy way to collect some custom data is using our mobile phone. You can also perform this step with the same camera you will be using in your factory or your construction site, this will be even closer to the real condition and therefore work best with your use case. In our case, we have been using a white hard hat when collecting data. For example, if your company uses yellow ones, consider collecting your data with the same hard hats. 

Once the data has been acquired, go through the labeling process again and retrain your model. 

_f7J4zddenmarUiTf3VMyOz_kG70nieiEkSwR8kB3JhJE5K1IqCdttj4aOtrfzv4QYWXJ4Y9u_0MU1xKfFsU8hUB5gj00Y1E7oKlixjmhNB2p7VIqoamD9migXXPkAOrFRGVFfIo

We obtain a model that is slightly more accurate when looking at the training performances. However, in real conditions, the model works far better than the previous one.

NXnwDbkaWEia7qyM20U2kexTiWBSOXam_ACEGxzKCJ8kYtmxS7eCTMZsuwXJrjvkFUVb9YbSqwS7EOGiE4wu_FFGQ4YOufAB-JZA_uCOEoHO8D75ke6YU4H6QKnCBJyJA0hD4Lw3

Finally, to deploy your model on yourA Rasberry Pi, NVIDIA Jetson Nano or your Intel-based Macbook, just follow the instructions provided in the links. The command line interface `edge-impulse-linux-runner` will create a lightweight web interface where you can see the results.

hardhat_good_18d9e33d3a.gif

Note that the inference is run locally and you do not need any internet connection to detect your objects. Last but not least, the trained models and the inference SDK are open source. You can use it, modify it and integrate it to a broader application matching specifically to your needs such as stopping a machine when a head is detected for more than 10 seconds.

This project has been publicly released, feel free to have a look at it on Edge Impulse studio, clone the project and go through every steps to get a better understanding: https://studio.edgeimpulse.com/public/34898/latest

The essence of this use case is, Edge Impulse allows with very little effort to develop industry grade solutions in the health and safety context. Now this can be embedded in bigger industrial control and automation systems with a consistent and stringent focus on machine operations linked to H&S complaint measures. Pre-training models, which later can be easily retrained in the final industrial context as a step of “calibration,” makes this a customizable solution for your next project.

Originally posted on the Edge Impulse blog by Louis Moreau - User Success Engineer at Edge Impulse & Mihajlo Raljic - Sales EMEA at Edge Impulse

Read more…

By GE Digital

“The End of Cloud Computing.” “The Edge Will Eat The cloud.” “Edge Computing—The End of Cloud Computing as We Know It.”  

Such headlines grab attention, but don’t necessarily reflect reality—especially in Industrial Internet of Things (IoT) deployments. To be sure, edge computing is rapidly emerging as a powerful force in turning industrial machines into intelligent machines, but to paraphrase Mark Twain: “The reports of the death of cloud are greatly exaggerated.” 

The Tipping Point: Edge Computing Hits Mainstream

We’ve all heard the stats—billions and billions of IoT devices, generating inconceivable amounts of big data volumes, with trillions and trillions of U.S. dollars to be invested in IoT over the next several years. Why? Because industrials have squeezed every ounce of productivity and efficiency out of operations over the past couple of decades, and are now looking to digital strategies to improve production, performance, and profit. 

The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) represents a world where human intelligence and machine intelligence—what GE Digital calls minds and machines—connect to deliver new value for industrial companies. 

In this new landscape, organizations use data, advanced analytics, and machine learning to drive digital industrial transformation. This can lead to reduced maintenance costs, improved asset utilization, and new business model innovations that further monetize industrial machines and the data they create. 

Despite the “cloud is dead” headlines, GE believes the cloud is still very important in delivering on the promise of IIoT, powering compute-intense workloads to manage massive amounts of data generated by machines. However, there’s no question that edge computing is quickly becoming a critical factor in the total IIoT equation.

“The End of Cloud Computing.” “The Edge Will Eat The cloud.” “Edge Computing—The End of Cloud Computing as We Know It.”  

Such headlines grab attention, but don’t necessarily reflect reality—especially in Industrial Internet of Things (IoT) deployments. To be sure, edge computing is rapidly emerging as a powerful force in turning industrial machines into intelligent machines, but to paraphrase Mark Twain: “The reports of the death of cloud are greatly exaggerated.”

The Tipping Point: Edge Computing Hits Mainstream

We’ve all heard the stats—billions and billions of IoT devices, generating inconceivable amounts of big data volumes, with trillions and trillions of U.S. dollars to be invested in IoT over the next several years. Why? Because industrials have squeezed every ounce of productivity and efficiency out of operations over the past couple of decades, and are now looking to digital strategies to improve production, performance, and profit. 

The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) represents a world where human intelligence and machine intelligence—what GE Digital calls minds and machines—connect to deliver new value for industrial companies. 

In this new landscape, organizations use data, advanced analytics, and machine learning to drive digital industrial transformation. This can lead to reduced maintenance costs, improved asset utilization, and new business model innovations that further monetize industrial machines and the data they create. 

Despite the “cloud is dead” headlines, GE believes the cloud is still very important in delivering on the promise of IIoT, powering compute-intense workloads to manage massive amounts of data generated by machines. However, there’s no question that edge computing is quickly becoming a critical factor in the total IIoT equation. 

What is edge computing? 

The “edge” of a network generally refers to technology located adjacent to the machine which you are analyzing or actuating, such as a gas turbine, a jet engine, or magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. 

Until recently, edge computing has been limited to collecting, aggregating, and forwarding data to the cloud. But what if instead of collecting data for transmission to the cloud, industrial companies could turn massive amounts of data into actionable intelligence, available right at the edge? Now they can. 

This is not just valuable to industrial organizations, but absolutely essential.

Edge computing vs. Cloud computing 

Cloud and edge are not at war … it’s not an either/or scenario. Think of your two hands. You go about your day using one or the other or both depending on the task. The same is true in Industrial Internet workloads. If the left hand is edge computing and the right hand is cloud computing, there will be times when the left hand is dominant for a given task, instances where the right hand is dominant, and some cases where both hands are needed together. 

Scenarios in which edge computing will take a leading position include things such as low latency, bandwidth, real-time/near real-time actuation, intermittent or no connectivity, etc. Scenarios where cloud will play a more prominent role include compute-heavy tasks, machine learning, digital twins, cross-plant control, etc. 

The point is you need both options working in tandem to provide design choices across edge to cloud that best meet business and operational goals.

Edge Computing and Cloud Computing: Balance in Action 

Let’s look at a couple of illustrations. In an industrial context, examples of intelligent edge machines abound—pumps, motors, sensors, blowout preventers and more benefit from the growing capabilities of edge computing for real-time analytics and actuation. 

Take locomotives. These modern 200 ton digital machines carry more than 200 sensors that can pump one billion instructions per second. Today, applications can not only collect data locally and respond to changes on that data, but they can also perform meaningful localized analytics. GE Transportation’s Evolution Series Tier 4 Locomotive uses on-board edge computing to analyze data and apply algorithms for running smarter and more efficiently. This improves operational costs, safety, and uptime. 

Sending all that data created by the locomotive to the cloud for processing, analyzing, and actuation isn’t useful, practical, or cost-effective. 

Now let’s switch gears (pun intended) and talk about another mode of transportation—trucking. Here’s an example where edge plays an important yet minor role, while cloud assumes a more dominant position. In this example, the company has 1,000 trucks under management. There are sensors on each truck tracking performance of the vehicle such as engine, transmission, electrical, battery, and more. 

But in this case, instead of real-time analytics and actuation on the machine (like our locomotive example), the data is being ingested, then stored and forwarded to the cloud where time series data and analytics are used to track performance of vehicle components. The fleet operator then leverages a fleet management solution for scheduled maintenance and cost analysis. This gives him or her insights such as the cost over time per part type, or the median costs over time, etc. The company can use this data to improve uptime of its vehicles, lower repair costs, and improve the safe operation of the vehicle.

What’s next in edge computing 

While edge computing isn’t a new concept, innovation is now beginning to deliver on the promise—unlocking untapped value from the data being created by machines. 

GE has been at the forefront of bridging minds and machines. Predix Platform supports a consistent execution environment across cloud and edge devices, helping industrials achieve new levels of performance, production, and profit.

Originally posted here.

Read more…

Computer vision is fundamental to capturing real-world data within the IoT. Arm technology provides a secure ecosystem for smart cameras in business, industrial and home applications

By Mohamed Awad, VP IoT & Embedded, Arm

Computer vision leverages artificial intelligence (AI) to enable devices such as smart cameras to interpret and understand what is happening in an image. Recreating a sensor as powerful as the human eye with technology opens up a wide and varied range of use cases for computers to perform tasks that previously required human sight – so it’s no wonder that computer vision is quickly becoming one of the most important ways to capture and act on real-world data within the Internet of Things (IoT).

Smart cameras now use computer vision in a range of business and industrial applications, from counting cars in parking lots to monitoring footfall in retail stores or spotting defects on a production line. And in the home, smart cameras can tell us when a package has been delivered, whether the dog escaped from the back yard or when our baby is awake.

Across the business and consumer worlds, the adoption of smart camera technology is growing exponentially. In its 2020 report “Cameras and Computing for Surveillance and Security”, market research and strategy consulting company Yole Développement estimates that for surveillance alone, there are approximately one billion cameras across the world. That number of installations is expected to double by 2024.

This technology features key advancements in security, heterogeneous computing, image processing and cloud services – enabling future computer vision products that are more capable than ever.

Smart camera security is top priority for computer vision

IoT security is a key priority and challenge for the technology industry. It’s important that all IoT devices are secure from exploitation by malicious actors, but it’s even more critical when that device captures and stores image data about people, places and high-value assets.

Unauthorized access to smart cameras tasked with watching over factories, hospitals, schools or homes would not only be a significant breach of privacy, it could also lead to untold harm—from plotting crimes to the leaking of confidential information. Compromising a smart camera could also provide a gateway, giving a malicious actor access to other devices within the network – from door, heating and lighting controls to control over an entire smart factory floor.

We need to be able to trust smart cameras to maintain security for us all, not open up new avenues for exploitation. Arm has embraced the importance of security in IoT devices for many years through its product portfolio offerings such as Arm TrustZone for both Cortex-A and Cortex-M.

In the future, smart camera chips based on the Armv9 architecture will add further security enhancements for computer vision products through the Arm Confidential Compute Architecture (CCA).

Further to this, Arm promotes common standards of security best practice such as PSA Certified and PARSEC. These are designed to ensure that all future smart camera deployments have built-in security, from the point the image sensor first records the scene to storage, whether that data is stored locally or in the cloud by using advanced security and data encryption techniques.

Endpoint AI powers computer vision in smart camera devices

9197834489?profile=RESIZE_710x

The combination of image sensor technology and endpoint AI is enabling smart cameras to infer increasingly complex insights from the vast amounts of computer vision data they capture. New machine learning capabilities within smart camera devices meet a diverse range of use cases – such as detecting individual people or animals, recognizing specific objects and reading license plates. All of these applications for computer vision require ML algorithms running on the endpoint device itself, rather than sending data to the cloud for inference. It’s all about moving compute closer to data.

For example, a smart camera employed at a busy intersection could use computer vision to determine the number and type of vehicles waiting at a red signal at various hours throughout the day. By processing its own data and inferring meaning using ML, the smart camera could automatically adjust its timings in order to reduce congestion and limit build-up of emissions automatically without human involvement.

Arm’s investment in AI for applications in endpoints and beyond is demonstrated through its range of Ethos machine learning processors: highly scalable and efficient NPUs capable of supporting a range of 0.1 to 10 TOP/s through many-core technologies. Software also plays a vital role in ML and this is why Arm continues to support the open-source community through the Arm NN SDK and TensorFlow Lite for Microcontrollers (TFLM) open-source frameworks.

These machine learning workload frameworks are based on existing neural networks and power-efficient Arm Cortex-A CPUs, Mali GPUs and Ethos NPUs as well as Arm Compute library and CMSIS-NN – a collection of low-level machine learning functions optimized for Cortex-A CPU, Cortex-M CPU and Mali GPU architectures.

The Armv9 architecture supports enhanced AI capabilities, too, by providing accessible vector arithmetic (individual arrays of data that can be computed in parallel) via Scalable Vector Extension 2 (SVE2). This enables scaling of the hardware vector length without having to rewrite or recompile code. In the future, extensions for matrix multiplication (a key element in enhancing ML) will push the AI envelope further.

Smart cameras connected in the cloud

Cloud and edge computing is also helping to expedite the adoption of smart cameras. Traditional CCTV architectures saw camera data stored on-premises via a Network Video Recorder (NVR) or a Digital Video Recorder (DVR). This model had numerous limitations, from the vast amount of storage required to the limited number of physical connections on each NVR.

Moving to a cloud-native model simplifies the rollout of smart cameras enormously: any number of cameras can be provisioned and managed via a configuration file downloaded to the device. There’s also a virtuous cycle at play: Data from smart cameras can be now used to train the models in the cloud for specific use-cases so that cameras become even smarter. And the smarter they become, the less data they need to send upstream.

The use of cloud computing also enables automation of processes via AI sensor fusion by combining computer vision data from multiple smart cameras. Taking our earlier example of the smart camera placed at a road intersection, cloud AI algorithms could combine data from multiple cameras to constantly adjust traffic light timings holistically across an entire city, keeping traffic moving.

Arm enables the required processing continuum from cloud to endpoint. Cortex-M microcontrollers and Cortex-A processors power smart cameras, with Cortex-A processors also powering edge gateways. Cloud and edge servers harness the capabilities of the Neoverse platform.

New hardware and software demands on smart cameras

9197835086?profile=RESIZE_710x

The compute needs for computer vision devices continue to grow year over year, with ultra-high resolution video capture (8K 60fps) and 64-bit (Armv8-A) processing marking the current standard for high-end smart camera products.

As a result, the system-on-chip (SoC) within next-generation smart cameras will need to embrace heterogenous architectures, combining CPUs, GPUs, NPUs alongside dedicated hardware for functions like computer vision, image processing, video encoding and decoding.

Storage, too, is a key concern: While endpoint AI can reduce storage requirements by processing images locally on the camera, many use cases will require that data be retained somewhere for safety and security – whether on the device, in edge servers or in the cloud.

To ensure proper storage of high-resolution computer vision data, new video encoding and decoding standards such as H.265 and AV1 are becoming the de facto standard.

New use cases driving continuous innovation

Overall, the demands from the new use cases are driving the need for continuous improvement in computing and imaging technologies across the board.

When we think about image-capturing devices such as CCTV cameras today, we should no longer imagine grainy images of barely recognizable faces passing by a camera. Advancements in computer vision – more efficient and powerful compute coupled with the intelligence of AI and machine learning – are making smart cameras not just image sensors but image interpreters. This bridge between the analog and digital worlds is opening up new classes of applications and use cases that were unimaginable a few years ago.

Originally posted here.

Read more…

TinyML focuses on optimizing machine learning (ML) workloads so that they can be processed on microcontrollers no bigger than a grain of rice and consuming only milliwatts of power.

By Arm Blueprint staff
 

TinyML focuses on the optimization of machine learning (ML) workloads so that they can be processed on microcontrollers no bigger than a grain of rice and consuming only a few milliwatts of power.

TinyML gives tiny devices intelligence. We mean tiny in every sense of the word: as tiny as a grain of rice and consuming tiny amounts of power. Supported by Arm, Google, Qualcomm and others, tinyML has the potential to transform the Internet of Things (IoT), where billions of tiny devices, based on Arm chips, are already being used to provide greater insight and efficiency in sectors including consumer, medical, automotive and industrial.

Why target microcontrollers with tinyML?

Microcontrollers such as the Arm Cortex-M family are an ideal platform for ML because they’re already used everywhere. They perform real-time calculations quickly and efficiently, so they’re reliable and responsive, and because they use very little power, can be deployed in places where replacing the battery is difficult or inconvenient. Perhaps even more importantly, they’re cheap enough to be used just about anywhere. The market analyst IDC reports that 28.1 billion microcontrollers were sold in 2018, and forecasts that annual shipment volume will grow to 38.2 billion by 2023.

TinyML on microcontrollers gives us new techniques for analyzing and making sense of the massive amount of data generated by the IoT. In particular, deep learning methods can be used to process information and make sense of the data from sensors that do things like detect sounds, capture images, and track motion.

Advanced pattern recognition in a very compact format

Looking at the math involved in machine learning, data scientists found they could reduce complexity by making certain changes, such as replacing floating-point calculations with simple 8-bit operations. These changes created machine learning models that work much more efficiently and require far fewer processing and memory resources.

TinyML technology is evolving rapidly thanks to new technology and an engaged base of committed developers. Only a few years ago, we were celebrating our ability to run a speech-recognition model capable of waking the system if it detects certain words on a constrained Arm Cortex-M3 microcontroller using just 15 kilobytes (KB) of code and 22KB of data.

Since then, Arm has launched new machine learning (ML) processors, called the Ethos-U55 and Ethos-U65, a microNPU specifically designed to accelerate ML inference in embedded and IoT devices.

The Ethos-U55, combined with the AI-capable Cortex-M55 processor, will provide a significant uplift in ML performance and improvement in energy efficiency over the already impressive examples we are seeing today.

TinyML takes endpoint devices to the next level

The potential use cases of tinyML are almost unlimited. Developers are already working with tinyML to explore all sorts of new ideas: responsive traffic lights that change signaling to reduce congestion, industrial machines that can predict when they’ll need service, sensors that can monitor crops for the presence of damaging insects, in-store shelves that can request restocking when inventory gets low, healthcare monitors that track vitals while maintaining privacy. The list goes on.

TinyML can make endpoint devices more consistent and reliable, since there’s less need to rely on busy, crowded internet connections to send data back and forth to the cloud. Reducing or even eliminating interactions with the cloud has major benefits including reduced energy use, significantly reduced latency in processing data and security benefits, since data that doesn’t travel is far less exposed to attack. 

It’s worth nothing that these tinyML models, which perform inference on the microcontroller, aren’t intended to replace the more sophisticated inference that currently happens in the cloud. What they do instead is bring specific capabilities down from the cloud to the endpoint device. That way, developers can save cloud interactions for if and when they’re needed. 

TinyML also gives developers a powerful new set of tools for solving problems. ML makes it possible to detect complex events that rule-based systems struggle to identify, so endpoint AI devices can start contributing in new ways. Also, since ML makes it possible to control devices with words or gestures, instead of buttons or a smartphone, endpoint devices can be built more rugged and deployable in more challenging operating environments. 

TinyML gaining momentum with an expanding ecosystem

Industry players have been quick to recognize the value of tinyML and have moved rapidly to create a supportive ecosystem. Developers at every level, from enthusiastic hobbyists to experienced professionals, can now access tools that make it easy to get started. All that’s needed is a laptop, an open-source software library and a USB cable to connect the laptop to one of several inexpensive development boards priced as low as a few dollars.

In fact, at the start of 2021, Raspberry Pi released its very first microcontroller board, one of the most affordable development board available in the market at just $4. Named Raspberry Pi Pico, it’s powered by the RP2040 SoC, a surprisingly powerful dual Arm Cortex-M0+ processor. The RP2040 MCU is able to run TensorFlow Lite Micro and we’re expecting to see a wide range of ML use cases for this board over the coming months.

Arm is a strong proponent of tinyML because our microcontroller architectures are so central to the IoT, and because we see the potential of on-device inference. Arm’s collaboration with Google is making it even easier for developers to deploy endpoint machine learning in power-conscious environments.

The combination of Arm CMSIS-NN libraries with Google’s TensorFlow Lite Micro (TFLu) framework, allows data scientists and software developers to take advantage of Arm’s hardware optimizations without needing to become experts in embedded programming.

On top of this, Arm is investing in new tools derived from Keil MDK to help developers get from prototype to production when deploying ML applications.

TinyML would not be possible without a number of early influencers. Pete Warden, a “founding father” of tinyML and a technical lead of TensorFlow Lite Micro at Google,&nbspArm Innovator, Kwabena Agyeman, who developed OpenMV, a project dedicated to low-cost, extensible, Python-powered machine-vision modules that support machine learning algorithms, and Arm Innovator, Daniel Situnayake a founding tinyML engineer and developer from Edge Impulse, a company that offers a full tinyML pipeline that covers data collection, model training and model optimization. Also, Arm partners such as Cartesiam.ai, a company that offers NanoEdge AI, a tool that creates software models on the endpoint based on the sensor behavior observed in real conditions have been pushing the possibilities of tinyML to another level. 

Arm, is also a partner of the TinyML Foundation, an open community that coordinates meet-ups to help people connect, share ideas, and get involved. There are many localised tinyML meet-ups covering UK, Israel and Seattle to name a few, as well as a global series of tinyML Summits. For more information, visit the tinyML foundation website.

Originally posted here.

Read more…

What is 5G NR (New Radio)?

by Gus Vos

Unless you have been living under a rock, you have been seeing and hearing a lot about&nbsp5G these days. In addition, if you are at all involved in Internet of Things (IoT) or other initiatives at your organization that use cellular networking technologies, you have also likely heard about 5G New Radio, otherwise known as 5G NR, the new 5G radio access technology specification.

However, all the jargon, hype, and sometimes contradictory statements made by solution providers, the media, and analysts regarding 5G and 5G NR can make it difficult to understand what 5G NR actually is, how it works, what its advantages are, to what extent it is different than other cellular radio access technologies, and perhaps most importantly, how your organization can use this new radio access technology.

In this blog, we will provide you with an overview on 5G NR, offering you answers to these and other basic 5G NR questions – with a particular focus on what these answers mean for those in the IoT industry. 

We can’t promise to make you a 5G NR expert with this blog – but we can say that if you are confused about 5G NR before reading it, you will come away afterward with a better understanding of what 5G NR is, how it works, and how it might transform your industry.

What is the NR in 5G NR?

As its name implies, 5G New Radio or 5G NR is the new radio access technology specification found in the 5G standard. 

Set by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) telecommunications standards group, the 5G NR specification defines how 5G NR edge devices (smart phones, embedded modules, routers, and gateways) and 5G NR network infrastructure (base stations, small cells, and other Radio Access Network equipment) wirelessly transmit data. To put it another way, 5G NR describes how 5G NR edge devices and 5G NR network infrastructure use radio waves to talk to each other. 

5G NR is a very important part of 5G. After all, it describes how 5G solutions will use radio waves to wirelessly transmit data faster and with less latency than previous radio access technology specifications. However, while 5G NR is a very important part of the new 5G standard, it does not encompass everything related to 5G. 

For example, 5G includes a new core network architecture standard (appropriately named 5G Core Network or 5GCN) that specifies the architecture of the network that collects, processes, and routes data from edge devices and then sends this data to the cloud, other edge devices, or elsewhere. The 5GCN will improve 5G networks’ operational capacity, efficiency, and performance.

However, 5GCN is not a radio access technology like 5G NR, but rather a core network technology. In fact, networks using the 5GCN core network will be able to work with previous types of radio access technologies – like LTE. 

Is 5G NR one of 5G’s most important new technological advancements? Yes. But it is not the only technological advancement to be introduced by 5G.  

How does 5G NR work?

Like all radio access communications technology specifications, the 5G NR specification describes how edge devices and network infrastructure transmit data to each other using electromagnetic radio waves. Depending on the frequency of the electromagnetic waves (how long the wave is), it occupies a different part of the wireless spectrum.

Some of the waves that 5G NR uses have frequencies of between 400 MHz and 6 GHz. These waves occupy what is called sub-6 spectrum (since their frequencies are all under 6 GHz).

This sub-6 spectrum is used by other cellular radio access technologies, like LTE, as well. In the past, using different cellular radio access technologies like this over the same spectrum would lead to unmanageable interference problems, with the different technologies radio waves interfering with each other. 

One of 5G NR’s many advantages is that it’s solved this problem, using a technology called Dynamic Spectrum Sharing (DSS). This DSS technology allows 5G NR signals to use the same band of spectrum as LTE and other cellular technologies, like LTE-M and NB-IoT. This allows 5G NR networks to be rolled out without shutting down LTE or other networks that support existing LTE smart phones or IoT devices. You can learn more about DSS, and how it speeds the rollout of 5G NR while also extending the life of IoT devices, here.

One of 5G NR’s other major advancements is that it does not just use waves in the sub-6 spectrum to transmit data. The 5G NR specification also specifies how edge devices and network infrastructure can use radio waves in bands between 24 GHz and 52 GHz to transmit data.

These millimeter wave (mmWave) bands greatly expand the amount of spectrum available for wireless data communications. The lack of spectrum capacity has been a problem in the past, as there is a limited number of bands of sub-6 spectrum available for organizations to use for cellular communications, and many of these bands are small. Lack of available capacity and narrow spectrum bands led to network congestion, which limits the amount of data that can be transmitted over networks that use sub-6 spectrum. 

mmWave opens up a massive amount of new wireless spectrum, as well as much broader bands of wireless spectrum for cellular data transmission. This additional spectrum and these broader spectrum bands increase the capacity (amount of data) that can be transmitted over these bands, enabling 5G NR mmWave devices to achieve data speeds that are four or more times faster than devices that use just sub-6 spectrum. 

The additional wireless capacity provided by mmWave also reduces latency (the time between when device sends a signal and when it receives a response). By reducing latency from 10 milliseconds with sub-6 devices to 3-4 milliseconds or lower with 5G NR mmWave devices, 5G enables new industrial automation, autonomous vehicle and immersive gaming use cases, as well as Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR), and similar Extended Reality (XR) use cases, all of which require very low latency. 

On the other hand, these new mmWave devices and network infrastructure come with new technical requirements, as well as drawbacks associated with their use of mmWave spectrum. For example, mmWave devices use more power and generate more heat than sub-6 devices. In addition, mmWave signals have less range and do not penetrate walls and other physical objects as easily as sub-6 waves. 5G NR includes some technologies, such as beamforming and massive Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) that lessen some of these range and obstacle penetration limitations – but they do not eliminate them. 

To learn more about the implications of 5G NR mmWave on the design of IoT and other products, read our blog, Seven Tips For Designing 5G NR mmWave Products.

In addition, there has been a lot written on these two different “flavors” (sub-6 and mmWave) of 5G NR. If you are interested in learning more about the differences between sub-6 5G NR and mmWave 5G NR, and how together they enable both evolutionary and revolutionary changes for Fixed Wireless Access (FWA), mobile broadband, IoT and other wireless applications, read our previous blog A Closer Look at the Five Waves of 5G.

What is the difference between 5G NR and LTE?

Though sub-6 and mmWave are very different, both types of 5G NR provide data transfer speed, latency, and other performance improvements compared to LTE, the previous radio access technology specification used for cellular communications. 

For example, outside of its use of mmWave, 5G NR features other technical advancements designed to improve network performance, including:

• Flexible numerology, which enables 5G NR network infrastructure to set the spacing between subcarriers in a band of wireless spectrum at 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 kHz, rather than only use 15 kHz spacing, like LTE. This flexible numerology is what allows 5G NR to use mmWave spectrum in the first place. It also improves the performance of 5G NR devices that use higher sub-6 spectrum, such as 3.5 GHz C-Band spectrum, since the network can adjust the subcarrier spacing to meet the particular spectrum and use case requirements of the data it is transmitting. For example, when low latency is required, the network can use wider subcarrier spacing to help improve the latency of the transmission.
• Beamforming, in which massive MIMO (multiple-input and multiple-output) antenna technologies are used to focus wireless signal and then sweep them across areas till they make a strong connection. Beamforming helps extend the range of networks that use mmWave and higher sub-6 spectrum.  
• Selective Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ), which allows 5G NR to break large data blocks into smaller blocks, so that when there is an error, the retransmission is smaller and results in higher data transfer speeds than LTE, which transfers data in larger blocks. 
• Faster Time Division Duplexing (TDD), which enables 5G NR networks to switch between uplink and downlink faster, reducing latency. 
• Pre-emptive scheduling, which lowers latency by allowing higher-priority data to overwrite or pre-empt lower-priority data, even if the lower-priority data is already being transmitted. 
• Shorter scheduling units that trim the minimum scheduling unit to just two symbols, improving latency.
• A new inactive state for devices. LTE devices had two states – idle and connected. 5G NR includes a new state – inactive – that reduces the time needed for an edge device to move in and out of its connected state (the state used for transmission), making the device more responsive. 

These and the other technical advancements made to 5G NR are complicated, but the result of these advancements is pretty simple – faster data speeds, lower latency, more spectrum agility, and otherwise better performance than LTE. 

Are LPWA radio access technology specifications, like NB-IoT and LTE-M, supported by 5G?

Though 5G features a new radio access technology, 5G NR, 5G supports other radio access technologies as well. This includes the Low Power Wide Area (LPWA) technologies, Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT), and Long Term Evolution for Machines (LTE-M). In fact, these LPWA standards are the standards that 5G uses to address one of its three main use cases – Massive, Machine-Type Communications (mMTC). 

Improvements have been and continue to be made to these 5G LPWA standards to address these mMTC use cases – improvements that further lower the cost of LPWA devices, reduce these devices’ power usage, and enable an even larger number of LPWA devices to connect to the network in a given area.

What are the use cases for 5G NR and 5G LPWA Radio Access Technologies?

Today, LTE supports three basic use cases:

• Voice: People today can use LTE to talk to each other using mobile devices. 
• Mobile broadband (MBB): People can use smartphones, tablets, mobile and other edge devices to view videos, play games, and use other applications that require broadband data speeds.
• IoT: People can use cellular modules, routers, and other gateways embedded in practically anything – a smart speaker, a dog collar, a commercial washing machine, a safety shoe, an industrial air purifier, a liquid fertilizer storage tank – to transmit data from the thing to the cloud or a private data center and back via the internet.  

5G NR, as well as 5G’s LPWA radio access technologies (NB-IoT and LTE-M) will continue to support these existing IoT and voice use cases. 

However, 5G also expands on the MBB use case with a new Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) use case. These eMBB use cases leverage 5G NR’s higher peak and average speeds and lower latency to enable smart phones and other devices to support high-definition cloud-based immersive video games, high quality video calls and new VR, AR, and other XR applications.

In addition, 5G NR also supports a new use case, called Ultra-Reliable, Low-Latency Communications (URLLC). 5G NR enables devices to create connections that are ultra-reliable with very low latency. With these new 5G NR capabilities, as well as 5G NR’s support for very fast handoffs and high mobility, organizations can now deploy new factory automation, smart city 2.0 and other next generation Industrial IoT (IIoT) applications, as well as Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) applications, such as autonomous vehicles. 

As we mentioned above, 5G will also support the new mMTC use case, which represents an enhancement of the existing IoT use case. However, in the case of mMTC, new use cases will be enabled by improvements to LTE-M and NB-IoT radio access technology standards, not 5G NR. Examples of these types of new mMTC use cases include large-scale deployments of small, low cost edge devices (like sensors) for smart city, smart logistics, smart grid, and similar applications.

But this is not all. 3GPP is looking at additional new use cases (and new technologies for these use cases), as discussed in this recent blog on Release 17 of the 5G standard. One of these new technologies is a new Reduced Capability (RedCap) device – sometimes referred to as NR Light – for IoT or MTC use cases that require faster data speeds than LPWA devices can provide, but also need devices that are less expensive than the 5G NR devices being deployed today.

3GPP is also examining standard changes to NR, LTE-M, and NB-IoT in 5G Release 17 that would make it possible for satellites to use these technologies for Non-Terrestrial Network (NTN) communications. This new NTN feature would help enable the deployment of satellites able to provide NR, LTE-M, and NB-IoT coverage in very remote areas, far away from cellular base stations.

What should you look for in a 5G NR module, router or gateway solution?

While all 5G NR edge devices use the 5G NR technology specification, they are not all created equal. In fact, the flexibility, performance, quality, security, and other capabilities of a 5G NR edge device can make the difference between a successful 5G NR application rollout and a failed one. 

As they evaluate 5G NR edge devices for their application, organizations should ask themselves the following questions:

• Is the edge device multi-mode? 
While Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) are rapidly expanding their 5G NR networks, there are still many areas where 5G NR coverage is not available. Multi-mode edge devices that can support LTE, or even 3G, help ensure that wherever the edge device is deployed, it will be able to connect to a MNO’s network – even if this connection does not provide the data speed, latency, or other performance needed to maximize the value of the 5G NR application. 

In addition, many MNOs are rolling out non-standalone (NSA) 5G NR networks at first. These NSA 5G NR networks need a LTE connection in addition to a 5G NR connection to transmit data from and to 5G NR devices. If your edge device does not include support for LTE, it will not be able to use 5G NR on these NSA networks. 

• How secure are the edge devices? 
Data is valuable and sensitive – and the data transmitted by 5G NR devices is no different. To limit the risk that this data is exposed, altered, or destroyed, organizations need to adopt a Defense in Depth approach to 5G NR cybersecurity, with layers of security implemented at the cloud, network, and edge device levels. 

At the edge device level, organizations should ensure their devices have security built-in with features such as HTTPS, secure socket, secure boot, and free unlimited firmware over-the-air (FOTA) updates. 

Organizations will also want to use edge devices from trustworthy companies that are headquartered in countries that have strict laws in place to protect customer data. In doing so you will ensure these companies are committed to working with you to prevent state or other malicious actors from gaining access to your 5G NR data.

• Are the 5G NR devices future-proof? 
Over time, organizations are likely to want to upgrade their applications. In addition, the 5G NR specification is not set in stone, and updates to it are made periodically. Organizations will want to ensure their 5G NR edge devices are futureproof, with capabilities that include the ability to update them with new firmware over the air, so they can upgrade their applications and take advantage of new 5G NR capabilities in the future. 

• Can the 5G NR device do edge processing? 
While 5G NR increases the amount of data that can be transmitted over cellular wireless networks, in many cases organizations will want to filter, prioritize, or otherwise process some of their 5G NR application’s data at the edge. This edge processing can enable these organizations to lower their data transmission costs, improve application performance, and lower their devices energy use. 

5G NR edge devices that offer organizations the ability to easily process data at the edge allow them to lower their data transmission expenses, optimize application performance, and maximize their devices’ battery lives. 

Originally posted here.

Read more…

Introduction   

Over the years, there has been an extensive shift of digitalization that has called for new concepts and new technologies. Especially when it comes to improving human life and reducing effort in routine tasks, one thing that has gained immense popularity is the very idea of IoT.   

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of physical objects (vehicles, devices, buildings, and other items) embedded with software sensors, electronics, and network connectivity to collect and exchange data. It is the network of those inter-connected objects or smart devices that can exchange information using a method of agreement and data schema.    

According to Statista, the total installed base of IoT (Internet of Things) connected devices worldwide estimated to reach 30.9 billion units by 2025, a significant increase from the 13.8 billion units anticipated in 2021.    

Common Challenges in IoT    

Do you know how IoT works? Well, IoT devices are capable of providing automated facilities because they have inbuilt sensors and mini-computer processors, in which sensors collect the data with the help of machine learning. But unfortunately, these devices are connected to the internet and are more vulnerable to hacking and malware.    

Nevertheless, we are living in the digital world where your car will soon be a better driver than you, and your smart security systems will provide:  

  • Better protection to your residence,   
  • Your Industries,   
  • and your commercial places against damage and theft.  

Your smart refrigerators will better communicate with the internet. It will be more responsible for ordering your grocery items. All these miracles can happen with automation and the advancements of embedded systems into the Internet of Things.    

However, improving the performance and quality of such systems is a significant challenge because IoT devices generate a large variety and volume of data that are difficult to test if the IoT testing service provider that you’ve hired for testing doesn’t have the best resources, tools, test environments, and test methods to ensure the quality, performance, speed, and scalability of such systems. Consequently, IoT testing services are the key to ensuring flawless performance and functionality of your IoT systems.   

As long as it comes to testing of IoT devices, organizations face severe challenges that you can discover below:   

Testing Across Several Cloud IoT Platforms    

Every IoT device has its own hardware, and this device is dependent on software to operate it. When it comes to integration, IoT devices require application software to run commands to the devices and analyze data collected by the devices. Also, each device comes with different operating systems, versions, firmware, hardware, and software, which may not be possible to test with various combinations of devices.    

Before conducting testing on IoT devices, one needs to collect information from the end-users about which software they’re using to run the IoT devices. One of the most widely used cloud IoT platforms that assist in connecting different components of the IoT value chain is IBM Watson, Azure IoT, and AWS, among others. To run IoT devices across all cloud IoT platforms, it is necessary to consider the experienced IoT testing service provider or experts from the software testing company, mainly those who are well-versed in the testing of cloud IoT platforms and can ensure their practical usability.    

One should know about an IoT environment and understand how devices generate data with a wide variety, velocity, and veracity. Make sure IoT devices produce the data into a structured or unstructured form and then send the enormous amounts of data to the cloud. If you plan to get IoT testing services, you need to test your IoT application across various platforms. Testing should be performed in a real-time environment. If the device often introduces firmware updates or new version upgrades, it is crucial to perform specific testing by keeping all such factors in mind.    

Data Security Threats    

The volume of data gathered and communicated by connected devices is enormous. The higher amount of data generated by devices, the higher number of data leaks or any other risks your system can experience from outside entries.    

Testing of IoT devices is vital from the best IoT testing service provider. Otherwise, your IoT device can become vulnerable to security threats. With QA experts or IoT testing services, you can quickly identify security bottlenecks from the system and address them early as possible.    

When performing IoT testing, it is necessary to test credentials, passwords, and data interface to ensure that there are no risks for security breaches. Today, IoT engineers implement layered security, and with this process, they can get multiple levels of protection for the system and prevent the system from potential attacks or data leaks.  

 Too Many IoT Communication Protocols    

Nowadays, IoT devices use several distinct communication protocols from Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT), Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP), and common Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) to interact with controllers and with each other.    

But the most popular protocol that ensures the IoT device will communicate and perform well even in high latency and low bandwidth situations is MQTT (Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT).  

However, due to the popularity of MQTT, it is crucial to ensure the security of this protocol as it is open to attacks and doesn’t provide excellent protection beyond the Transmission Control Protocol layer. Therefore, one should hire a diligent IoT testing service provider to assure that testing will perform rigorously. In addition, it ensures that the communication between controllers and disparate devices will happen more reliably and safely.    

Lack of Standardization    

Due to the increasing number of connected devices, it becomes imperative to improve the standardization of an IoT system in different levels: platforms, standard business models, connectivity, and application.    

Standardization for each IoT device should be uniformed while testing. Otherwise, your users can face severe problems at the time of connecting IoT devices with different systems.    

For this, the IoT testing service provider should have detailed expertise in performing connected device testing based on the intended use or use case of the system. Also, there should be a uniform standardization for all levels of IoT systems before providing quality-based IoT products to end-users.    

Conclusion    

IoT testing approach can vary based on the architecture or system involved. Therefore, businesses should focus more on reliable IoT testing services and allow testers to focus more on the Test-As-a-User (TAAS) approach instead of testing based on the requirements.   

Always choose the trustworthy IoT testing service provider for integration testing of IoT systems. One should have a comprehensive strategy to discover the bugs in the system through integration testing.   

Numerous challenges occur while implementing IoT testing, but it is an exciting job if the testing service provider is ready to offer you end-to-end functional and non-functional validation services for different implementations.    

The company should be certified to test IoT connected devices with a complicated mesh of devices, hardware, protocols, operating systems, firmware, etc. In addition, they should have industry best practices with IoT testing tools to address challenges that you face every day while using IoT systems.    

Read more…

It’s no secret that I love just about everything to do with what we now refer to as STEM; that is, science, technology, engineering, and math. When I was a kid, my parents gifted me with what was, at that time, a state-of-the-art educational electronics kit containing a collection of basic components (resistors, capacitors, inductors), a teensy loudspeaker, some small (6-volt) incandescent bulbs… that sort of thing. Everything was connected using a patch-board of springs (a bit like the 130-in-1 Electronic Playground from SparkFun).

The funny thing is, now that I come to look back on it, most electronics systems in the real world at that time weren’t all that much more sophisticated than my kit. In our house, for example, we had one small vacuum tube-based black-and-white television in the family room and one rotary-dial telephone that was hardwired to the wall in the hallway. We never even dreamed of color televisions and I would have laughed my socks off if you’d told me that the day would come when we’d have high-definition color televisions in almost every room in the house, smart phones so small you could carry them your pocket and use them to take photos and videos and make calls around the world, smart devices that you could control with your voice and that would speak back to you… the list goes on.

Now, of course, we have the Internet of Things (IoT), which boasts more “things” than you can throw a stick at (according to Statista, there were ~22 billion IoT devices in 2018, there will be ~38 billion in 2025, and there are expected to be ~50 billion by 2030).

One of the decisions required when embarking on an IoT deployment pertains to connectivity. Some devices are hardwired, many use Bluetooth or Wi-Fi or some form of wireless mesh, and many more employ cellular technology as their connectivity solution of choice.

In order to connect to a cellular network, the IoT device must include some form of subscriber identity module (SIM). Over the years, the original SIMs (which originated circa 1991) evolved in various ways. A few years ago, the industry saw the introduction of embedded SIM (eSIM) technology. Now, the next-generation integrated SIM (iSIM) is poised to shake the IoT world once more.

“But what is iSIM,” I hear you cry. Well, I’m glad you asked because, by some strange quirk of fate, I’ve been invited to host a panel discussion — Accelerating Innovation on the IoT Edge with Integrated SIM (iSIM) — which is being held under the august auspices of IotCentral.io

In this webinar — which will be held on Thursday 20 May 2021 from 10:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. CDT — I will be joined by four industry gurus to discuss how cellular IoT is changing and how to navigate through the cornucopia of SIM, eSIM, and iSIM options to decide what’s best for your product. As part of this, we will see quick-start tools and cool demos that can move you from concept to product. Also (and of particular interest to your humble narrator), we will experience the supercharge potential of TinyML and iSIM.

8929356061?profile=RESIZE_584x

Panel members Loic Bonvarlet (upper left), Brian Partridge (upper right),

Dr. Juan Nogueira (lower left), and Jan Jongboom (bottom right)

The gurus in question (and whom I will be questioning) are Loic Bonvarlet, VP Product and Marketing at Kigen; Brian Partridge, Research Director for Infrastructure and Cloud Technologies at 451 Research; Dr. Juan Nogueira, Senior Director, Connectivity, Global Technology Team at FLEX; and Jan Jongboom, CTO and Co-Founder at Edge Impulse.

So, what say you? Dare I hope that we will have the pleasure of your company and that you will be able to join us to (a) tease your auditory input systems with our discussions and (b) join our question-and-answer free-for-all at the end?

 

Video recording available:

Read more…

By Bee Hayes-Thakore

The Android Ready SE Alliance, announced by Google on March 25th, paves the path for tamper resistant hardware backed security services. Kigen is bringing the first secure iSIM OS, along with our GSMA certified eSIM OS and personalization services to support fast adoption of emerging security services across smartphones, tablets, WearOS, Android Auto Embedded and Android TV.

Google has been advancing their investment in how tamper-resistant secure hardware modules can protect not only Android and its functionality, but also protect third-party apps and secure sensitive transactions. The latest android smartphone device features enable tamper-resistant key storage for Android Apps using StrongBox. StrongBox is an implementation of the hardware-backed Keystore that resides in a hardware security module.

To accelerate adoption of new Android use cases with stronger security, Google announced the formation of the Android Ready SE Alliance. Secure Element (SE) vendors are joining hands with Google to create a set of open-source, validated, and ready-to-use SE Applets. On March 25th, Google launched the General Availability (GA) version of StrongBox for SE.

8887974290?profile=RESIZE_710x

Hardware based security modules are becoming a mainstay of the mobile world. Juniper Research’s latest eSIM research, eSIMs: Sector Analysis, Emerging Opportunities & Market Forecasts 2021-2025, independently assessed eSIM adoption and demand in the consumer sector, industrial sector, and public sector, and predicts that the consumer sector will account for 94% of global eSIM installations by 2025. It anticipates that established adoption of eSIM frameworks from consumer device vendors such as Google, will accelerate the growth of eSIMs in consumer devices ahead of the industrial and public sectors.


Consumer sector will account for 94% of global eSIM installations by 2025

Juniper Research, 2021.

Expanding the secure architecture of trust to consumer wearables, smart TV and smart car

What’s more? A major development is that now this is not just for smartphones and tablets, but also applicable to WearOS, Android Auto Embedded and Android TV. These less traditional form factors have huge potential beyond being purely companion devices to smartphones or tablets. With the power, size and performance benefits offered by Kigen’s iSIM OS, OEMs and chipset vendors can consider the full scope of the vast Android ecosystem to deliver new services.

This means new secure services and innovations around:

🔐 Digital keys (car, home, office)

🛂 Mobile Driver’s License (mDL), National ID, ePassports

🏧 eMoney solutions (for example, Wallet)

How is Kigen supporting Google’s Android Ready SE Alliance?

The alliance was created to make discrete tamper resistant hardware backed security the lowest common denominator for the Android ecosystem. A major goal of this alliance is to enable a consistent, interoperable, and demonstrably secure applets across the Android ecosystem.

Kigen believes that enabling the broadest choice and interoperability is fundamental to the architecture of digital trust. Our secure, standards-compliant eSIM and iSIM OS, and secure personalization services are available to all chipset or device partners in the Android Ready SE Alliance to leverage the benefits of iSIM for customer-centric innovations for billions of Android users quickly.

Vincent Korstanje, CEO of Kigen

Kigen’s support for the Android Ready SE Alliance will allow our industry partners to easily leapfrog to the enhanced security and power efficiency benefits of iSIM technology or choose a seamless transition from embedded SIM so they can focus on their innovation.

We are delighted to partner with Kigen to further strengthen the security of Android through StrongBox via Secure Element (SE). We look forward to widespread adoption by our OEM partners and developers and the entire Android ecosystem.

Sudhi Herle, Director of Android Platform Security 

In the near term, the Google team is prioritizing and delivering the following Applets in conjunction with corresponding Android feature releases:

  • Mobile driver’s license and Identity Credentials
  • Digital car keys

Kigen brings the ability to bridge the physical embedded security hardware to a fully integrated form factor. Our Kigen standards-compliant eSIM OS (version 2.2. eUICC OS) is available to support chipsets and device makers now. This announcement is a start to what will bring a whole host of new and exciting trusted services offering better experience for users on Android.

Kigen’s eSIM (eUICC) OS brings

8887975464?profile=RESIZE_710x

The smallest operating system, allowing OEMs to select compact, cost-effective hardware to run it on.

Kigen OS offers the highest level of logical security when employed on any SIM form factor, including a secure enclave.

On top of Kigen OS, we have a broad portfolio of Java Card™ Applets to support your needs for the Android SE Ready Alliance.

Kigen’s Integrated SIM or iSIM (iUICC) OS further this advantage

8887975878?profile=RESIZE_710x

Integrated at the heart of the device and securely personalized, iSIM brings significant size and battery life benefits to cellular Iot devices. iSIM can act as a root of trust for payment, identity, and critical infrastructure applications

Kigen’s iSIM is flexible enough to support dual sim capability through a single profile or remote SIM provisioning mechanisms with the latter enabling out-of-the-box connectivity, secure and remote profile management.

For smartphones, set top boxes, android auto applications, auto car display, Chromecast or Google Assistant enabled devices, iSIM can offer significant benefits to incorporate Artificial intelligence at the edge.

Kigen’s secure personalization services to support fast adoption

SIM vendors have in-house capabilities for data generation but the eSIM and iSIM value chains redistribute many roles and responsibilities among new stakeholders for the personalization of operator credentials along different stages of production or over-the-air when devices are deployed.

Kigen can offer data generation as a service to vendors new to the ecosystem.

Partner with us to provide cellular chipset and module makers with the strongest security, performance for integrated SIM leading to accelerate these new use cases.

Security considerations for eSIM and iSIM enabled secure connected services

Designing a secure connected product requires considerable thought and planning and there really is no ‘one-size-fits-all’ solution. How security should be implemented draws upon a multitude of factors, including:

  • What data is being stored or transmitted between the device and other connected apps?
  • Are there regulatory requirements for the device? (i.e. PCI DSS, HIPAA, FDA, etc.)
  • What are the hardware or design limitations that will affect security implementation?
  • Will the devices be manufactured in a site accredited by all of the necessary industry bodies?
  • What is the expected lifespan of the device?

End-to-end ecosystem and services thinking needs to be a design consideration from the very early stage especially when considering the strain on battery consumption in devices such as wearables, smart watches and fitness devices as well as portable devices that are part of the connected consumer vehicles.

Originally posted here.

Read more…

In my last post, I explored how OTA updates are typically performed using Amazon Web Services and FreeRTOS. OTA updates are critically important to developers with connected devices. In today’s post, we are going to explore several best practices developers should keep in mind with implementing their OTA solution. Most of these will be generic although I will point out a few AWS specific best practices.

Best Practice #1 – Name your S3 bucket with afr-ota

There is a little trick with creating S3 buckets that I was completely oblivious to for a long time. Thankfully when I checked in with some colleagues about it, they also had not been aware of it so I’m not sure how long this has been supported but it can help an embedded developer from having to wade through too many AWS policies and simplify the process a little bit.

Anyone who has attempted to create an OTA Update with AWS and FreeRTOS knows that you have to setup several permissions to allow an OTA Update Job to access the S3 bucket. Well if you name your S3 bucket so that it begins with “afr-ota”, then the S3 bucket will automatically have the AWS managed policy AmazonFreeRTOSOTAUpdate attached to it. (See Create an OTA Update service role for more details). It’s a small help, but a good best practice worth knowing.

Best Practice #2 – Encrypt your firmware updates

Embedded software must be one of the most expensive things to develop that mankind has ever invented! It’s time consuming to create and test and can consume a large percentage of the development budget. Software though also drives most features in a product and can dramatically different a product. That software is intellectual property that is worth protecting through encryption.

Encrypting a firmware image provides several benefits. First, it can convert your firmware binary into a form that seems random or meaningless. This is desired because a developer shouldn’t want their binary image to be easily studied, investigated or reverse engineered. This makes it harder for someone to steal intellectual property and more difficult to understand for someone who may be interested in attacking the system. Second, encrypting the image means that the sender must have a key or credential of some sort that matches the device that will decrypt the image. This can be looked at a simple source for helping to authenticate the source, although more should be done than just encryption to fully authenticate and verify integrity such as signing the image.

Best Practice #3 – Do not support firmware rollbacks

There is often a debate as to whether firmware rollbacks should be supported in a system or not. My recommendation for a best practice is that firmware rollbacks be disabled. The argument for rollbacks is often that if something goes wrong with a firmware update then the user can rollback to an older version that was working. This seems like a good idea at first, but it can be a vulnerability source in a system. For example, let’s say that version 1.7 had a bug in the system that allowed remote attackers to access the system. A new firmware version, 1.8, fixes this flaw. A customer updates their firmware to version 1.8, but an attacker knows that if they can force the system back to 1.7, they can own the system. Firmware rollbacks seem like a convenient and good idea, in fact I’m sure in the past I used to recommend them as a best practice. However, in today’s connected world where we perform OTA updates, firmware rollbacks are a vulnerability so disable them to protect your users.

Best Practice #4 – Secure your bootloader

Updating firmware Over-the-Air requires several components to ensure that it is done securely and successfully. Often the focus is on getting the new image to the device and getting it decrypted. However, just like in traditional firmware updates, the bootloader is still a critical piece to the update process and in OTA updates, the bootloader can’t just be your traditional flavor but must be secure.

There are quite a few methods that can be used with the onboard bootloader, but no matter the method used, the bootloader must be secure. Secure bootloaders need to be capable of verifying the authenticity and integrity of the firmware before it is ever loaded. Some systems will use the application code to verify and install the firmware into a new application slot while others fully rely on the bootloader. In either case, the secure bootloader needs to be able to verify the authenticity and integrity of the firmware prior to accepting the new firmware image.

It’s also a good idea to ensure that the bootloader is built into a chain of trust and cannot be easily modified or updated. The secure bootloader is a critical component in a chain-of-trust that is necessary to keep a system secure.

Best Practice #5 – Build a Chain-of-Trust

A chain-of-trust is a sequence of events that occur while booting the device that ensures each link in the chain is trusted software. For example, I’ve been working with the Cypress PSoC 64 secure MCU’s recently and these parts come shipped from the factory with a hardware-based root-of-trust to authenticate that the MCU came from a secure source. That Root-of-Trust (RoT) is then transferred to a developer, who programs a secure bootloader and security policies onto the device. During the boot sequence, the RoT verifying the integrity and authenticity of the bootloader, which then verifies the integrity and authenticity of any second stage bootloader or software which then verifies the authenticity and integrity of the application. The application then verifies the authenticity and integrity of its data, keys, operational parameters and so on.

This sequence creates a Chain-Of-Trust which is needed and used by firmware OTA updates. When the new firmware request is made, the application must decrypt the image and verify that authenticity and integrity of the new firmware is intact. That new firmware can then only be used if the Chain-Of-Trust can successfully make its way through each link in the chain. The bottom line, a developer and the end user know that when the system boots successfully that the new firmware is legitimate. 

Conclusions

OTA updates are a critical infrastructure component to nearly every embedded IoT device. Sure, there are systems out there that once deployed will never update, however, those are probably a small percentage of systems. OTA updates are the go-to mechanism to update firmware in the field. We’ve examined several best practices that developers and companies should consider when they start to design their connected systems. In fact, the bonus best practice for today is that if you are building a connected device, make sure you explore your OTA update solution sooner rather than later. Otherwise, you may find that building that Chain-Of-Trust necessary in today’s deployments will be far more expensive and time consuming to implement.

Originally posted here.

Read more…

IoT in Mining

Flowchart of IoT in Mining

by Vaishali Ramesh

Introduction – Internet of Things in Mining

The Internet of things (IoT) is the extension of Internet connectivity into physical devices and everyday objects. Embedded with electronics, Internet connectivity, and other forms of hardware; these devices can communicate and interact with others over the Internet, and they can be remotely monitored and controlled. In the mining industry, IoT is used as a means of achieving cost and productivity optimization, improving safety measures and developing their artificial intelligence needs.

IoT in the Mining Industry

Considering the numerous incentives it brings, many large mining companies are planning and evaluating ways to start their digital journey and digitalization in mining industry to manage day-to-day mining operations. For instance:

  • Cost optimization & improved productivity through the implementation of sensors on mining equipment and systems that monitor the equipment and its performance. Mining companies are using these large chunks of data – 'big data' to discover more cost-efficient ways of running operations and also reduce overall operational downtime.
  • Ensure the safety of people and equipment by monitoring ventilation and toxicity levels inside underground mines with the help of IoT on a real-time basis. It enables faster and more efficient evacuations or safety drills.
  • Moving from preventive to predictive maintenance
  • Improved and fast-decision making The mining industry faces emergencies almost every hour with a high degree of unpredictability. IoT helps in balancing situations and in making the right decisions in situations where several aspects will be active at the same time to shift everyday operations to algorithms.

IoT & Artificial Intelligence (AI) application in Mining industry

Another benefit of IoT in the mining industry is its role as the underlying system facilitating the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI). From exploration to processing and transportation, AI enhances the power of IoT solutions as a means of streamlining operations, reducing costs, and improving safety within the mining industry.

Using vast amounts of data inputs, such as drilling reports and geological surveys, AI and machine learning can make predictions and provide recommendations on exploration, resulting in a more efficient process with higher-yield results.

AI-powered predictive models also enable mining companies to improve their metals processing methods through more accurate and less environmentally damaging techniques. AI can be used for the automation of trucks and drills, which offers significant cost and safety benefits.

Challenges for IoT in Mining 

Although there are benefits of IoT in the mining industry, implementation of IoT in mining operations has faced many challenges in the past.

  • Limited or unreliable connectivity especially in underground mine sites
  • Remote locations may struggle to pick up 3G/4G signals
  • Declining ore grade has increased the requirements to dig deeper in many mines, which may increase hindrances in the rollout of IoT systems

Mining companies have overcome the challenge of connectivity by implementing more reliable connectivity methods and data-processing strategies to collect, transfer and present mission critical data for analysis. Satellite communications can play a critical role in transferring data back to control centers to provide a complete picture of mission critical metrics. Mining companies worked with trusted IoT satellite connectivity specialists such as ‘Inmarsat’ and their partner eco-systems to ensure they extracted and analyzed their data effectively.

 

Cybersecurity will be another major challenge for IoT-powered mines over the coming years

 As mining operations become more connected, they will also become more vulnerable to hacking, which will require additional investment into security systems.

 

Following a data breach at Goldcorp in 2016, that disproved the previous industry mentality that miners are not typically targets, 10 mining companies established the Mining and Metals Information Sharing and Analysis Centre (MM-ISAC) to share cyber threats among peers in April 2017.

In March 2019, one of the largest aluminum producers in the world, Norsk Hydro, suffered an extensive cyber-attack, which led to the company isolating all plants and operations as well as switching to manual operations and procedures. Several of its plants suffered temporary production stoppages as a result. Mining companies have realized the importance of digital security and are investing in new security technologies.

Digitalization of Mining Industry - Road Ahead

Many mining companies have realized the benefits of digitalization in their mines and have taken steps to implement them. There are four themes that are expected to be central to the digitalization of the mining industry over the next decade are listed below:

8782971674?profile=RESIZE_710x

8782971687?profile=RESIZE_710x

The above graph demonstrates the complexity of each digital technology and its implementation period for the widespread adoption of that technology. There are various factors, such as the complexity and scalability of the technologies involved in the adoption rate for specific technologies and for the overall digital transformation of the mining industry.

The world can expect to witness prominent developments from the mining industry to make it more sustainable. There are some unfavorable impacts of mining on communities, ecosystems, and other surroundings as well. With the intention to minimize them, the power of data is being harnessed through different IoT statements. Overall, IoT helps the mining industry shift towards resource extraction, keeping in mind a particular time frame and footprint that is essential.

Originally posted here.

Read more…

From a salt shaker with a built-in speaker to smart water devices that bring clean water to communities with weak infrastructure, connected devices are increasingly advancing into all areas of our lives. But more connectivity brings more possibilities for crippling issues that can impact product development, operations, and maintenance. IoT developers must consider how to plan for firmware architecture that leads to a better, stickier product.

Competition among connected device manufacturers is swelling in every corner of the industry, and user patience for clunky products won’t get the benefit of the doubt that developers might otherwise have had in the IoT’s nascent days. As users become more dependent on connected devices, consumer demands that those devices consistently function well - and securely - become the expectation. There remains, of course, work to be done: a quick Google search reveals stories like the Fitbit firmware update that destroyed the device battery, or the Tesla key fobs that could be overwritten and hijacked until a patch was rolled out.    

These stories underscore that the IoT ecosystem’s connected nature requires that hardware developers approach product development differently - and take firmware updates seriously. It used to be that developers could write static firmware for specific device use cases or commoditized products and, once released, have no further interaction or engagement with the product. That system no longer works. To have a successful product, IoT device manufacturers need to invest in design and in firmware development equally.

Whether it’s BLE on phones or LTE or Zigby and other mesh networks, IoT devices are connected, regularly transmitting sensitive and personal data to and from the cloud. The near limitless reach of modern connected devices across all areas of our lives, paired with the high price point of most IoT devices underscores that IoT developers must have a plan (and not an after-the-fact reaction) for firmware maintenance. Putting that plan in motion requires three considerations:

Device monitoring

Ubiquitous connectivity brings with it major challenges, but it also brings opportunities. Among other things, it allows automated device health monitoring. The typical process of releasing a product relies on users’ reporting a problem and requiring them to physically return the device to be evaluated, repaired, and returned. Simply put, this is a huge waste of money and time, and it also risks frustrating the customer to the point of losing them entirely. Using customers as your testers is simply a terrible business decision. (Maybe you could get away with it if you were the only game in town, but IoT device makers don’t have that luxury anymore). Automated device monitoring is the solution. By regularly analyzing the health of devices and flagging potential problems immediately, a monitoring system can help device makers catch and fix issues in hours that would have otherwise taken them weeks to root cause. Designing embedded systems with such capabilities gives critical observability into performance, stability, and overall health - either of a single device or of a fleet of millions. 

Repair

Shipping products that require an update or patch is inevitable for even the most talented and thorough teams. Just ask NASA. While no one can avoid updates entirely, it is possible to detect fleet-wide issues and solve them without burdening users. The key is to roll out updates incrementally, starting with a small number of devices and ramping up over time. This limits the impact of any new issues and insulates most of your users from the churn of getting a few bugfix releases in a row.  Another good option is to implement an A/B update system if you have enough flash memory. This allows your device to download an update in the background with no user impact and simply prompts the user to reboot once the update is ready. Fast and simple update flows like A/B updates are key to compliance, and prevent too much fragmentation across your fleet. Last but not least, it is important to pair regular updates with a monitoring system so you can quickly identify problems with the update, and rollouts can be paused or aborted altogether.

Building with security in mind

The ubiquity of IoT devices has accelerated customer demands for robust device security in lockstep, with regulatory bodies becoming more serious (and punitive) about security requirements and standards. For those building smart devices, I would offer these principles as table stakes for security: 

  1. Devices must be updateable. 
  2. Trusted boot is no longer optional. You need a chain of trust to control the firmware running on your device.
  3. Rotate secrets and don’t use a master secret. Whether that means a set of encryption keys or other secrets to make devices functional, they must be dynamically changed, so the compromise of one device does not lead to the compromise of others. 

Software teams have long embraced iterative processes, and IoT device developers can learn much from this process. Focusing on firmware architecture that is responsive, observable, and proactive, lets device manufacturers ship a better product and create a happier customer base.

François Baldassari is the Founder and CEO of Memfault, a cloud-based observability platfrom for hardware devices. Prior to Memfault, François worked on developer infrastructure initiatives at Pebble and Oculus.

Read more…

Image Source: SEGGER.com

Nearly every embedded software developer working in the IoT space is now building secure devices. Developers have been mostly focused on how to handle secure applications and the basic microcontroller technologies such as how to use Arms TrustZone or leverage multicore processors. A looming problem that many companies and teams are overlooking is that figuring out how to develop secure applications is just the first step. There are three stages to secure product lifecycle management and in today’s post, we will review what is involved in each stage.

As a quick overview, the stages, which can be seen in the diagram below, are:

  • Development
  • Test and Production Deployment
  • Maintenance and In-field Servicing

Let us look at each of these stages in a little more detail. 

Stage #1 – Development

Development is probably the area that most developers are the most familiar with, but at the same time, the area that they are learning to adapt to the most. Many developers have designed and built systems without ever having to take security into account. Development involves a lot more than just deciding which components to isolate and how to separate the software into secure and non-secure regions.

For example, during the development phase developers now need to learn how to develop in the environment where a secure bootloader is in place. They need to consider how to handle firmware fallbacks, if they are allowed and if so, under what conditions. Firmware images may need to be compressed on top of the need for authentication.

While the development stage has become more complicated, developers should not struggle too much to extrapolate their past experiences to developing secure firmware successfully.

Stage #2 – Test and Production Deployment

The area that developers will probably struggle with the most is the test and production deployment stage. Testing secure software requires additional steps to be taken that authenticate debug hardware so that the developer can access secure memory regions to test their code and successfully debug it. Even more importantly, care must be taken to install that secure software onto a product during production.

There are several ways this can be done, but one method is to use a secure flashing device like SEGGERS Flasher Secure. These devices can follow a multistep process that involves validating a user ID which allows the secure firmware to be installed on the device. The devices themselves limit how many and on what devices the firmware can be installed which helps to protect a team’s intellectual property and prevents unauthorized production of a product.

8782955684?profile=RESIZE_710x

Stage #3 – Maintenance and In-field Servicing

Finally, there is the maintenance and in-field servicing stage which is a partial continuation of the development phase. Once a product has been deployed into the field, it needs to be securely updated. Updates can be done manually in-field, or they can be done using an over-the-air update process. This involves a device being able to contact a secure firmware server that can compress and encrypt the image and transport it to the device. Once the device has received the image, it must decrypt, decompress and validate the contents of the image. If everything looks good, the image can then be loaded as the primary firmware for the device.

Conclusions

 There is much more to designing and deploying a secure device than simply developing a secure application. The entire process is broken up into three main stages that we have looked at in greater detail today. Unfortunately, we have only just scratched the surface!

Orignally posted here.

Read more…

In this blog, we’ll discuss how users of Edge Impulse and Nordic can actuate and stream classification results over BLE using Nordic’s UART Service (NUS). This makes it easy to integrate embedded machine learning into your next generation IoT applications. Seamless integration with nRF Cloud is also possible since nRF Cloud has native support for a BLE terminal. 

We’ve extended the Edge Impulse example functionality already available for the nRF52840 DK and nRF5340 DK by adding the abilities to actuate and stream classification outputs. The extended example is available for download on github, and offers a uniform experience on both hardware platforms. 

Using nRF Toolbox 

After following the instructions in the example’s readme, download the nRF Toolbox mobile application (available on both iOS and Android) and connect to the nRF52840 DK or the nRF5340 DK that will be discovered as “Edge Impulse”. Once connected, set up the interface as follows so that you can get information about the device, available sensors, and start/stop the inferencing process. Save the preset configuration so that you can load it again for future use. Fill out the text of the various commands to use the same convention as what is used for the Edge Impulse AT command set. For example, sending AT+RUNIMPULSE starts the inferencing process on the device. 

IMG_7478_474aa59323.jpg
Figure 1. Setting up the Edge Impulse AT Command set

Once the appropriate AT command set mapping to an icon has been done, hit the appropriate icon. Hitting the ‘play’ button cause the device to start acquiring data and perform inference every couple of seconds. The results can be viewed in the “Logs” menu as shown below.

NUS_ble_logger_view_e9daba3698.jpg
Figure 2. Classification Output over BLE in the Logs View

Using nRF Cloud

Using the nRF Connect for Cloud mobile app for iOS and Android, you can turn your smartphone into a BLE gateway. This allows users to easily connect their BLE NUS devices running Edge Impulse to the nRF Cloud as an easy way to send the inferencing conclusions to the cloud. It’s as easy as setting up the BLE gateway through the app, connecting to the “Edge Impulse” device and watching the same results being displayed in the “Terminal over BLE” window shown below!

Screen_Hunter_229_Feb_16_23_45_26c8913865.jpgFigure 3. Classification Output Shown in nRF Cloud

Summary

Edge Impulse is supercharging IoT with embedded machine learning and we’ve discussed a couple of ways you can easily send conclusions to either the smartphone or to the cloud by leveraging the Nordic UART Service. We look forward to seeing how you’ll leverage Edge Impulse, Nordic and BLE to create your next gen IoT application.  

 

Article originally written for the Edge Impulse blog by Zin Thein Kyaw, Senior User Success Engineer at Edge Impulse.

Read more…

By Adam Dunkels

When you have to install thousands of IoT devices, you need to make device installation impressively fast. Here is how to do it.

Every single IoT device out there has been be installed by someone.

Installation is the activity that requires the most attention during that device’s lifetime.

This is particularly true for large scale IoT deployments.

We at Thingsquare have been involved in many IoT products and projects. Many of these have involved large scale IoT deployments with hundreds or thousands of devices per deployment site.

In this article, we look at why installation is so important for large IoT deployments – and a list of 6 installation tactics to make installation impressively fast while being highly useful:

  1. Take photos
  2. Make it easy to identify devices
  3. Record the location of every device
  4. Keep a log of who did what
  5. Develop an installation checklist, and turn it into an app
  6. Measure everything

And these tactics are useful even if you only have a handful of devices per site, but thousands or tens of thousands of devices in total.

Why Installation Tactics are Important in Large IoT Deployments

Installation is a necessary step of an IoT device’s life.

Someone – maybe your customers, your users, or a team of technicians working for you – will be responsible for the installation. The installer turns your device from a piece of hardware into a living thing: a valuable producer of information for your business.

But most of all, installation is an inevitable part of the IoT device life cycle.

The life cycle of an IoT device can be divided into four stages:

  1. Produce the device, at the factory (usually with a device programming tool).
  2. Install the device.
  3. Use the device. This is where the device generates the value that we created it for. The device may then be either re-installed at a new location, or we:
  4. Retire the device.

Two stages in the list contain the installation activity: both Install and Use.

So installation is inevitable – and important. We need to plan to deal with it.

Installation is the Most Time-Consuming Activity

Most devices should spend most of their lifetime in the Use stage of their life cycle.

But a device’s lifetime is different from the attention time that we need to spend on them.

Devices usually don’t need much attention in their Use stage. At this stage, they should mostly be sitting there and generate valuable information.

By contrast, for the people who work with the devices, most of their attention and time will be spent in the Install stage. Since those are people who’s salary you are paying for, you want to be as efficient as possible.

How To Make Installation Impressively Fast - and Useful

At Thingsquare, we have deployed thousands of devices together with our customers, and our customers have deployed many hundreds of thousands of devices with their customers.

These are our top six tactics to make installation fast – and useful:

1. Take Photos

After installation, you will need to maintain and troubleshoot the system. This is a normal part of the Use stage.

Photos are a goldmine of information. Particularly if it is difficult to get to the location afterward.

Make sure you take plenty of photos of each device as they are installed. In fact, you should include multiple photos in your installation checklist – more about this below.

We have been involved in several deployments where we have needed to remotely troubleshoot installations after they were installed. Having a bunch of photos of how and where the devices were installed helps tremendously.

The photos don’t need to be great. Having a low-quality photo beats having no photo, every time.

 

2. Make it Easy to Identify Devices

When dealing with hundreds of devices, you need to make sure that you know exactly which you installed, and where.

You therefore need to make it easy to identify each device. Device identification can be made in several ways, and we recommend you to use more than one way to identify the devices. This will reduce the risk of manual errors.

The two ways we typically use are:

  • A printed unique ID number on the device, which you can take a photo of
  • Automatic secure device identification via Bluetooth – this is something the Thingsquare IoT platform supports out of the box

Being certain about where devices were installed will make maintenance and troubleshooting much easier – particularly if it is difficult to visit the installation site.

3. Record the Location of Every Device

When devices are installed, make sure to record their location.

The easiest way to do this is to take the GPS coordinates of the devices as it is being deployed. Preferably with the installation app, which can do this automatically – see below.

For indoor installations, exact GPS locations may be unreliable. But even for those devices, having a coarse-grained GPS location is useful.

The location is useful both when analyzing the data that the devices produce, and when troubleshooting problems in the network.

 

4. Keep a Log of Who Did What

In large deployments, there will be many people involved.

Being able to trace the installation actions, as well as who took what action, is enormously useful. Sometimes just knowing the steps that were taken when installing each device is important. And sometimes you need to talk to the person who did the installation.

5. Develop an Installation Checklist - and Turn it into an App

Determine what steps are needed to install each device, and develop a step-by-step checklist for each step.

Then turn this checklist into an app that installation personnel can run on their own phones.

Each step of each checklist should be really easy understand to avoid mistakes along the way. And it should be easy to go back and forth in the steps, if needed.

Ideally, the app should run on both Android and iOS, because you would like everyone to be able to use it on their own phones.

Here is an example checklist, that we developed for a sensor device in a retail IoT deployment:

  • Check that sensor has battery installed
  • Attach sensor to appliance
  • Make sure that the sensor is online
  • Check that the sensor has a strong signal
  • Check that the GPS location is correct
  • Move hand in front of sensor, to make sure sensor correctly detects movement
  • Be still, to make sure sensor correctly detects no movement
  • Enter description of sensor placement (e.g. “on top of the appliance”)
  • Enter description of appliance
  • Take a photo of the sensor
  • Take a photo of the appliance
  • Take a photo of the appliance and the two beside it
  • Take a photo of the appliance and the four beside it
 

6. Measure Everything

Since installation costs money, we want it to be efficient.

And the best way to make a process more efficient is to measure it, and then improve it.

Since we have an installation checklist app, measuring installation time is easy – just build it into the app.

Once we know how much time each step in the installation process needs, we are ready to revise the process and improve it. We should focus on the most time-consuming step first and measure the successive improvements to make sure we get the most bang for the buck.

Conclusions

Every IoT device needs to be installed and making the installation process efficient saves us attention time for everyone involved – and ultimately money.

At Thingsquare, we have deployed thousands of devices together with our customers, and our customers have deployed many hundreds of thousands of devices with their customers.

We use our experience to solve hard problems in the IoT space, such as how to best install large IoT systems – get in touch with us to learn more!

Originally posted here.

Read more…
RSS
Email me when there are new items in this category –

Premier Sponsors

Upcoming IoT Events

More IoT News

Arcadia makes supporting clean energy easier

Nowadays, it’s easier than ever to power your home with clean energy, and yet, many Americans don’t know how to make the switch. Luckily, you don’t have to install expensive solar panels or switch utility companies…

Continue

4 industries to watch for AI disruption

Consumer-centric applications for artificial intelligence (AI) and automation are helping to stamp out the public perception that these technologies will only benefit businesses and negatively impact jobs and hiring. The conversation from human…

Continue

Answering your Huawei ban questions

A lot has happened since we uploaded our most recent video about the Huawei ban last month. Another reprieve has been issued, licenses have been granted and the FCC has officially barred Huawei equipment from U.S. networks. Our viewers had some… Continue

IoT Career Opportunities