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Security (51)

by Stephanie Overby

What's next for edge computing, and how should it shape your strategy? Experts weigh in on edge trends and talk workloads, cloud partnerships, security, and related issues


All year, industry analysts have been predicting that that edge computing – and complimentary 5G network offerings ­­– will see significant growth, as major cloud vendors are deploying more edge servers in local markets and telecom providers pushing ahead with 5G deployments.

The global pandemic has not significantly altered these predictions. In fact, according to IDC’s worldwide IT predictions for 2021, COVID-19’s impact on workforce and operational practices will be the dominant accelerator for 80 percent of edge-driven investments and business model change across most industries over the next few years.

First, what exactly do we mean by edge? Here’s how Rosa Guntrip, senior principal marketing manager, cloud platforms at Red Hat, defines it: “Edge computing refers to the concept of bringing computing services closer to service consumers or data sources. Fueled by emerging use cases like IoT, AR/VR, robotics, machine learning, and telco network functions that require service provisioning closer to users, edge computing helps solve the key challenges of bandwidth, latency, resiliency, and data sovereignty. It complements the hybrid computing model where centralized computing can be used for compute-intensive workloads while edge computing helps address the requirements of workloads that require processing in near real time.”

Moving data infrastructure, applications, and data resources to the edge can enable faster response to business needs, increased flexibility, greater business scaling, and more effective long-term resilience.

“Edge computing is more important than ever and is becoming a primary consideration for organizations defining new cloud-based products or services that exploit local processing, storage, and security capabilities at the edge of the network through the billions of smart objects known as edge devices,” says Craig Wright, managing director with business transformation and outsourcing advisory firm Pace Harmon.

“In 2021 this will be an increasing consideration as autonomous vehicles become more common, as new post-COVID-19 ways of working require more distributed compute and data processing power without incurring debilitating latency, and as 5G adoption stimulates a whole new generation of augmented reality, real-time application solutions, and gaming experiences on mobile devices,” Wright adds.

8 key edge computing trends in 2021


Noting the steady maturation of edge computing capabilities, Forrester analysts said, “It’s time to step up investment in edge computing,” in their recent Predictions 2020: Edge Computing report. As edge computing emerges as ever more important to business strategy and operations, here are eight trends IT leaders will want to keep an eye on in the year ahead.

1. Edge meets more AI/ML


Until recently, pre-processing of data via near-edge technologies or gateways had its share of challenges due to the increased complexity of data solutions, especially in use cases with a high volume of events or limited connectivity, explains David Williams, managing principal of advisory at digital business consultancy AHEAD. “Now, AI/ML-optimized hardware, container-packaged analytics applications, frameworks such as TensorFlow Lite and tinyML, and open standards such as the Open Neural Network Exchange (ONNX) are encouraging machine learning interoperability and making on-device machine learning and data analytics at the edge a reality.” 

Machine learning at the edge will enable faster decision-making. “Moreover, the amalgamation of edge and AI will further drive real-time personalization,” predicts Mukesh Ranjan, practice director with management consultancy and research firm Everest Group.

“But without proper thresholds in place, anomalies can slowly become standards,” notes Greg Jones, CTO of IoT solutions provider Kajeet. “Advanced policy controls will enable greater confidence in the actions made as a result of the data collected and interpreted from the edge.” 

 

2. Cloud and edge providers explore partnerships


IDC predicts a quarter of organizations will improve business agility by integrating edge data with applications built on cloud platforms by 2024. That will require partnerships across cloud and communications service providers, with some pairing up already beginning between wireless carriers and the major public cloud providers.

According to IDC research, the systems that organizations can leverage to enable real-time analytics are already starting to expand beyond traditional data centers and deployment locations. Devices and computing platforms closer to end customers and/or co-located with real-world assets will become an increasingly critical component of this IT portfolio. This edge computing strategy will be part of a larger computing fabric that also includes public cloud services and on-premises locations.

In this scenario, edge provides immediacy and cloud supports big data computing.

 

3. Edge management takes center stage


“As edge computing becomes as ubiquitous as cloud computing, there will be increased demand for scalability and centralized management,” says Wright of Pace Harmon. IT leaders deploying applications at scale will need to invest in tools to “harness step change in their capabilities so that edge computing solutions and data can be custom-developed right from the processor level and deployed consistently and easily just like any other mainstream compute or storage platform,” Wright says.

The traditional approach to data center or cloud monitoring won’t work at the edge, notes Williams of AHEAD. “Because of the rather volatile nature of edge technologies, organizations should shift from monitoring the health of devices or the applications they run to instead monitor the digital experience of their users,” Williams says. “This user-centric approach to monitoring takes into consideration all of the components that can impact user or customer experience while avoiding the blind spots that often lie between infrastructure and the user.”

As Stu Miniman, director of market insights on the Red Hat cloud platforms team, recently noted, “If there is any remaining argument that hybrid or multi-cloud is a reality, the growth of edge solidifies this truth: When we think about where data and applications live, they will be in many places.”

“The discussion of edge is very different if you are talking to a telco company, one of the public cloud providers, or a typical enterprise,” Miniman adds. “When it comes to Kubernetes and the cloud-native ecosystem, there are many technology-driven solutions competing for mindshare and customer interest. While telecom giants are already extending their NFV solutions into the edge discussion, there are many options for enterprises. Edge becomes part of the overall distributed nature of hybrid environments, so users should work closely with their vendors to make sure the edge does not become an island of technology with a specialized skill set.“

 

4. IT and operational technology begin to converge


Resiliency is perhaps the business term of the year, thanks to a pandemic that revealed most organizations’ weaknesses in this area. IoT-enabled devices (and other connected equipment) drive the adoption of edge solutions where infrastructure and applications are being placed within operations facilities. This approach will be “critical for real-time inference using AI models and digital twins, which can detect changes in operating conditions and automate remediation,” IDC’s research says.

IDC predicts that the number of new operational processes deployed on edge infrastructure will grow from less than 20 percent today to more than 90 percent in 2024 as IT and operational technology converge. Organizations will begin to prioritize not just extracting insight from their new sources of data, but integrating that intelligence into processes and workflows using edge capabilities.

Mobile edge computing (MEC) will be a key enabler of supply chain resilience in 2021, according to Pace Harmon’s Wright. “Through MEC, the ecosystem of supply chain enablers has the ability to deploy artificial intelligence and machine learning to access near real-time insights into consumption data and predictive analytics as well as visibility into the most granular elements of highly complex demand and supply chains,” Wright says. “For organizations to compete and prosper, IT leaders will need to deliver MEC-based solutions that enable an end-to-end view across the supply chain available 24/7 – from the point of manufacture or service  throughout its distribution.”

 

5. Edge eases connected ecosystem adoption


Edge not only enables and enhances the use of IoT, but it also makes it easier for organizations to participate in the connected ecosystem with minimized network latency and bandwidth issues, says Manali Bhaumik, lead analyst at technology research and advisory firm ISG. “Enterprises can leverage edge computing’s scalability to quickly expand to other profitable businesses without incurring huge infrastructure costs,” Bhaumik says. “Enterprises can now move into profitable and fast-streaming markets with the power of edge and easy data processing.”

 

6. COVID-19 drives innovation at the edge


“There’s nothing like a pandemic to take the hype out of technology effectiveness,” says Jason Mann, vice president of IoT at SAS. Take IoT technologies such as computer vision enabled by edge computing: “From social distancing to thermal imaging, safety device assurance and operational changes such as daily cleaning and sanitation activities, computer vision is an essential technology to accelerate solutions that turn raw IoT data (from video/cameras) into actionable insights,” Mann says. Retailers, for example, can use computer vision solutions to identify when people are violating the store’s social distance policy.

 

7. Private 5G adoption increases


“Use cases such as factory floor automation, augmented and virtual reality within field service management, and autonomous vehicles will drive the adoption of private 5G networks,” says Ranjan of Everest Group. Expect more maturity in this area in the year ahead, Ranjan says.

 

8. Edge improves data security


“Data efficiency is improved at the edge compared with the cloud, reducing internet and data costs,” says ISG’s Bhaumik. “The additional layer of security at the edge enhances the user experience.” Edge computing is also not dependent on a single point of application or storage, Bhaumik says. “Rather, it distributes processes across a vast range of devices.”

As organizations adopt DevSecOps and take a “design for security” approach, edge is becoming a major consideration for the CSO to enable secure cloud-based solutions, says Pace Harmon’s Wright. “This is particularly important where cloud architectures alone may not deliver enough resiliency or inherent security to assure the continuity of services required by autonomous solutions, by virtual or augmented reality experiences, or big data transaction processing,” Wright says. “However, IT leaders should be aware of the rate of change and relative lack of maturity of edge management and monitoring systems; consequently, an edge-based security component or solution for today will likely need to be revisited in 18 to 24 months’ time.”

Originally posted here.

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Security has long been a worry for the Internet of Things projects, and for many organizations with active or planned IoT deployments, security concerns have hampered digital ambitions. By implementing IoT security best practices, however, risk can be minimized.

Fortunately, IoT security best practices can help organizations reduce the risks facing their deployments and broader digital transformation initiatives. These same best practices can also reduce legal liability and protect an organization’s reputation.

Technological fragmentation is not just one of the biggest barriers to IoT adoption, but it also complicates the goal of securing connected devices and related services. With IoT-related cyberattacks on the rise, organizations must become more adept at managing cyber-risk or face potential reputational and legal consequences. This article summarizes best practices for enterprise and industrial IoT projects.

Key takeaways from this article include the following:

  • Data security remains a central technology hurdle related to IoT deployments.
  • IoT security best practices also can help organizations curb the risk of broader digital transformation initiatives.
  • Securing IoT projects requires a comprehensive view that encompasses the entire life cycle of connected devices and relevant supply chains.

Fragmentation and security have long been two of the most significant barriers to the Internet of Things adoption. The two challenges are also closely related.

Despite the Internet of Things (IoT) moniker, which implies a synthesis of connected devices, IoT technologies vary considerably based on their intended use. Organizations deploying IoT thus rely on an array of connectivity types, standards and hardware. As a result, even a simple IoT device can pose many security vulnerabilities, including weak authentication, insecure cloud integration, and outdated firmware and software.

For many organizations with active or planned IoT deployments, security concerns have hampered digital ambitions. An IoT World Today August 2020 survey revealed data security as the top technology hurdle for IoT deployments, selected by 46% of respondents.

Fortunately, IoT security best practices can help organizations reduce the risks facing their deployments and broader digital transformation initiatives. These same best practices can also reduce legal liability and protect an organization’s reputation.

But to be effective, an IoT-focused security strategy requires a broad view that encompasses the entire life cycle of an organization’s connected devices and projects in addition to relevant supply chains.

Know What You Have and What You Need

Asset management is a cornerstone of effective cyber defence. Organizations should identify which processes and systems need protection. They should also strive to assess the risk cyber attacks pose to assets and their broader operations.

In terms of enterprise and industrial IoT deployments, asset awareness is frequently spotty. It can be challenging given the array of industry verticals and the lack of comprehensive tools to track assets across those verticals. But asset awareness also demands a contextual understanding of the computing environment, including the interplay among devices, personnel, data and systems, as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has observed.

There are two fundamental questions when creating an asset inventory: What is on my network? And what are these assets doing on my network?

Answering the latter requires tracking endpoints’ behaviours and their intended purpose from a business or operational perspective. From a networking perspective, asset management should involve more than counting networking nodes; it should focus on data protection and building intrinsic security into business processes.

Relevant considerations include the following:

  • Compliance with relevant security and privacy laws and standards.
  • Interval of security assessments.
  • Optimal access of personnel to facilities, information and technology, whether remote or in-person.
  • Data protection for sensitive information, including strong encryption for data at rest and data in transit.
  • Degree of security automation versus manual controls, as well as physical security controls to ensure worker safety.

IoT device makers and application developers also should implement a vulnerability disclosure program. Bug bounty programs are another option that should include public contact information for security researchers and plans for responding to disclosed vulnerabilities.

Organizations that have accurately assessed current cybersecurity readiness need to set relevant goals and create a comprehensive governance program to manage and enforce operational and regulatory policies and requirements. Governance programs also ensure that appropriate security controls are in place. Organizations need to have a plan to implement controls and determine accountability for that enforcement. Another consideration is determining when security policies need to be revised.

An effective governance plan is vital for engineering security into architecture and processes, as well as for safeguarding legacy devices with relatively weak security controls. Devising an effective risk management strategy for enterprise and industrial IoT devices is a complex endeavour, potentially involving a series of stakeholders and entities. Organizations that find it difficult to assess the cybersecurity of their IoT project should consider third-party assessments.

Many tools are available to help organizations evaluate cyber-risk and defences. These include the vulnerability database and the Security and Privacy Controls for Information Systems and Organizations document from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Another resource is the list of 20 Critical Security Controls for Effective Cyber Defense. In terms of studying the threat landscape, the MITRE ATT&CK is one of the most popular frameworks for adversary tactics and techniques.

At this stage of the process, another vital consideration is the degree of cybersecurity savviness and support within your business. Three out of ten organizations deploying IoT cite lack of support for cybersecurity as a hurdle, according to August 2020 research from IoT World Today. Security awareness is also frequently a challenge. Many cyberattacks against organizations — including those with an IoT element — involve phishing, like the 2015 attack against Ukraine’s electric grid.

IoT Security Best Practices

Internet of Things projects demands a secure foundation. That starts with asset awareness and extends into responding to real and simulated cyberattacks.

Step 1: Know what you have.

Building an IoT security program starts with achieving a comprehensive understanding of which systems need to be protected.

Step 2: Deploy safeguards.

Shielding devices from cyber-risk requires a thorough approach. This step involves cyber-hygiene, effective asset control and the use of other security controls.

Step 3: Identify threats

Spotting anomalies can help mitigate attacks. Defenders should hone their skills through wargaming.

Step 4: Respond effectively.

Cyberattacks are inevitable but should provide feedback that feeds back to step 1.

Exploiting human gullibility is one of the most common cybercriminal strategies. While cybersecurity training can help individuals recognize suspected malicious activities, such programs tend not to be entirely effective. “It only takes one user and one-click to introduce an exploit into a network,” wrote Forrester analyst Chase Cunningham in the book “Cyber Warfare.” Recent studies have found that, even after receiving cybersecurity training, employees continue to click on phishing links about 3% of the time.

Security teams should work to earn the support of colleagues, while also factoring in the human element, according to David Coher, former head of reliability and cybersecurity for a major electric utility. “You can do what you can in terms of educating folks, whether it’s as a company IT department or as a consumer product manufacturer,” he said. But it is essential to put controls in place that can withstand user error and occasionally sloppy cybersecurity hygiene.

At the same time, organizations should also look to pool cybersecurity expertise inside and outside the business. “Designing the controls that are necessary to withstand user error requires understanding what users do and why they do it,” Coher said. “That means pulling together users from throughout your organization’s user chain — internal and external, vendors and customers, and counterparts.”

Those counterparts are easier to engage in some industries than others. Utilities, for example, have a strong track record in this regard, because of the limited market competition between them. Collaboration “can be more challenging in other industries, but no less necessary,” Coher added.

Deploy Appropriate Safeguards

Protecting an organization from cyberattacks demands a clear framework that is sensitive to business needs. While regulated industries are obligated to comply with specific cybersecurity-related requirements, consumer-facing organizations tend to have more generic requirements for privacy protections, data breach notifications and so forth. That said, all types of organizations deploying IoT have leeway in selecting a guiding philosophy for their cybersecurity efforts.

A basic security principle is to minimize networked or vulnerable systems’ attack surface — for instance, closing unused network ports and eliminating IoT device communication over the open internet. Generally speaking, building security into the architecture of IoT deployments and reducing attackers’ options to sabotage a system is more reliable than adding layers of defence to an unsecured architecture. Organizations deploying IoT projects should consider intrinsic security functionality such as embedded processors with cryptographic support.

But it is not practical to remove all risk from an IT system. For that reason, one of the most popular options is defence-in-depth, a military-rooted concept espousing the use of multiple layers of security. The basic idea is that if one countermeasure fails, additional security layers are available.

While the core principle of implementing multiple layers of security remains popular, defence in depth is also tied to the concept of perimeter-based defence, which is increasingly falling out of favour. “The defence-in-depth approach to cyber defence was formulated on the basis that everything outside of an organization’s perimeter should be considered ‘untrusted’ while everything internal should be inherently ‘trusted,’” said Andrew Rafla, a Deloitte Risk & Financial Advisory principal. “Organizations would layer a set of boundary security controls such that anyone trying to access the trusted side from the untrusted side had to traverse a set of detection and prevention controls to gain access to the internal network.”

Several trends have chipped away at the perimeter-based model. As a result, “modern enterprises no longer have defined perimeters,” Rafla said. “Gone are the days of inherently trusting any connection based on where the source originates.” Trends ranging from the proliferation of IoT devices and mobile applications to the popularity of cloud computing have fueled interest in cybersecurity models such as zero trust. “At its core, zero trust commits to ‘never trusting, always verifying’ as it relates to access control,” Rafla said. “Within the context of zero trusts, security boundaries are created at a lower level in the stack, and risk-based access control decisions are made based on contextual information of the user, device, workload or network attempting to gain access.”

Zero trust’s roots stretch back to the 1970s when a handful of computer scientists theorized on the most effective access control methods for networks. “Every program and every privileged user of the system should operate using the least amount of privilege necessary to complete the job,” one of those researchers, Jerome Saltzer, concluded in 1974.

While the concept of least privilege sought to limit trust among internal computing network users, zero trusts extend the principle to devices, networks, workloads and external users. The recent surge in remote working has accelerated interest in the zero-trust model. “Many businesses have changed their paradigm for security as a result of COVID-19,” said Jason Haward-Grau, a leader in KPMG’s cybersecurity practice. “Many organizations are experiencing a surge to the cloud because businesses have concluded they cannot rely on a physically domiciled system in a set location.”

Based on data from Deloitte, 37.4% of businesses accelerated their zero trust adoption plans in response to the pandemic. In contrast, more than one-third, or 35.2%, of those embracing zero trusts stated that the pandemic had not changed the speed of their organization’s zero-trust adoption.

“I suspect that many of the respondents that said their organization’s zero-trust adoption efforts were unchanged by the pandemic were already embracing zero trusts and were continuing with efforts as planned,” Rafla said. “In many cases, the need to support a completely remote workforce in a secure and scalable way has provided a tangible use case to start pursuing zero-trust adoption.”

A growing number of organizations are beginning to blend aspects of zero trust and traditional perimeter-based controls through a model known as secure access service edge (SASE), according to Rafla. “In this model, traditional perimeter-based controls of the defence-in-depth approach are converged and delivered through a cloud-based subscription service,” he said. “This provides a more consistent, resilient, scalable and seamless user experience regardless of where the target application a user is trying to access may be hosted. User access can be tightly controlled, and all traffic passes through multiple layers of cloud-based detection and prevention controls.”

Regardless of the framework, organizations should have policies in place for access control and identity management, especially for passwords. As Forrester’s Cunningham noted in “Cyber Warfare,” the password is “the single most prolific means of authentication for enterprises, users, and almost any system on the planet” — is the lynchpin of failed security in cyberspace. Almost everything uses a password at some stage.” Numerous password repositories have been breached, and passwords are frequently recycled, making the password a common security weakness for user accounts as well as IoT devices.

A significant number of consumer-grade IoT devices have also had their default passwords posted online. Weak passwords used in IoT devices also fueled the growth of the Mirai botnet, which led to widespread internet outages in 2016. More recently, unsecured passwords on IoT devices in enterprise settings have reportedly attracted state-sponsored actors’ attention.

IoT devices and related systems also need an effective mechanism for device management, including tasks such as patching, connectivity management, device logging, device configuration, software and firmware updates and device provisioning. Device management capabilities also extend to access control modifications and include remediation of compromised devices. It is vital to ensure that device management processes themselves are secure and that a system is in place for verifying the integrity of software updates, which should be regular and not interfere with device functionality.

Organizations must additionally address the life span of devices and the cadence of software updates. Many environments allow IT pros to identify a specific end-of-life period and remove or replace expired hardware. In such cases, there should be a plan for device disposal or transfer of ownership. In other contexts, such as in industrial environments, legacy workstations don’t have a defined expiration date and run out-of-date software. These systems should be segmented on the network. Often, such industrial systems cannot be easily patched like IT systems are, requiring security professionals to perform a comprehensive security audit on the system before taking additional steps.

Identify Threats and Anomalies

In recent years, attacks have become so common that the cybersecurity community has shifted its approach from preventing breaches from assuming a breach has already happened. The threat landscape has evolved to the point that cyberattacks against most organizations are inevitable.

“You hear it everywhere: It’s a matter of when, not if, something happens,” said Dan Frank, a principal at Deloitte specializing in privacy and data protection. Matters have only become more precarious in 2020. The FBI has reported a three- to four-fold increase in cybersecurity complaints after the advent of COVID-19.

Advanced defenders have taken a more aggressive stance known as threat hunting, which focuses on proactively identifying breaches. Another popular strategy is to study adversary behaviour and tactics to classify attack types. Models such as the MITRE ATT&CK framework and the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) are popular for assessing adversary tactics and vulnerabilities.

While approaches to analyzing vulnerabilities and potential attacks vary according to an organization’s maturity, situational awareness is a prerequisite at any stage. The U.S. Army Field Manual defines the term like this: “Knowledge and understanding of the current situation which promotes timely, relevant and accurate assessment of friendly, enemy and other operations within the battlespace to facilitate decision making.”

In cybersecurity as in warfare, situational awareness requires a clear perception of the elements in an environment and their potential to cause future events. In some cases, the possibility of a future cyber attack can be averted by merely patching software with known vulnerabilities.

Intrusion detection systems can automate some degree of monitoring of networks and operating systems. Intrusion detection systems that are based on detecting malware signatures also can identify common attacks. They are, however, not effective at recognizing so-called zero-day malware, which has not yet been catalogued by security researchers. Intrusion detection based on malware signatures is also ineffective at detecting custom attacks, (i.e., a disgruntled employee who knows just enough Python or PowerShell to be dangerous. Sophisticated threat actors who slip through defences to gain network access can become insiders, with permission to view sensitive networks and files. In such cases, situational awareness is a prerequisite to mitigate damage.

Another strategy for intrusion detection systems is to focus on context and anomalies rather than malware signatures. Such systems could use machine learning to learn legitimate commands, use of messaging protocols and so forth. While this strategy overcomes the reliance on malware signatures, it can potentially trigger false alarms. Such a system can also detect so-called slow-rate attacks, a type of denial of service attack that gradually robs networking bandwidth but is more difficult to detect than volumetric attacks.

Respond Effectively to Cyber-Incidents

The foundation for successful cyber-incident response lies in having concrete security policies, architecture and processes. “Once you have a breach, it’s kind of too late,” said Deloitte’s Frank. “It’s what you do before that matters.”

That said, the goal of warding off all cyber-incidents, which range from violations of security policies and laws to data breaches, is not realistic. It is thus essential to implement short- and long-term plans for managing cybersecurity emergencies. Organizations should have contingency plans for addressing possible attacks, practising how to respond to them through wargaming exercises to improve their ability to mitigate some cyberattacks and develop effective, coordinated escalation measures for successful breaches.

There are several aspects of the zero trust model that enhance organizations’ ability to respond and recover from cyber events. “Network and micro-segmentation, for example, is a concept by which trust zones are created by organizations around certain classes or types of assets, restricting the blast radius of potentially destructive cyberattacks and limiting the ability for an attacker to move laterally within the environment,” Rafla said. Also, efforts to automate and orchestrate zero trust principles can enhance the efficiency of security operations, speeding efforts to mitigate attacks. “Repetitive and manual tasks can now be automated and proactive actions to isolate and remediate security threats can be orchestrated through integrated controls,” Rafla added.

Response to cyber-incidents involves coordinating multiple stakeholders beyond the security team. “Every business function could be impacted — marketing, customer relations, legal compliance, information technology, etc.,” Frank said.

A six-tiered model for cyber incident response from the SANS Institute contains the following steps:

  • Preparation: Preparing the team to react to events ranging from cyberattacks to hardware failure and power outages.
  • Identification: Determining if an operational anomaly should be classified as a cybersecurity incident, and how to respond to it.
  • Containment: Segmenting compromised devices on the network long enough to limit damage in the event of a confirmed cybersecurity incident. Conversely, long-term containment measures involve hardening effective systems to allow them to enable normal operations.
  • Eradication: Removing or restoring compromised systems. If a security team detects malware on an IoT device, for instance, this phase could involve reimaging its hardware to prevent reinfection.
  • Recovery: Integrating previously compromised systems back into production and ensuring they operate normally after that. In addition to addressing the security event directly, recovery can involve crisis communications with external stakeholders such as customers or regulators.
  • Lessons Learned: Documenting and reviewing the factors that led to the cyber-incident and taking steps to avoid future problems. Feedback from this step should create a feedback loop providing insights that support future preparation, identification, etc.

While the bulk of the SANS model focuses on cybersecurity operations, the last step should be a multidisciplinary process. Investing in cybersecurity liability insurance to offset risks identified after ongoing cyber-incident response requires support from upper management and the legal team. Ensuring compliance with the evolving regulatory landscape also demands feedback from the legal department.

A central practice that can prove helpful is documentation — not just for security incidents, but as part of ongoing cybersecurity assessment and strategy. Organizations with mature security documentation tend to be better positioned to deal with breaches.

“If you fully document your program — your policies, procedures, standards and training — that might put you in a more favourable position after a breach,” Frank explained. “If you have all that information summarized and ready, in the event of an investigation by a regulatory authority after an incident, it shows the organization has robust programs in place.”

Documenting security events and controls can help organizations become more proactive and more capable of embracing automation and machine learning tools. As they collect data, they should repeatedly ask how to make the most of it. KPMG’s Haward-Grau said cybersecurity teams should consider the following questions:

  • What data should we focus on?
  • What can we do to improve our operational decision making?
  • How do we reduce our time and costs efficiently and effectively, given the nature of the reality in which we’re operating?

Ultimately, answering those questions may involve using machine learning or artificial intelligence technology, Haward- Grau said. “If your business is using machine learning or AI, you have to digitally enable them so that they can do what they want to do,” he said.

Finally, documenting security events and practices as they relate to IoT devices and beyond can be useful in evaluating the effectiveness of cybersecurity spending and provide valuable feedback for digital transformation programs. “Security is a foundational requirement that needs to be ingrained holistically in architecture and processes and governed by policies,” said Chander Damodaran, chief architect at Brillio, a digital consultancy firm. ”Security should be a common denominator.”

IoT Security

Recent legislation requires businesses to assume responsibility for protecting the Internet of Things (IoT) devices. “Security by Design” approaches are essential since successful applications deploy millions of units and analysts predict billions of devices deployed in the next five to ten years. The cost of fixing compromised devices later could overwhelm a business.

Security risks can never be eliminated: there is no single solution for all concerns, and the cost to counter every possible threat vector is prohibitively expensive. The best we can do is minimize the risk, and design devices and processes to be easily updatable.

It is best to assess damage potential and implement security methods accordingly. For example, for temperature and humidity sensors used in environmental monitoring, data protection needs are not as stringent as devices transmitting credit card information. The first may require anonymization for privacy, and the second may require encryption to prevent unauthorized access.

Overall Objectives

Senders and receivers must authenticate. IoT devices must transmit to the correct servers and ensure they receive messages from the correct servers.

Mission-critical applications, such as vehicle crash notification or medical alerts, may fail if the connection is not reliable. Lack of communication itself is a lack of security.

Connectivity errors can make good data unreliable, and actions on the content may be erroneous. It is best to select connectivity providers with strong security practices—e.g., whitelisting access and traffic segregation to prevent unauthorized communication.

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IoT Security: 360-Degree Approach

Finally, only authorized recipients should access the information. In particular, privacy laws require extra care in accessing the information on individuals.

Data Chain

Developers should implement security best practices at all points in the chain. However, traditional IT security protects servers with access controls, intrusion detection, etc., the farther away from the servers that best practices are implemented, the less impact that remote IoT device breaches have on the overall application.

For example, compromised sensors might send bad data, and servers might take incorrect actions despite data filtering. Thus, gateways offer an ideal location for security with compute capacity for encryption and implement over-the-air (OTA) updates for security fixes.

Servers often automate responses on data content. Simplistic and automated responses to bad data could cascade into much greater difficulty. If devices transmit excessively, servers could overload and fail to provide timely responses to transmissions—retry algorithms resulting from network unavailability often create data storms.

IoT devices often use electrical power rather than batteries, and compromised units could continue to operate for years. Implementing over-the-air (OTA) functions for remotely disabling devices could be critical.

When a breach requires device firmware updates, OTA support is vital when devices are inaccessible or large numbers of units must be modified rapidly. All devices should support OTA, even if it increases costs—for example, adding memory for managing multiple “images” of firmware for updates.

In summary, IoT security best practices of authentication, encryption, remote device disable, and OTA for security fixes, along with traditional IT server protection, offers the best chance of minimizing risks of attacks on IoT applications.

Originally posted here.

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The benefits of IoT data are widely touted. Enhanced operational visibility, reduced costs, improved efficiencies and increased productivity have driven organizations to take major strides towards digital transformation. With countless promising business opportunities, it’s no surprise that IoT is expanding rapidly and relentlessly. It is estimated that there will be 75.4 billion IoT devices by 2025. As IoT grows, so do the volumes of IoT data that need to be collected, analyzed and stored. Unfortunately, significant barriers exist that can limit or block access to this data altogether.

Successful IoT data acquisition starts and ends with reliable and scalable IoT connectivity. Selecting the right communications technology is paramount to the long-term success of your IoT project and various factors must be considered from the beginning to build a functional wireless infrastructure that can support and manage the influx of IoT data today and in the future.

Here are five IoT architecture must-haves for unlocking IoT data at scale.

1. Network Ownership

For many businesses, IoT data is one of their greatest assets, if not the most valuable. This intensifies the demand to protect the flow of data at all costs. With maximum data authority and architecture control, the adoption of privately managed networks is becoming prevalent across industrial verticals.

Beyond the undeniable benefits of data security and privacy, private networks give users more control over their deployment with the flexibility to tailor their coverage to the specific needs of their campus style network. On a public network, users risk not having the reliable connectivity needed for indoor, underground and remote critical IoT applications. And since this network is privately owned and operated, users also avoid the costly monthly access, data plans and subscription costs imposed by public operators, lowering the overall total-cost-of-ownership. Private networks also provide full control over network availability and uptime to ensure users have reliable access to their data at all times.

2. Minimal Infrastructure Requirements

Since the number of end devices is often fixed to your IoT use cases, choosing a wireless technology that requires minimal supporting infrastructure like base stations and repeaters, as well as configuration and optimization is crucial to cost-effectively scale your IoT network.

Wireless solutions with long range and excellent penetration capability, such as next-gen low-power wide area networks, require fewer base stations to cover a vast, structurally dense industrial or commercial campuses. Likewise, a robust radio link and large network capacity allow an individual base station to effectively support massive amounts of sensors without comprising performance to ensure a continuous flow of IoT data today and in the future.

3. Network and Device Management

As IoT initiatives move beyond proofs-of-concept, businesses need an effective and secure approach to operate, control and expand their IoT network with minimal costs and complexity.

As IoT deployments scale to hundreds or even thousands of geographically dispersed nodes, a manual approach to connecting, configuring and troubleshooting devices is inefficient and expensive. Likewise, by leaving devices completely unattended, users risk losing business-critical IoT data when it’s needed the most. A network and device management platform provides a single-pane, top-down view of all network traffic, registered nodes and their status for streamlined network monitoring and troubleshooting. Likewise, it acts as the bridge between the edge network and users’ downstream data servers and enterprise applications so users can streamline management of their entire IoT project from device to dashboard.

4. Legacy System Integration

Most traditional assets, machines, and facilities were not designed for IoT connectivity, creating huge data silos. This leaves companies with two choices: building entirely new, greenfield plants with native IoT technologies or updating brownfield facilities for IoT connectivity. Highly integrable, plug-and-play IoT connectivity is key to streamlining the costs and complexity of an IoT deployment. Businesses need a solution that can bridge the gap between legacy OT and IT systems to unlock new layers of data that were previously inaccessible. Wireless IoT connectivity must be able to easily retrofit existing assets and equipment without complex hardware modifications and production downtime. Likewise, it must enable straightforward data transfer to the existing IT infrastructure and business applications for data management, visualization and machine learning.

5. Interoperability

Each IoT system is a mashup of diverse components and technologies. This makes interoperability a prerequisite for IoT scalability, to avoid being saddled with an obsolete system that fails to keep pace with new innovation later on. By designing an interoperable architecture from the beginning, you can avoid fragmentation and reduce the integration costs of your IoT project in the long run. 

Today, technology standards exist to foster horizontal interoperability by fueling global cross-vendor support through robust, transparent and consistent technology specifications. For example, a standard-based wireless protocol allows you to benefit from a growing portfolio of off-the-shelf hardware across industry domains. When it comes to vertical interoperability, versatile APIs and open messaging protocols act as the glue to connect the edge network with a multitude of value-deriving backend applications. Leveraging these open interfaces, you can also scale your deployment across locations and seamlessly aggregate IoT data across premises.  

IoT data is the lifeblood of business intelligence and competitive differentiation and IoT connectivity is the crux to ensuring reliable and secure access to this data. When it comes to building a future-proof wireless architecture, it’s important to consider not only existing requirements, but also those that might pop up down the road. A wireless solution that offers data ownership, minimal infrastructure requirements, built-in network management and integration and interoperability will not only ensure access to IoT data today, but provide cost-effective support for the influx of data and devices in the future.

Originally posted here.

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by Olivier Pauzet

Over the past year, we have seen the Industrial IoT (IIoT) take an important step forward, crossing the chasm that previously separated IIoT early adopters from the majority of companies.

New solutions like Octave, Sierra Wireless’ edge-to-cloud solution for connecting industrial assets, have greatly simplified the IIoT, making it possible now for practically any company to securely extract, transmit, and act on data from bio-waste collectors, liquid fertilizer tanks, water purifiers, hot water heaters and other industrial equipment.

So, what IIoT trends will these 2020 developments lead to in 2021? I expect that they will drive greater adoption of the IIoT next year, as manufacturing, utility, healthcare, and other organizations further realize that they can help their previously silent industrial assets speak using the APIs integrated in new IoT solutions. At the same time, I expect we will start to see the development of some revolutionary IIoT applications that use 5G’s Ultra-Reliable, Low-Latency Communications (URLLC) capabilities to change the way our factories, electric grid, and healthcare systems operate.

In 2021, Industrial Equipment APIs Will Give Quiet Equipment A Voice

Cloud APIs have transformed the tech industry, and with it, our digital economy. By enabling SaaS and other cloud-based applications to easily and securely talk to each other, cloud APIs have vastly expanded the value of these applications to users. These APIs have also spawned billion-dollar companies like Stripe, Tableau, and Twilio, whose API-focused business models have transformed the online payments, data visualization, and customer service markets.

2021 will be the year industrial companies begin seeing their markets transformed by APIs, as more of these companies begin using industrial equipment APIs built into new IIoT solutions to enable their industrial assets to talk to the cloud.

Using new edge-to-cloud solutions - like Octave -with built-in Industrial equipment APIs for Modbus and other industrial communications protocols, these companies will be able to securely connect these assets to the cloud almost as easily as if this equipment was a cloud-based application.

In fact, by simply plugging a low-cost IoT gateway with these IIoT APIs into their industrial equipment, they will be able to deploy IIoT applications that allow them to remotely monitor, maintain, and control this equipment. Then, using these applications, they can lower equipment downtime, reduce maintenance costs, launch new Equipment-as-a-Service business models, and innovate faster.

Industrial companies have been trying to connect their assets to the cloud for years, but have been stymied by the complexity, time, and expense involved in doing so. In 2021, industrial equipment APIs will provide these companies with a way to simply, quickly, and cheaply connect this equipment to the cloud. By giving a voice to billions of pieces of industrial equipment, these Industrial IoT APIs will help bring about the productivity, sustainability, and other benefits Industry 4.0 has long promised.

In 2021 Manufacturing, Utility and Healthcare Will Drive Growth of the Industrial IoT

Until recently, the consumer sector, and especially the smart home market, has led the way in adopting the IoT, as the success of the Google Nest smart thermostat, the Amazon Echo smart speaker and Ring smart doorbell, and the Phillips Hue smart lights demonstrate. However, in 2021 another IIoT trend we can expect to see is the industrial sector starting to catch up to the consumer market regarding the IoT, with the manufacturing, utility, and healthcare markets leading the way.

For example, new IIoT solutions now make it possible for Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and other manufacturing companies to simply plug their equipment into the IIoT and begin acting on data from this equipment almost immediately. This has lowered the time to value for IIoT applications to the point where companies can begin reaping financial benefits greater than the total cost for their IIoT application in a few short months.

At this point, manufacturers who don’t have a plan to integrate the IIoT into their assets are, to put it bluntly, leaving money on the table – money their competitors will happily snap up with their own new connected industrial equipment offerings if they do not.

Like manufacturing companies, utilities will ramp up their use of the IIoT in 2021, as they seek to improve their operational efficiency, customer engagement, reliability, and sustainability. For example, utilities will increasingly use the IIoT to perform remote diagnostics and predictive maintenance on their grid infrastructure, reducing this equipment’s downtime while also lowering maintenance costs. In addition, a growing number of utilities will use the IIoT to collect and analyze data on their wind, solar and other renewable energy generation portfolios, allowing them to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while still balancing energy supply and demand on the grid.

Along with manufacturing and utilities, healthcare is the third market sector I expect to lead the way in adopting the IIoT in 2021. The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated to healthcare providers how connectivity – such as Internet-based telemedicine solutions -- can improve patient outcomes while reducing their costs. In 2021 they will increase their use of the IIoT, as they work to extend this connectivity to patient monitors, scanners and other medical devices. With the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT), healthcare providers will be better able to prepare patient treatments, remotely monitor and respond to changes to their patients’ conditions, and generate health care treatment documents.

Revolutionary Ultra-Reliable, Low-Latency 5G Applications Will Begin to Be Developed

There is a lot of buzz regarding 5G New Radio (NR) in the IIoT market. However, having been designed to co-exist with 4G LTE, most of 5G NR’s impact in this market is still evolutionary, not revolutionary. Companies are beginning to adopt 5G to wring better performance out of their existing IIoT applications, or to future-proof their connectivity strategies. But they are doing this while continuing to use LTE, as well as Low Power Wide Area (LPWA) 5G technologies, like LTE-M and NB-IoT, for now.

In 2021 however I think we will begin to see companies starting to develop revolutionary new IIoT application proof of concepts designed to take advantage of 5G NR’s Ultra-Reliable, Low-Latency Communications (URLLC) capabilities. These URLLC applications – including smart Automated Guided Vehicle (AGVs) for manufacturing, self-healing energy grids for utilities and remote surgery for health care – are simply not possible with existing wireless technologies.

Thanks to its ability to deliver ultra-high reliability and latencies as low as one millisecond, 5G NR enables companies to finally build URLLC applications – especially when 5G NR is used in conjunction with new edge computing technologies.

It will be a long time before any of these URLLC application proof-of-concepts are commercialized. But as far as 5G Wave 5+, next year is when we will first begin seeing this wave forming out at sea. And when it does eventually reach shore, it will have a revolutionary impact on our connected economy.

Originally posted here.

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Then it seemed that overnight, millions of workers worldwide were told to isolate and work from home as best as they could. Businesses were suddenly forced to enable remote access for hundreds or thousands of users, all at once, from anywhere across the globe. Many companies that already offered VPN services to a small group of remote workers scurried to extend those capabilities to the much larger workforce sequestering at home. It was a decision made in haste out of necessity, but now it’s time to consider, is VPN the best remote access technology for the enterprise, or can other technologies provide a better long-term solution?

Long-term Remote Access Could Be the Norm for Some Time

Some knowledge workers are trickling back to their actual offices, but many more are still at home and will be for some time. Global Workplace Analytics estimates that 25-30% of the workforce will still be working from home multiple days a week by the end of 2021. Others may never return to an official office, opting to remain a work-from-home (WFH) employee for good.

Consequently, enterprises need to find a remote access solution that gives home-based workers a similar experience as they would have in the office, including ease of use, good performance, and a fully secure network access experience. What’s more, the solution must be cost effective and easy to administer without the need to add more technical staff members.

VPNs are certainly one option, but not the only one. Other choices include appliance-based SD-WAN and SASE. Let’s have a look at each approach.

VPNs Weren’t Designed to Support an Entire Workforce

While VPNs are a useful remote access solution for a small portion of the workforce, they are an inefficient technology for giving remote access to a very large number of workers. VPNs are designed for point-to-point connectivity, so each secure connection between two points – presumably a remote worker and a network access server (NAS) in a datacenter – requires its own VPN link. Each NAS has a finite capacity for simultaneous users, so for a large remote user base, some serious infrastructure may be needed in the datacenter.

Performance can be an issue. With a VPN, all communication between the user and the VPN is encrypted. The encryption process takes time, and depending on the type of encryption used, this may add noticeable latency to Internet communications. More important, however, is the latency added when a remote user needs access to IaaS and SaaS applications and services. The traffic path is convoluted because it must travel between the end user and the NAS before then going out to the cloud, and vice versa on the way back.

An important issue with VPNs is that they provide overly broad access to the entire network without the option of controlling granular user access to specific resources. Stolen VPN credentials have been implicated in several high-profile data breaches. By using legitimate credentials and connecting through a VPN, attackers were able to infiltrate and move freely through targeted company networks. What’s more, there is no scrutiny of the security posture of the connecting device, which could allow malware to enter the network via insecure user devices.

SD-WAN Brings Intelligence into Routing Remote Users’ Traffic

Another option for providing remote access for home-based workers is appliance-based SD-WAN. It brings a level of intelligence to the connectivity that VPNs don’t have. Lee Doyle, principal analyst with Doyle Research, outlines the benefits of using SD-WAN to connect home office users to their enterprise network:

  • Prioritization for mission-critical and latency-sensitive applications
  • Accelerated access to cloud-based services
  • Enhanced security via encryption, VPNs, firewalls and integration with cloud-based security
  • Centralized management tools for IT administrators

One thing to consider about appliance-based SD-WAN is that it’s primarily designed for branch office connectivity—though it can accommodate individual users at home as well. However, if a company isn’t already using SD-WAN, this isn’t a technology that is easy to implement and setup for hundreds or thousands of home-based users. What’s more, a significant investment must be made in the various communication and security appliances.

SASE Provides a Simpler, More Secure, Easily Scalable Solution

Cato’s Secure Access Service Edge (or SASE) platform provides a great alternative to VPN for remote access by many simultaneous workers. The platform offers scalable access, optimized connectivity, and integrated threat prevention that are needed to support continuous large-scale remote access.

Companies that enable WFH using Cato’s platform can scale quickly to any number of remote users with ease. There is no need to set up regional hubs or VPN concentrators. The SASE service is built on top of dozens of globally distributed Points of Presence (PoPs) maintained by Cato to deliver a wide range of security and networking services close to all locations and users. The complexity of scaling is all hidden in the Cato-provided PoPs, so there is no infrastructure for the organization to purchase, configure or deploy. Giving end users remote access is as simple as installing a client agent on the user’s device, or by providing clientless access to specific applications via a secure browser.

Cato’s SASE platform employs Zero Trust Network Access in granting users access to the specific resources and applications they need to use. This granular-level security is part of the identity-driven approach to network access that SASE demands. Since all traffic passes through a full network security stack built into the SASE service, multi-factor authentication, full access control, and threat prevention are applied to traffic from remote users. All processing is done within the PoP closest to the users while enforcing all corporate network and security policies. This eliminates the “trombone effect” associated with forcing traffic to specific security choke points on a network. Further, admins have consistent visibility and control of all traffic throughout the enterprise WAN.

SASE Supports WFH in the Short-term and Long-term

While some workers are venturing back to their offices, many more are still working from home—and may work from home permanently. The Cato SASE platform is the ideal way to give them access to their usual network environment without forcing them to go through insecure and inconvenient VPNs.

Originally posted here

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When I think about the things that held the planet together in 2020, it was digital experiences delivered over wireless connectivity that made remote things local.

While heroes like doctors, nurses, first responders, teachers, and other essential personnel bore the brunt of the COVID-19 response, billions of people around the world found themselves cut off from society. In order to keep people safe, we were physically isolated from each other. Far beyond the six feet of social distancing, most of humanity weathered the storm from their homes.

And then little by little, old things we took for granted, combined with new things many had never heard of, pulled the world together. Let’s take a look at the technologies and trends that made the biggest impact in 2020 and where they’re headed in 2021:

The Internet

The global Internet infrastructure from which everything else is built is an undeniable hero of the pandemic. This highly-distributed network designed to withstand a nuclear attack performed admirably as usage by people, machines, critical infrastructure, hospitals, and businesses skyrocketed. Like the air we breathe, this primary facilitator of connected, digital experiences is indispensable to our modern society. Unfortunately, the Internet is also home to a growing cyberwar and security will be the biggest concern as we move into 2021 and beyond. It goes without saying that the Internet is one of the world’s most critical utilities along with water, electricity, and the farm-to-table supply chain of food.

Wireless Connectivity

People are mobile and they stay connected through their smartphones, tablets, in cars and airplanes, on laptops, and other devices. Just like the Internet, the cellular infrastructure has remained exceptionally resilient to enable communications and digital experiences delivered via native apps and the web. Indoor wireless connectivity continues to be dominated by WiFi at home and all those empty offices. Moving into 2021, the continued rollout of 5G around the world will give cellular endpoints dramatic increases in data capacity and WiFi-like speeds. Additionally, private 5G networks will challenge WiFi as a formidable indoor option, but WiFi 6E with increased capacity and speed won’t give up without a fight. All of these developments are good for consumers who need to stay connected from anywhere like never before.

Web Conferencing

With many people stuck at home in 2020, web conferencing technology took the place of traveling to other locations to meet people or receive education. This technology isn’t new and includes familiar players like GoToMeeting, Skype, WebEx, Google Hangouts/Meet, BlueJeans, FaceTime, and others. Before COVID, these platforms enjoyed success, but most people preferred to fly on airplanes to meet customers and attend conferences while students hopped on the bus to go to school. In 2020, “necessity is the mother of invention” took hold and the use of Zoom and Teams skyrocketed as airplanes sat on the ground while business offices and schools remained empty. These two platforms further increased their stickiness by increasing the number of visible people and adding features like breakout rooms to meet the demands of businesses, virtual conference organizers, and school teachers. Despite the rollout of the vaccine, COVID won’t be extinguished overnight and these platforms will remain strong through the first half of 2021 as organizations rethink where and when people work and learn. There’s way too many players in this space so look for some consolidation.

E-Commerce

“Stay at home” orders and closed businesses gave e-commerce platforms a dramatic boost in 2020 as they took the place of shopping at stores or going to malls. Amazon soared to even higher heights, Walmart upped their game, Etsy brought the artsy, and thousands of Shopify sites delivered the goods. Speaking of delivery, the empty city streets became home to fleets FedEx, Amazon, UPS, and DHL trucks bringing packages to your front doorstep. Many retail employees traded-in working at customer-facing stores for working in a distribution centers as long as they could outperform robots. Even though people are looking forward to hanging out at malls in 2021, the e-commerce, distribution center, delivery truck trinity is here to stay. This ball was already in motion and got a rocket boost from COVID. This market will stay hot in the first half of 2021 and then cool a bit in the second half.

Ghost Kitchens

The COVID pandemic really took a toll on restaurants in the 2020, with many of them going out of business permanently. Those that survived had to pivot to digital and other ways of doing business. High-end steakhouses started making burgers on grills in the parking lot, while takeout pizzerias discovered they finally had the best business model. Having a drive-thru lane was definitely one of the keys to success in a world without waiters, busboys, and hosts. “Front of house” was shut down, but the “back of house” still had a pulse. Adding mobile web and native apps that allowed customers to easily order from operating “ghost kitchens” and pay with credit cards or Apple/Google/Samsung Pay enabled many restaurants to survive. A combination of curbside pickup and delivery from the likes of DoorDash, Uber Eats, Postmates, Instacart and Grubhub made this business model work. A surge in digital marketing also took place where many restaurants learned the importance of maintaining a relationship with their loyal customers via connected mobile devices. For the most part, 2021 has restauranteurs hoping for 100% in-person dining, but a new business model that looks a lot like catering + digital + physical delivery is something that has legs.

The Internet of Things

At its very essence, IoT is all about remotely knowing the state of a device or environmental system along with being able to remotely control some of those machines. COVID forced people to work, learn, and meet remotely and this same trend applied to the industrial world. The need to remotely operate industrial equipment or an entire “lights out” factory became an urgent imperative in order to keep workers safe. This is yet another case where the pandemic dramatically accelerated digital transformation. Connecting everything via APIs, modeling entities as digital twins, and having software bots bring everything to life with analytics has become an ROI game-changer for companies trying to survive in a free-falling economy. Despite massive employee layoffs and furloughs, jobs and tasks still have to be accomplished, and business leaders will look to IoT-fueled automation to keep their companies running and drive economic gains in 2021.

Streaming Entertainment

Closed movie theaters, football stadiums, bowling alleys, and other sources of entertainment left most people sitting at home watching TV in 2020. This turned into a dream come true for streaming entertainment companies like Netflix, Apple TV+, Disney+, HBO Max, Hulu, Amazon Prime Video, Youtube TV, and others. That said, Quibi and Facebook Watch didn’t make it. The idea of binge-watching shows during the weekend turned into binge-watching every season of every show almost every day. Delivering all these streams over the Internet via apps has made it easy to get hooked. Multiplayer video games fall in this category as well and represent an even larger market than the film industry. Gamers socially distanced as they played each other from their locked-down homes. The rise of cloud gaming combined with the rollout of low-latency 5G and Edge computing will give gamers true mobility in 2021. On the other hand, the video streaming market has too many players and looks ripe for consolidation in 2021 as people escape the living room once the vaccine is broadly deployed.

Healthcare

With doctors and nurses working around the clock as hospitals and clinics were stretched to the limit, it became increasingly difficult for non-COVID patients to receive the healthcare they needed. This unfortunate situation gave tele-medicine the shot in the arm (no pun intended) it needed. The combination of healthcare professionals delivering healthcare digitally over widespread connectivity helped those in need. This was especially important in rural areas that lacked the healthcare capacity of cities. Concurrently, the Internet of Things is making deeper inroads into delivering the health of a person to healthcare professionals via wearable technology. Connected healthcare has a bright future that will accelerate in 2021 as high-bandwidth 5G provides coverage to more of the population to facilitate virtual visits to the doctor from anywhere.

Working and Living

As companies and governments told their employees to work from home, it gave people time to rethink their living and working situation. Lots of people living in previously hip, urban, high-rise buildings found themselves residing in not-so-cool, hollowed-out ghost towns comprised of boarded-up windows and closed bars and cafés. Others began to question why they were living in areas with expensive real estate and high taxes when they not longer had to be close to the office. This led to a 2020 COVID exodus out of pricey apartments/condos downtown to cheaper homes in distant suburbs as well as the move from pricey areas like Silicon Valley to cheaper destinations like Texas. Since you were stuck in your home, having a larger house with a home office, fast broadband, and a back yard became the most important thing. Looking ahead to 2021, a hybrid model of work-from-home plus occasionally going into the office is here to stay as employees will no longer tolerate sitting in traffic two hours a day just to sit in a cubicle in a skyscraper. The digital transformation of how and where we work has truly accelerated.

Data and Advanced Analytics

Data has shown itself to be one of the world’s most important assets during the time of COVID. Petabytes of data has continuously streamed-in from all over the world letting us know the number of cases, the growth or decline of infections, hospitalizations, contact-tracing, free ICU beds, temperature checks, deaths, and hotspots of infection. Some of this data has been reported manually while lots of other sources are fully automated from machines. Capturing, storing, organizing, modeling and analyzing this big data has elevated the importance of cloud and edge computing, global-scale databases, advanced analytics software, and the growing importance of machine learning. This is a trend that was already taking place in business and now has a giant spotlight on it due to its global importance. There’s no stopping the data + advanced analytics juggernaut in 2021 and beyond.

Conclusion

2020 was one of the worst years in human history and the loss of life was just heartbreaking. People, businesses, and our education system had to become resourceful to survive. This resourcefulness amplified the importance of delivering connected, digital experiences to make previously remote things into local ones. Cheers to 2021 and the hope for a brighter day for all of humanity.

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By Larry LeBlanc

Well, it has been quite a year, hasn’t it? On the cybersecurity front, everyone is worried about malicious actors tampering with election data – but it seems they were more focused (or at least successful) in conducting ransomware attacks on hospitals.

On the IoT front we saw the disclosure of significant vulnerabilities, such as Ripple20 in June and Amnesia-33 in December, that expose the TCP/IP stacks used in millions of IoT devices. With TCP/IP serving as the arterial system of the IoT, carrying the data which is its lifeblood, these vulnerabilities again demonstrate why all organizations need a plan to rapidly perform firmware updates on their IoT devices if they want to “stop the bleeding,” from these types of vulnerabilities.

So, what might the new year bring in terms of IoT security? I can’t say my crystal ball is crystal clear, but here are three predictions I am willing to make about IoT security developments in 2021.

Security as a Service Rapidly Expands into the IoT Market 

Companies are increasingly seeking to outsource their on-premises, cloud, and other cybersecurity needs, as the recent success of FireEye and other Security as a Service (SECaaS) providers demonstrates. These SECaaS providers combine deep levels of cybersecurity expertise, easy to deploy SaaS security solutions and economies of scale to deliver companies robust security at a lower cost than in-house alternatives. 

Now, SECaaS providers are expanding into the IoT market – and I expect this expansion to pick up steam in 2021. The millions of IoT devices that companies have deployed around the world represent a massive target for cybercriminals – and companies’ lack of IoT security expertise often make these devices easy for criminals to hack. Rather than become experts in IoT security themselves, I expect companies to increasingly partner with SECaaS providers who can help them protect their IoT data from malicious actors.

However, one question regarding this emerging IoT SECaaS market is, who will dominate it? Will it be established SECaaS providers extending their existing application to the IoT, providing companies with a comprehensive solution to their security needs? Or start-ups with SECaaS applications specifically designed to protect IoT data who be the leaders in this market? On this question, only time will tell. 

Companies Will Demand That IoT Solution Providers Establish Their Security Bona Fides 

While more companies outsource IoT security to SECaaS providers, they will also now start demanding (if they have not already) that their IoT device, connectivity, cloud and other providers not just talk about being committed to making their solutions secure, but prove it. 

Specifically, they will only work with IoT solution providers that have a deep understanding of IoT security issues, have integrated robust security capabilities into products, and are working to constantly update these products’ security capabilities.

By only partnering with IoT solution providers committed to security, these companies will position themselves to deploy an IoT security plan that provides them with defense in depth, enabling them to avoid having a chink in their IoT security armor result in a data breach or loss.

Expect more companies to demand that IoT solution vendors back up their security commitment promises with clear answers to questions like:

  • Can show how you are committed to transparency and responsiveness when dealing with security vulnerability reports?
  • Have you taken responsibility for vulnerability disclosure by becoming a CVE Numbering Authority (CNA) for your products?
  • What plans do you have to provide timely IoT device security updates, and how will you help me deploy these updates?

IoT hacks have taught companies that they must approach security as a critical requirement for their IoT deployments. After all, if they fail to partner with IoT solution providers who are not committed to security, they risk leaving not just their IoT applications, but their entire IT environment, open to attacks from sophisticated cybercriminals. 

A Return to IoT Security Basics 

Last year, many predicted that companies would deploy new AI-enabled threat intelligence and other leading-edge security technologies to protect themselves from attacks. 

However, while these new technologies do hold promise, most of the IoT hacks that took place over the past year resulted from companies simply not following basic IoT security best practices. Back in 2018 the Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) identified the top ten most impactful IoT security vulnerabilities, and the one that led the list was weak, guessable or hardcoded passwords. Following close behind in fourth was a lack of secure update mechanisms, which can lead to devices running on old, vulnerable firmware even when new, secure updates are available. 

I wish I could say that things have changed over the past two years, but I expect when the OWASP next updates this list, you will see the same security vulnerabilities on it. When it comes to protecting your IoT data, you don’t need AI to create strong passwords, update your device firmware, or activate and use your IoT devices’ built-in firewalls – you just need to make sure you are following basic IoT security best practices. 

Not only does implementing these basic best practices make IoT applications more secure, but they can reveal opportunities to reduce operational costs. For example, a company that ensures it is updating its devices’ firmware is likely to quickly discover that over-the-air firmware updates make it easy for them to protect their IoT devices from new attacks, allowing them to eliminate expensive trips by technicians to manually update IoT devices with security and other upgrades.

Perhaps I am being too optimistic, but I believe that, having seen over the past year that basic IoT security best practices can address high-profile vulnerabilities like Ripple20 and Amnesia-33, in 2021 companies will make sure they have fully implemented these best practices – and only then look for other technologies to address rarer, more sophisticated attacks. 

Originally posted HERE.

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By Michele Pelino

The COVID-19 pandemic drove businesses and employees to became more reliant on technology for both professional and personal purposes. In 2021, demand for new internet-of-things (IoT) applications, technologies, and solutions will be driven by connected healthcare, smart offices, remote asset monitoring, and location services, all powered by a growing diversity of networking technologies.

In 2021, we predict that:

  • Network connectivity chaos will reign. Technology leaders will be inundated by an array of wireless connectivity options. Forrester expects that implementation of 5G and Wi-Fi technologies will decline from 2020 levels as organizations sort through market chaos. For long-distance connectivity, low-earth-orbit satellites now provide a complementary option, with more than 400 Starlink satellites delivering satellite connectivity today. We expect interest in satellite and other lower-power networking technologies to increase by 20% in the coming year.
  • Connected device makers will double down on healthcare use cases. Many people stayed at home in 2020, leaving chronic conditions unmanaged, cancers undetected, and preventable conditions unnoticed. In 2021, proactive engagement using wearables and sensors to detect patients’ health at home will surge. Consumer interest in digital health devices will accelerate as individuals appreciate the convenience of at-home monitoring, insight into their health, and the reduced cost of connected health devices.
  • Smart office initiatives will drive employee-experience transformation. In 2021, some firms will ditch expensive corporate real estate driven by the COVID-19 crisis. However, we expect at least 80% of firms to develop comprehensive on-premises return-to-work office strategies that include IoT applications to enhance employee safety and improve resource efficiency such as smart lighting, energy and environmental monitoring, or sensor-enabled space utilization and activity monitoring in high traffic areas.*
  • The near ubiquity of connected machines will finally disrupt traditional business. Manufacturers, distributors, utilities, and pharma firms switched to remote operations in 2020 and began connecting previously disconnected assets. This connected-asset approach increased reliance on remote experts to address repairs without protracted downtime and expensive travel. In 2021, field service firms and industrial OEMs will rush to keep up with customer demand for more connected assets and machines.
  • Consumer and employee location data will be core to convenience. The COVID-19 pandemic elevated the importance location plays in delivering convenient customer and employee experiences. In 2021, brands must utilize location to generate convenience for consumers or employees with virtual queues, curbside pickup, and checking in for reservations. They will depend on technology partners to help use location data, as well as a third-party source of location trusted and controlled by consumers.

* Proactive firms, including Atea, have extended IoT investments to enhance employee experience and productivity by enabling employees to access a mobile app that uses data collected from light-fixture sensors to locate open desks and conference rooms. Employees can modify light and temperature settings according to personal preferences, and the system adjusts light color and intensity to better align with employees’ circadian rhythms to aid in concentration and energy levels. See the Forrester report “Rethink Your Smart Office Strategy.”

Originally posted HERE.

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By Patty Medberry

After 2020’s twists and turns, here’s hoping that 2021 ushers in a restored sense of “normal.” In thinking about what the upcoming year might bring for industrial IoT, three key trends emerge.

Trend #1: Securing operational technology (OT)

 IT will take a bolder posture to secure OT environments.

Cyber risks in industrial environments will continue to grow causing IT to take bolder steps to secure the OT network in 2021. The CISO and IT teams have accountability for cybersecurity across the enterprise. But often they do not have visibility into the OT network. Many OT networks use traditional measures like air gapping or an industrial demilitarized zone to protect against attacks. But these solutions are rife with backdoors. For example, third-party technicians and other vendors often have remote access to update systems, machines and devices. With increasing pressure from board members and government regulators to manage IoT/OT security risks, and to protect the business itself, the CISO and IT will need to do more.

Success requires OT’s help. IT cybersecurity practices that work in the enterprise are not always appropriate for industrial environments. What’s more, IT doesn’t have the expertise or insight into operational and process control technology. A simple patch could bring down production (and revenues).

Bottom line? Organizations will need solutions that strengthen cybersecurity while meeting IT and OT needs. For IT, that means visibility and control across their own environment to the OT network. For OT, it means security solutions that allow them respond to anomalies while keeping production humming.

Trend #2: Remote and autonomous operations

The need for operational resiliency will accelerate the deployment of remote and autonomous operations – driving a new class of networking.

The impact of changes brought on in 2020 is driving organizations to increasingly use IoT technologies for operational resiliency. After all, IoT helps keep a business up and running when people cannot be on the ground. It also helps improve safety and efficiencies by preventing unnecessary site visits and reducing employee movement throughout facilities.

In 2021, we will see more deployments aimed at sophisticated remote operations. These will go well beyond remote monitoring. They will include autonomous operational controls for select parts of a process and will be remotely enabled for other parts. Also, deployments will increasingly move toward full autonomy, eliminating the need for humans to be present locally or remotely. And more and more, AI will used for dynamic optimization and self-healing, in use cases such as:

  • autonomous guided vehicles for picking and packing, material handling, and autonomous container applications across manufacturing, warehouses and ports
  • increased automation of the distribution grid
  • autonomous haul trucks for mining applications
  • Computer-based train control for rail and mass transit

All these use cases require data instantly and in mass, demanding a network that can support that data plus deliver the speed required for analysis. This new class of industrial networking must provide the ability to handle more network bandwidth, offer zero latency data and support edge compute. It also needs security and scale to adapt quickly, ensuring the business is up and running – no matter what.

Trend #3: Managing multiple access technologies

Organizations will operate multiple-access technologies to achieve operational agility and flexibility.

While Ethernet has always been the foundation for connectivity in industrial IoT spaces, that connectivity is quickly expanding to wireless. Wireless helps reduce the pain of physical cabling and provides the flexibility and agility to upgrade, deploy and reconfigure the network with less operational downtime. Newer wireless technologies like Wi-Fi 6 and 5G also power use cases not possible in the past (or possible only with wired connectivity).

As organizations expand their IoT deployments, the need to manage multiple access technologies will grow. Successful deployments will require the right connectivity for the use case, otherwise, costs, complexity and security risks increase. With wireless choices including Wi-Fi, LoRaWAN, Wi-SUN, public or private cellular, Bluetooth and more, organizations will need to determine the best technology for each use case.  

Cisco’s recommendation: Build an access strategy to optimize costs and resources while ensuring security. Interactions between access technologies should deliver a secured and automated end-to-end IP infrastructure – and must avoid a “mishmash” leading to complexity and failed objectives.

As the end of 2020 fast approaches, I wish everyone a safe and healthy New Year. As you continue building and refining your plans for 2021, please consider how you can unleash these IoT network trends to reduce your cybersecurity risks and increase your operational resiliency. 

Originally posted HERE.

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As industrial organizations connect more devices, enable more remote access, and build new applications, the airgap approach to protecting industrial networks against cyber threats is no longer sufficient. As industries are becoming more digital, cyberattacks are getting more sophisticated, and yet many organizations are lagging in the adoption of updated and reliable industrial cybersecurity postures. And when these organization’s security leaders start building a strategy to secure operations beyond the industrial demilitarized zone (IDMZ), they realize it might not be as simple as they thought.

Industrial assets (as well as industrial networks, in many cases) are managed by the operations team, which is typically focused on production integrity, continuity, and physical safety, rather than cyber safety. The IT teams often have the required cybersecurity skills and experience but generally lack the operations context and the knowledge of the industrial processes that are required to take security measures without disrupting production.

Building a secure industrial network requires strong collaboration between IT and operations teams. Only together can they appreciate what needs to be protected and how best to protect it. Only together can they implement security best practices to build secure industrial operations.

Enhancing the security of industrial networks will not happen overnight: IT and operations teams have to build their relationship; new security tools might have to be deployed; networks might need to be upgraded and segmented; new correlation policies will have to be developed.

Security is a journey. Only a phased and pragmatic approach can lay the ground for a converged IT/OT security architecture. Each phase must be an opportunity to build the foundation for the next. This will ensure your industrial security project addresses crucial security needs at minimal costs. It will also help you raise skills and maturity levels throughout the organization to gain wide acceptance and ensure effective collaboration.

Being the leader in both the cybersecurity and industrial networking markets, we looked at the successful projects Cisco has been involved in. This led us to recommend a three-step journey outlined in Cisco’s Industrial Security Validated Design.

What is a Cisco Validated Design (CVD)? CVDs provide the foundation for systems design based on common use cases or current engineering system priorities. They incorporate a broad set of technologies, features, and applications to address customer needs. Each one has been comprehensively tested and documented by Cisco engineers to ensure faster, more reliable, and fully predictable deployment.

Our approach to industrial security is focused on crucial needs, while creating a framework for IT and operations to build an effective and collaborative workflow. It enables protection against the most common devastating cybersecurity threats, at optimized cost. And provides a practical approach to simplify adoption.

To learn more, read our solution brief or watch the replay of the webinar I just presented. A detailed design and implementation guide will be available soon for helping to accelerate proof-of-concepts and deployment efforts.

Originally posted HERE.

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Fig.1 Arrow Shield 96 Trusted Platform

Introduction

IoT product development crosses several domains of expertise from embedded design to communication protocols and cloud computing. Because of this complexity “end-to-end” or “edge-to-cloud” IoT security is becoming a challenging concept in the industry. Edge in many cases refers to the device as a single element in the edge-to-cloud chain. But the device must not be regarded as a whole when security requirements are defined. Trust must first be established within the processing unit and propagated through several layers of the software stack before the device becomes a trusted end node. Securing the processor requires to properly integrate multiple layers of security and use security features implemented in hardware. Embedded security expertise and experience is required to accomplish such tasks. It is very easy to put a lot of effort on implementing security for an IoT product and in the same time missing to cover key use cases. A simpler way to narrowing down on defining the end-to-end security is to start with identifying the minimum set of business requirements.

Brand image, how a company’s customers perceive and value it, is one of the most valuable assets of any corporation. Two of the most important characteristics of an IoT device that can promote a positive brand image are: resiliency and privacy. For resiliency, this might mean adding features that increase the device’s ability to self-recover from malfunctions or cyber-attacks. For privacy, this means protecting user information and data but also the intellectual property (IP), the product invested in the product. This means that preventing exploitation through vectors such as product\device cloning and over production becomes important. Another business driver is the overall cost of ownership for the product. Are there security related features that can drive the cost down? We include here not just operational cost but also liabilities.

In this blog, we dive deeper into solutions that support these business requirements. We will also discuss a demo we have created in collaboration with our partners Sequitur Labs and Arrow to demonstrate a commercially available approach to solving a number of several security use cases for IoT.

Security in depth – a methodical approach for securing connected products

IoT security must start with securing the device, so that data, data collection, and information processing can be trusted. Security must be applied in layers and facilitate trust propagation from the silicon hardware root of trust (HWRoT) to the public/private cloud or the application provider back-end. Furthermore, the connected paradigm provides the opportunity to delegate access control and security monitoring in the cloud, outside of the device. Narrowing down further, device security must be rooted by enabling fundamental capabilities of the processor or system on chip and consider all three stages of the device lifecycle: inception (manufacturing, first boot), operation, and decommissioning.

In a nutshell we should consider the following layers for securing any IoT product:

  • Set a hardware root of trust – secure programming and provisioning (firmware, key material, fuses)
  • Implement hardware enforced isolation – system partitioning secure / non-secure
  • Design secure boot – authenticated boot chain all the way to an authenticated kernel
  • Build for resiliency – fail-safe to an alternative firmware image and restore from off-board location
  • Enable Trusted Execution – establish a logical secure enclave
  • Abstract hardware security – streamline application development
  • Enable security monitoring – cloud based, actionable security monitoring for a fleets of devices

These capabilities provide a foundation sufficient to fulfill the most common security requirements of any IoT product.

Embedded security features needed to build the security layers described above are available today from many silicon providers. However, software is needed to turn these into a usable framework for application developers to easily implement higher layer security use cases without the need for advanced silicon expertise.

Such software products must be architected to be easily ported to diverse silicon designs. Secondly, the software solution must work with the established IoT manufacturing process. “Turning on” embedded security features triggers changes to existing manufacturing flows to accommodate hardware testing before final firmware image can be programmed, burning fuses in the silicon in a specific order and overall handling sensitive cryptographic key material. The fragmentation, complexity, and expertise required are the reasons why embedded security is a challenge to implement at scale in IoT today.

A closer look – commercially available secure platform with Arrow Shield96

AWS partnered with Sequitur Labs and Arrow to provide a commercial solution that follows the approach described in the previous paragraph. This solution follows the NIST SP 800-193 for Platform Firmware Resilience Guidelines and goes beyond to create a secure platform fitted for embedded and IoT products. In the same time it is abstracting the complexity of understanding and utilizing embedded security IP such as hardware crypto, random number generators, fuse controllers, tampers, hardware integrity checkers, TrustZone, on-the-fly memory encryption.

For this blog, we created a demo using the Arrow Shield 96 Trusted Platform (Fig 1) single board computer running Sequitur Labs custom firmware image based on the EmSPARK Security Suite. The Arrow Shield96 board is based on the Microchip SAMD27, a Cortex A5 entry level MPU that embeds a set of security IP capable to fulfill the most stringent security requirements.

Let’s dive deeper into the technical implementation first then into the demo scenarios that fulfill some of customers’ business needs.

Security inception and propagation of trust

Secure boot and firmware provisioning

Introducing secure boot requires initial programming of the CPU, essentially burning keys in the processor’s fuses, setting up the boot configuration, establishing the Hardware Root of Trust, and ensuring the processor only boots authenticated, trusted firmware. Secure boot implementation is tightly correlated to the processor programming and the device firmware provisioning. The following section provides details how secure boot and firmware provisioning can be done properly to establish a trusted security foundation for any application.

Firmware provisioning

EmSPARK Security Suite methodology for provisioning and programming the Shield96 board minimizes complexity and the need for embedded security expertise. It provides a tool and software building blocks that guide the device makers to create an encrypted manufacturing firmware image first. The manufacturing firmware image packages the final components: encrypted blobs of the final device firmware, a provisioning application, and customer specific key material such as private key and X.509 certificate for cloud connectivity, certificate authorities to authenticate firmware components and application updates.
The actual firmware provisioning and CPU programming is performed automatically during the very first boot of the device flashed with the manufacturing image. With the CPU running in secure mode the provisioning application burns the necessary CPU fuses and generates keys using the embedded TRNG (true random number generator) to uniquely encrypt the software components that together form the final firmware. Such components are the Trusted Execution Environment (CoreTEE), Linux kernel, customer applications, Trusted Applications, and key material (such as key material needed to authenticate with AWS IoT Core).

The output – establishing a trusted foundation

The result is firmware encrypted uniquely with a key derived from the HWRoT for each device in a process that does not leave room for device secrets mismanagement or human error. Device diversification achieved this way drastically reduces the cost of manufacturing by eliminating the need for HSMs and secure facilities while providing protection from class break attacks (break one break all).
Another task the provisioning process performs during the very first boot is creating and securely storing a unique device certificate from a preloaded CSR (Certificate Signing Request) template and a key pair generated using the HW TRNG then signed with a customer provided private key only usable securely during the device first boot. The device certificate serves as the immutable device identity for cloud authentication.

Secure boot

The secure boot implemented creates the system partitioning in secure and non-secure domains making sure all peripherals are set to the desired domain. Arm TrustZone and Microchip security IP are at the core of the implementation. CoreTEE, the operating system for the secure domain runs in on-the-fly AES encrypted DDR memory. This protects a critical software component (the TEE) from memory probing attacks. Secure boot has been designed so at the end of the boot process, before handing over control of the processor from the secure domain to the non-secure domain (Linux) to close access to the fuse controller, secure JTAG, and other peripherals that can be leveraged to breach the security.

Building for resilience

Secure boot implements two features that boost device resilience – a fail-over boot from a secondary image (B) when primary boot (A) fails, and the ability to restore a known good image (A) from an off-board location. The solution includes a hardware watchdog and a boot-loop counter (as set by the device maker) that Linux resets to maximum after each successful boot. If Linux fails to boot repeatedly and the counter reaches zero the B partition is set for the next boot. After such failure once the failover boot B is loaded, the device connects to an off-board location (in our demo that is a repository on AWS) retrieves the latest firmware image and re-installs it as the primary one (A). These two features help to reduce operational cost by allowing devices in the field to self-heal. In addition, AWS IoT Device Defender checks device behaviors for ongoing analysis and triggers alerts when behaviors deviate from expected ranges.

In our demo when the alternative firmware image (B) is loaded, an event is triggered in the AWS IoT Device Defender agent. The AWS IoT Device Defender agent running as a TA in the secure domain sends these events to the AWS IoT Device Defender Detect service for evaluation. The TA, running in the secure domain, also signs AWS IoT Device Defender messages to facilitate integrity validation for each reported event.

Another key component of the EmSPARK Suite is the secure update process. Since secure boot is the only process that can decrypt firmware components during device start it is also involved in performing the firmware update. The firmware update feature is facilitated in Linux as an API call that requires a manifest and the signed and/or encrypted new firmware image. The API call performs image signature verification and sets the flag for the boot to update and restarts the board. During next boot the secure boot process decrypts the new image using a pre-provisioned key and re-encrypts it with the board-specific key. The manifest indicates which components need to be updated – Linux Kernel, TEE, TAs and/or bootloader.

Enabling easy development through security abstraction

Arrow Shield through the EmSPARK Suite product preloads a number of TAs (Trusted Applications) with the Shield96 firmware. The figure below is a view of the dual domain implementation and the software components provided with the Shield96 Trusted product in our demo.

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Fig 2. Software architecture enabling TrustZone\TEE with EmSPARK Suite

These TAs expose a set of secure functions to Linux via a C SDK (called the CoreLocker APIs). The Arrow board and Sequitur’s security suite preloads the following TAs for our demo:

  • Cryptographic engine – providing symmetric, asymmetric crypto operations and key generation integrating silicon-specific hardware crypto
    Key-store and a CA-store managed (add, delete) via signed commands
  • Secure firmware update
  • Secure storage for files and stream data
  • TLS and MQTT stacks
  • AWS IoT Device Defender secure agent

In addition, a tamper detection and remediation TA has been added for our demo purposes (as detailed in “The demo” section below). These TAs provide a preloaded framework for implementing a comprehensive set of security use cases assuring that security operations are executed in isolation from the application OS in an authenticated and resilient environment. Such use cases include confidentiality, authentication and authorization, access control, attestation, privacy, integrity protection, device health monitoring, secure communication with the cloud or other devices, secure lifecycle management.

All TA functions are made available to application development through a set of C APIs via an SDK. Developers do not need to understand the complexity of creating TAs or using HW security provided by the chipset.

Translating TAs to security use cases

Through a securely managed CA-store (Certificate Authority) the device can authenticate payloads against a set of CAs optionally loaded at manufacturing or later in the device lifecycle. Having the ability to update securely the CAs the device or product owner can transfer the ownership of certain functions such as firmware update or application update to other entities. For example, the customer owns the applications but the firmware update and security management may be delegated to a third party Managed Service Provider while maintaining privacy requirements.
The cryptographic engine is core to anything related to security and implement a set of symmetric and asymmetric cryptographic functions and key generation allowing applications in non-secure domain to execute crypto in isolation. HW crypto is used when implemented by the chipset.

The Microchip SAMA5D2 implements in hardware the ability to monitor in real time regions of memory. In the Shield96 firmware this feature – ICM, Integrity Check Monitoring – is used to monitor the integrity of the Linux kernel. Any modification of the Linux kernel triggers an interrupt in the secure domain. The hardware isolation implemented through TrustZone prevents Linux to even “be aware” of such interrupts. The interrupt triggers a remediation function implemented in a TA and together with the Device Defender Secure Agent TA that does three operations:

  • records the tampering event and restarts Linux from the verified, authenticated encrypted image provided through secure boot
  • after restart packages the tampering event into a JSON format, signs it for integrity assurance and stores it
  • publishes the JSON package to the AWS IoT Device Defender monitoring service

Complementing the edge-to-cloud security strategy with AWS IoT Device Defender

AWS IoT Device Defender audits device cloud configuration based on security best practices and monitors anomalies and threats on devices based on expected cloud- and device-side behaviors on an ongoing basis. In this demo and for complementing the defense mechanisms implemented at the device level, AWS IoT Device Defender performs its monitoring capability and enables customers to receive alerts when it evaluates that anomalous or threat events occurred on an end-node. This demo required installing AWS IoT Device Defender agents on both the non-secure and secure domains of the Shield96 board. The security domain is providing the secure crypto signature (using securely a private key) to device health reports and also isolates the detection and reporting processes from being intercepted by malicious applications. AWS IoT Device Defender agent collects monitored behaviors in the forms of metrics from both domains; then from the secure domain, AWS IoT Device Defender agent sends the metrics to the AWS Cloud for evaluation.

The Demo

For a full demo tutorial, please watch this video .

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Fig. 3 Edge-to-cloud IoT security demo at Arrow Embedded to Go 2020

The demo covers the following scenarios:

  • Out of the box experience
  • Firmware personalization – secure firmware rotation to provide a logistical separation between manufacturing and production firmware
  • Device registration to AWS IoT Core
  • Device decommissioning (de-registration) from AWS IoT Core
  • Secure firmware update
  • Resilience demonstration – tamper event simulation and remediation
  • Event reporting to AWS IoT Device Defender

Demonstrating resilience and tamper violation reporting with AWS IoT Device Defender

The boot logic for the demo includes a safety check for tamper events. In this case, we connected a button to an environmental tamper pin. The tamper violation generated by the button press is detected in the next boot sequence so the initial boot code switches to the secondary boot stack, and proceeds to boot the “fail-safe” boot image. Once booted the system will publish the tamper event to AWS IoT Device Defender for logging and analysis. In the demo, the primary and secondary images are identical, so each tamper event simply switches to the other. This allows the demo scenario to be repeated with each tamper event switching the system from A to B or B to A firmware images.

Streamlining personalized firmware to commercial boards

The commercial solution introduced by Arrow with the Shiled96 board includes a cloud based secure firmware rotation from the manufacturing generic firmware using AWS thus streamlining device personalization and providing a production ready device to a multitude of customers.

Out of manufacturing, the Shield96 Trusted board comes preloaded with a minimum and generic version of Linux. The out of the box experience to get to a personalized and up to date firmware is as simple as inserting an SD card and connecting the board to the Internet. The device boots securely, partitions the SD card then using Just-in-Time Registration of Device Certificates on AWS IoT (JITR) registers the device to AWS IoT Core and provisions it to Sequitur’s AWS IoT Core endpoint and to the Sandbox application. Next, the device automatically downloads the most recent generic or customer-specific file system, installs it and restarts. Thus the Sandbox provides lifecycle device management and firmware updates.

The 2-stage firmware deployment starting with a generic preloaded firmware at Arrow Programming Center followed by a cloud based final firmware rotation gives customers valuable features. For instance, an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM)\Original Device Manufacturer (ODM) may need to produce devices with firmware variations for deployment in different geographical regions or customized for different customers. Alternatively, the OEM\ODM may want to optimize logistics, manufacture in volume while the firmware is still in development, and load the final firmware in a distribution facility before shipping to customers. It also eliminates the opportunity for IP theft in manufacturing since the final firmware is never present at the manufacturer.

Conclusion

The solution introduced with this blog demonstrates that manufacturers can produce devices at scale while security is implemented properly, taking full advantage of the silicon embedded security IP. This implementation extends niche expertise and years of experience into a framework accessible to any developer.
Why is this important? Advanced security implemented right, massively reduces time to market and cost; the solution is also highly portable to other silicon. Sequitur Lab’s EmSPARK Security Suite is already available for NXP microprocessors (i.MX and QuorIQ Layerscape families) and nVidia Xavier bringing the same level of abstraction to IoT and embedded developers.
In this relationship Arrow proposes a secure single board computer fully provisioned. Arrow adds greater value by offering the ability to customize the hardware and the firmware. Customers can choose to add or remove hardware components, customize the Linux kernel, and subscribe for firmware management and security monitoring.
APN partners complement existing AWS services to enable customers in deploying a comprehensive security architecture and a seamless experience. In this case, Sequitur Labs and Arrow bring to market a game changing product complementing existing AWS edge and cloud services to enable any project of any size to use advanced security without the need for qualified embedded security experts.
Moreover, the product builds on top of HW security features of existing processors while providing the necessary software tools and process to work with existing manufacturing flows and not require secure manufacturing.
For a deeper dive into this solution the Getting Started Guide on the AWS Partner Device Catalog provides board bring up steps and example code for many of the supported use cases.

Originally posted HERE.

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by Sam Kingsley

The "internet of things" will provide cyber criminals with new ways to exploit faults in personal security systems.

As the number of online devices surges and superfast 5G connections roll out, record numbers of companies are offering handsome rewards to ethical hackers who successfully attack their cybersecurity systems.

The fast-expanding field of internet-connected devices, known as the "nternet of things" (IoT) which includes smart televisions and home appliances, are set to become more widespread once 5G becomes more available—posing one of the most serious threats to digital security in future.

At a conference hosted by Nokia last week, "friendly hacker" Keren Elazari said that co-opting hackers—many of whom are amateurs—to hunt for vulnerabilities "was looked at as a trendy Silicon Valley thing six to eight years ago".

But "bug bounty programmes" are now offered by organisations ranging from the Pentagon and banks such as Goldman Sachs to airlines, tech giants and thousands of smaller businesses.

The largest bug-bounty platform, HackerOne, has 800,000 hackers on its books and said its organisations paid out a record $44 million (38.2 million euros) in cash rewards this year, up 87 percent on the previous 12 months.

"Employing just one full-time security engineer in London might cost a company 80,000 pounds (89,000 euros, $106,000) a year, whereas we open companies up to this global community of hundreds of thousands of hackers with a huge diversity in skills," Prash Somaiya, security solutions architect at HackerOne, told AFP.

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"We already know from what has happened in the past five years that the criminals find very clever ways to utilise digital devices," a friendly hacker told AFP

"We're starting to see an uptick in IoT providers taking hacking power seriously," Somaiya said, adding that HackerOne now regularly ships internet-connected toys, thermostats, scooters and cars out to its hackers for them to try to breach.

"We already know from what has happened in the past five years that the criminals find very clever ways to utilise digital devices," Elazari told AFP.

A sobering example was the 2016 "Mirai" cyberattack, during which attackers took control of 300,000 unsecured devices, including printers, webcams and TV recorders, and directed them to flood and disable websites of media, companies and governments around the world.

"In the future of 5G we're talking about every possible device having high-bandwidth connections, it's not just your computer or your phone," Elazari warned.

In October Nokia announced it had detected a 100 percent increase in malware infections on IoT devices in the previous year, noting in its threat report that each new application of 5G offers criminals "more opportunities for inflicting damage and extracting ransom".

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"Bug bounty programmes" are now offered by organisations ranging from the Pentagon and banks such as Goldman Sachs to airlines, tech giants and thousands of smaller businesses.
 

Breaker mindset

The rewards for hackers can be high: 200 of HackerOne's bug-hunters have now claimed more than $100,000 in prizes, while nine have breached the million-dollar earnings mark.

Apple, which advertises its own bug bounty programme, increased its maximum reward to more than $1 million at the end of last year, for a hacker able to demonstrate "zero click" weaknesses that would allow someone to access a device without any action by the user.

"A big driver is of course the financial incentive, but there's this element of a breaker mindset, to figure out how something is built so you can break it and tear it apart," Somaiya said.

"Being one individual who's able to hack multibillion-dollar companies is a real thrill, there's a buzz to it."

The rush of companies shifting to remote working during the pandemic has also led to "a surge in hacktivity", HackerOne said, with a 59 percent increase in hackers signing up and a one-third increase in rewards paid out.

The French and UK governments are among those to have opened up coronavirus tracing apps to friendly hackers, Somaiya added.

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"I see a lot of risk for misconfiguration and improper access control, these glitches are one of the main risks," Silke Holtmanns, head of 5G security research for cybersecurity firm AdaptiveMobile, told AFP
 

Incentive to act

While 5G internet systems will have new security features built into the network infrastructure—something absent before—the new technology is vastly more complex than its predecessors, leaving more potential for human error.

"I see a lot of risk for misconfiguration and improper access control, these glitches are one of the main risks," Silke Holtmanns, head of 5G security research for cybersecurity firm AdaptiveMobile, told AFP.

But companies are being motivated to act as security moves up the agenda, Holtmanns believes.

The EU, along with governments around the world, has begun tightening cybersecurity demands on organisations, and fines for data breaches have been increasing.

"Before now it's been hard for companies to justify higher investment in security," Holtmanns, who sits on the EU cybersecurity advisory group Enisa, said.

But she added, "If they can say: 'With that security level we can attract a higher level of customer, or lower insurance premiums,' people start thinking in this direction, which is a good thing."

Originally posted HERE.

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In order to form proper networks to share data, the Internet of Things (IoT) needs reliable communications and connectivity. Because of popular demand, there’s a wide range of connectivity technologies that operators, as well as developers, can opt for.

IoT Connectivity Groups

The IoT connectivity technologies are currently divided into two groups. The first one is cellular-based, and the second one is unlicensed LPWAN. The first group is based around a licensed spectrum, something which offers an infrastructure that is consistent and better. This group supports larger data rates, but it comes with a cost of short battery life and expensive hardware. However, you don’t have to worry about this a lot as its hardware is becoming cheaper.

Cellular-Based IoT

Because of all this, cellular-based IoT is only offered by giant operators. The reason behind this is that acquiring licensed spectrum is expensive. But these big operators have access to this licensed spectrum, as well as expensive hardware. The cellular IoT connectivity also has its own two types. The first one being the narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) and category M1 IoT (Cat-M1).

Although both are based on cellular standards, there is one big difference between the two. That NB-IoT has a smaller bandwidth than Cat-M1, and thus offers a lower transmission power. In fact, its bandwidth is 10x smaller than that of Cat-M1. However, both still have a very long range with NB-IoT offering a range of up to 100 Km.

The cellular standard based IoT connectivity ensure more reliability. Their device operational lifetimes are longer as compared to unlicensed LPWAN. But when it comes to choosing, most operators prefer NB-IoT over Cat-M1. This is because Cat-M1 provides higher data rates that are not usually necessary. In addition to this, the higher costs of it prevent operators from choosing it.

Cat-M1 is mostly chosen by large-scale operators because it provides mobility support. This is something suitable for transportation and traffic control-based network. It can also be useful in emergency response situations as it offers voice data transfer.

The hardware (module) used for cellular IoT is relatively more expensive compared to LPWAN. It can cost around $10, compared to $2 LPWAN. However, this cost has been dropping rapidly recently because of its popular demand. 

Unlicensed LPWAN

As for the unlicensed LPWANs, they are used by those who don’t have the budget to afford cellular-based IoT. They are designed for customized IoT networks and offer lower data rates, but with increased battery life and long transmission range. They can also be deployed easily. At the moment, there are two types of unlicensed LPWANs, LoRa (Long Range) and SigFox.

Both types are amazing as they designed for devices that have a lower price, increased battery life, and long range. Their coverage range can be up to 10 Km, and their connectivity cost is as low as $2 per module. Not only this, but the cost is even lower than this sometimes. Therefore, they are ideal for local areas.

Weightless LPWAN

Although there are many variants of the LPWAN, Weightless is considered to be the most popular one. This is because the Weightless Special Interest Group, or the SIG, currently offers three different protocols. These include the Weightless-N, the Weightless-W, and the Weightless-P. All three work in a different way as they have different modalities.

Weightless-W

First off, we have the Weightless-W open standard model. This one is designed to operate in TV white space (TVWS). TV Whitespace (TVWS) is the inactive or unoccupied space found between channels actively used in UHF and VHF spectrum its frequency spans from 470 MHz – 790 MHz. For those who don’t know, this is similar to what Neul was developing before getting acquired by Huawei. Now, while using TVWS can be great as it uses ultra-high frequency spectrum, it has one downside. In theory, it seems perfect. But in practice, it is difficult because the rules and regulations for utilizing TVWS for IoT vary greatly.

In addition to this, the end nodes of this model don’t work like they are supposed to. They are designed to operate in a small part of the spectrum. As is difficult to design an antenna that can cover a such wide band of spectrum. This is why TVWS can be difficult when it comes to installing it. The Weightless-W is considered a good option in:

  • Smart Oil sector.
  • Gas sector.

Weightless-N

Second up we have the ultra-narrowband system, the Weightless-N. This model is similar to SigFox as both have a lot in common. The best thing about it is it is made up of different networks instead of being an end-to-end enclosed system. Weightless-N uses differential binary phase shift keying (DBPSK) digital modulation scheme same as of used in SigFox.

The Weightless-N line is operated by Nwave, a popular IoT hardware and software developer. However, while is model is best for sensor-based networks, temperature readings, tank level monitoring, and more, there are some problems with it. For instance, Nwave has a special requirement for TCXO, that is the temperature compensated crystal oscillator.

 In addition to this, it has an unbalanced link budget. The reason behind why this is bad is that there will be much more sensitivity going up to the base station compared to what will be coming down. 

Weightless-P

Finally, we have the Weightless-P. This model is the latest one in the group as it was launched some time after the above two. What people love the most about this one is that it has two-way features. In addition to this, it has a 12.5 kHz channel that is pretty amazing. The Weightless-P doesn’t require a TXCO, something which makes it different from Weightless-N and -W.

The main company behind Weightless-P is Ubiik. The only downside about this model is that it is not ideal for wide-area networks as it offers a range of around 2 Km. However, the Weightless-P is still ideal for:

  • Private Networks
  • Extra sophisticated use cases.
  • Areas where uplink data and downlink control are important.

Capacity

Because of the fact that the Weightless protocols are based on SDR, its base station for narrowband signals is much more complex. This is something that ends up creating thousands of small binary phase-shift keying channels. Although this will let you get more capacity, it will become a burden on your wallet.

In addition to this, since the Weightless-N end nodes require a TXCO, it will be more expensive. The TXCO is used when there is a threat of the frequency becoming unstable when the temperature gets disturbed at the end node.

Range

Talking about the ranges, the Weightless-N and -W has a range of around 5 Km in Urban environments. As for the Weightless-P, it can go up to 2 Km.

Comparison

Weightless and SigFox

If we take the technology into consideration, then the Weightless-N and SigFox are pretty similar. However, they are different when it comes to go-to-market. Since Weightless is a standard, it will require another company to create an IoT based on it. However, this is not the case with SigFox as it is a different type of solution.

Weightless and LoRa

In terms of technology, the Weightless and LoRa. Lorawan are different. However, the functionally of the Weightless-N and LoRaWAN is similar. This is because both are uplink-based systems. Weightless is also sometimes considered as the very good alternative when LoRa is not feasible to the user.

Weightless and Symphony Link

The Symphony Link and Weightless-P standards are more similar to each other. For instance, both focus on private networks. However, Symphony Link has a much more better range performance because it uses LoRa instead of Minimum-shift keying modulation MSK.

Originaly posted here

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An edge device is the network component that is responsible for connecting a local area network to an external or wide area network, which can be accessed from anywhere. Edge devices offer several new services and improved outcomes for IoT deployments across all markets. Smart services that rely on high volumes of data and local analysis can be deployed in a wide range of environments.

Edge device provides the local data to an external network. If protocols are different in local and external networks, it also translates this information, and make the connection between both network boundaries. Edge devices analyze diagnostics and automatic data populating; however, it is necessary to make a secure connection between the field network and cloud computing. In the event of loss of internet connection or cloud crash edge device will store data until the connection is established, so it won’t lose any process information. The local data storage is optional and not all edge devices offer local storage, it depends on the application and service required to implement on the plant.

How does an edge device work?

An edge device has a very straightforward working principle, it communicates between two different networks and translates one protocol into another. Furthermore, it creates a secure connection with the cloud.

An edge device can be configured via local access and internet or cloud. In general, we can say an edge device is a plug-and-play, its setup is simple and does not require much time to configure.

Why should I use an edge device?

Depending on the service required in the plant, the edge devices will be a crucial point to collect the information and create an automatic digital twin of your device in the cloud. 

Edge devices are an essential part of IoT solutions since they connect the information from a network to a cloud solution. They do not affect the network but only collect the data from it, and never cause a problem with the communication between the control system and the field devices. by using an edge device to collect information, the user won’t need to touch the control system. Edge is one-way communication, nothing is written into the network, and data are acquired with the highest possible security.

Edge device requirements

Edge devices are required to meet certain requirements that are to meet at all conditions to perform in different secretions. This may include storage, network, and latency, etc.

Low latency

Sensor data is collected in near real-time by an edge server. For services like image recognition and visual monitoring, edge servers are located in very close proximity to the device, meeting low latency requirements. Edge deployment needs to ensure that these services are not lost through poor development practice or inadequate processing resources at the edge. Maintaining data quality and security at the edge whilst enabling low latency is a challenge that need to address.

Network independence

IoT services do not care for data communication topology.  The user requires the data through the most effective means possible which in many cases will be mobile networks, but in some scenarios, Wi-Fi or local mesh networking may be the most effective mechanism of collecting data to ensure latency requirements can be met.

Good-Edge-IOT-Device-1024x576.jpg

Data security

Users require data at the edge to be kept secure as when it is stored and used elsewhere. These challenges need to meet due to the larger vector and scope for attacks at the edge. Data authentication and user access are as important at the edge as it is on the device or at the core.  Additionally, the physical security of edge infrastructure needs to be considered, as it is likely to hold in less secure environments than dedicated data centers.

Data Quality

Data quality at the edge is a key requirement to guarantee to operate in demanding environments. To maintain data quality at the edge, applications must ensure that data is authenticated, replicated as and assigned into the correct classes and types of data category.

Flexibility in future enhancements

Additional sensors can be added and managed at the edge as requirements change. Sensors such as accelerometers, cameras, and GPS, can be added to equipment, with seamless integration and control at the edge.

Local storage

Local storage is essential in the event of loss of internet connection or cloud crash edge device will store data until the connection is established, so it won’t lose any process information. The local data storage is optional and not all edge devices offer local storage, it depends on the application and service required to implement on the plant

Originaly Posted here

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by Singapore University of Technology and Design

Internet-of-Things (IoT) such as smart home locks and medical devices, depend largely on Bluetooth low energy (BLE) technology to function and connect across other devices with reduced energy consumption. As these devices get more prevalent with increasing levels of connectivity, the need for strengthened security in IoT has also become vital.

A research team, led by Assistant Professor Sudipta Chattopadhyay from the Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD), wit team members from SUTD and the Institute for Infocomm Research (I2R), designed and implemented the Greyhound framework, a tool used to discover SweynTooth—a critical set of 11 cyber vulnerabilities.

Their study was presented at the USENIX Annual Technical Conference (USENIX ATC) on 15 to 17 July 2020 and they have been invited to present at the upcoming Singapore International Cyber Week (SICW) in October 2020.

These security lapses were found to affect devices by causing them to crash, reboot or bypass security features. At least 12 BLE based devices from eight vendors were affected, including a few hundred types of IoT products including pacemakers, wearable fitness trackers and home security locks.

The SweynTooth code has since been made available to the public and several IoT product manufacturers have used it to find security issues in their products. In Singapore alone, 32 medical devices reported to be affected by SweynTooth and 90% of these device manufacturers have since implemented preventive measures against this set of cyber vulnerabilities.

Regulatory agencies including the Cyber Security Agency and the Health Sciences Authority in Singapore as well as the Department of Homeland Security and the Food and Drug Administration in the United States have reached out to the research team to further understand the impact of these vulnerabilities.

These agencies have also raised public alerts to inform medical device manufacturers, healthcare institutions and end users on the potential security breach and disruptions. The research team continues to keep them updated on their research findings and assessments.

Beyond Bluetooth technology, the research team designed the Greyhound framework using a modular approach so that it could easily be adapted for new wireless protocols. This allowed the team to test it across the diverse set of protocols that IoTs frequently employ. This automated framework also paves new avenues in the testing security of more complex protocols and IoTs in next-generation wireless protocol implementations such as 5G and NarrowBand-IoT which require rigorous and systematic security testing.

"As we are transitioning towards a smart nation, more of such vulnerabilities could appear in the future. We need to start rethinking the device manufacturing design process so that there is limited reliance on communication modules such as Bluetooth to ensure a better and more secure smart nation by design," explained principal investigator Assistant Professor Sudipta from SUTD.

Originally posted HERE.

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By: Tom Jeltes, Eindhoven University of Technology

The Internet of Things (IoT) consists of billions of sensors and other devices connected to each other via internet, all of which need to be protected against hackers with malicious purposes. A low-cost and energy efficient solution for the security of IoT devices uses the unique characteristics of the built-in memory chips. Ph.D. candidate Lieneke Kusters investigated how to make optimal use of the chip's digital fingerprint to generate a security key.

The higher the number of devices connected to each other via the Internet of Things, the greater the risk that malicious hackers might gain access to important information, or even take over entire systems. Quite apart from all kinds of privacy issues, it's not hard to imagine that that someone who, for example, has control over temperature sensors in a chemical or nuclear plant, could cause serious damage.

 To prevent problems like these from occurring, each IoT device needs to be able, as it were, to show an identity document—"authentication," in professional terms. Normally, speaking, this is done with a kind of password, which is sent in encrypted form to the person who is communicating with the device. The security key needed for that has to be stored in the IoT device one way or another, Lieneke Kusters explains. "But these are often small and cheap devices that aren't supposed to use much energy. To safely store a key in these devices, you need extra hardware with constant power supply. That's not very practical."

Digital fingerprint

There is a different way: namely by deducing the security key from a unique physical characteristic of the memory chip (Static Random-Access Memory, or SRAM) that can be found in practically every IoT device. Depending on the random circumstances during the chip's manufacturing process, the memory locations have a random default value of 0 or 1.

"That binary code which you can read out when activating the chip, constitutes a kind of digital fingerprint of the device," says Kusters, who gained her doctorate at the Information and Communication Theory Laboratory at the TU/e department of Electrical Engineering. This fingerprint is known as a Physical Unclonable Function (PUF). "The Eindhoven-based company Intrinsic ID sells digital security based on SRAM-PUFs. I collaborated with them for my doctoral research, during which I focused on how to generate, in a reliable way, a key from that digital fingerprint that is as long as possible. The longer, the safer."

The major advantage of security keys based on SRAM-PUFs is that the key exists only at the moment when authentication is required. "The device restarts itself to read out the SRAM-PUF and in doing so creates the key, which subsequently gets erased immediately after use. That makes it all but impossible for an attacker to steal the key."

Noise and reliability

But that's not the entire story, because some bits of the SRAM do not always have the same value during activation, Kusters explains. Ten to fifteen percent of the bits turn out not to be determined, which makes the digital fingerprint a bit fuzzy. How do you use that fuzzy fingerprint to make a key of the highest possible complexity that nevertheless still fits into the receiving lock—practically—each time?

"What you want to prevent is that the generated key won't be recognized by the receiving party as a consequence of the 'noise' in the SRAM-PUF," Kusters explains. "It's alright if that happens one in a million times perhaps, preferably less often." The probability of error is smaller with a shorter key, but such a key is also easier to guess for people with bad intentions. "I've searched for the longest reliable key, given a certain amount of noise in the measurement. It helps if you store extra information about the SRAM-PUF, but that must not be of use to a potential attacker. My thesis is an analysis of how you can reach the optimal result in different situations with that extra information."

Originaly posted here.


 
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This complete guide is a 212-page eBook and is a must read for business leaders, product managers and engineers who want to implement, scale and optimize their business with IoT communications.

Whether you want to attempt initial entry into the IoT-sphere, or expand existing deployments, this book can help with your goals, providing deep understanding into all aspects of IoT.

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Edge Products Are Now Managed At The Cloud

Now more than ever, there are billions of edge products in the world. But without proper cloud computing, making the most of electronic devices that run on Linux or any other OS would not be possible.

And so, a question most people keep asking is which is the best Software-as-a-service platform that can effectively manage edge devices through cloud computing. Well, while edge device management may not be something, the fact that cloud computing space is not fully exploited means there is a lot to do in the cloud space.

Product remote management is especially necessary for the 21st century and beyond. Because of the increasing number of devices connected to the internet of things (IoT), a reliable SaaS platform should, therefore, help with maintaining software glitches from anywhere in the world. From smart homes, stereo speakers, cars, to personal computers, any product that is connected to the internet needs real-time protection from hacking threats such as unlawful access to business or personal data.

Data being the most vital asset is constantly at risk, especially if individuals using edge products do not connect to trusted, reliable, and secure edge device management platforms.

Bridges the Gap Between Complicated Software And End Users

Cloud computing is the new frontier through which SaaS platforms help manage edge devices in real-time. But something even more noteworthy is the increasing number of complicated software that now run edge devices at homes and in workplaces.

Edge device management, therefore, ensures everything runs smoothly. From fixing bugs, running debugging commands to real-time software patch deployment, cloud management of edge products bridges a gap between end-users and complicated software that is becoming the norm these days.

Even more importantly, going beyond physical firewall barriers is a major necessity in remote management of edge devices. A reliable Software-as-a-Service, therefore, ensures data encryption for edge devices is not only hackproof by also accessed by the right people. Moreover, deployment of secure routers and access tools are especially critical in cloud computing when managing edge devices. And so, developers behind successful SaaS platforms do conduct regular security checks over the cloud, design and implement solutions for edge products.

Reliable IT Infrastructure Is Necessary

Software-as-a-service platforms that manage edge devices focus on having a reliable IT infrastructure and centralized systems through which they can conduct cloud computing. It is all about remotely managing edge devices with the help of an IT infrastructure that eliminates challenges such as connectivity latency.

Originally posted here

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