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IoT Paradigms for EV Charging Future Growth

IoT (Internet of Things) in today’s era is one of the most significant technologies having dynamic applications across every industry. Its advanced connectivity and ability to gather and process data in real-time makes it beneficial for all sectors. The automotive industry, too, leverages this tremendous technology to make itself more advanced. 

The days of gasoline fuel vehicles and stations being obsolete are not far away now. Many countries worldwide have begun their journey to facilitate a fully electric vehicle system, while others are catching up with them. One of the major purposes of IoT in EV systems is the development of robust charging infrastructure. The ability to remotely manage the charging stations is a big challenge that IoT systems seamlessly handle. 

So in this blog, we will discuss the role and uses of IoT in EV systems and how it is changing the automotive dynamics for the future. Let us start!

Overview: IoT in EV Charging

IoT is fundamentally a convergence of IT (Information Technology) and OT (Operational Technology). The OT focuses more on devices and sensors established in the system. At the same time, IT deals with the digital transformation aspects of the system. 

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In the EV charging station landscape, the system is connected to multiple IoT devices integrated with several third-party service providers like e-MSPs, energy suppliers, and charge point operators. 

The devices established in the charging system utilize a back-end cloud infrastructure that is run through different protocols & connectivity options to ensure seamless charging operations. 

The major services carried out at an EV station are

  • Processing payments 
  • Scheduling
  • Software updates
  • Predictive maintenance
  • Usage analytics

IoT in an EV charging system consists of three major elements:

1. Charging Equipment

It is a hardware unit established at a charging station that provides a physical connection between the power grid and the EV. The unit comprises different connectivity options, power electronics, charging protocols, and sensors. All these devices perform operations like 

  • Engagement and disengagement of the port 
  • Start and stop the process of charging
  • Energy Metering
  • Fault Detection
  • Health Status

2. Mobile App

The next most important element of IoT in the EV charging system is a web-based smartphone app. The app is responsible for connecting The EV charging network to the EV owners. Some of the major operations include

  • User Authentication
  • Navigating A Charging Network
  • Charger Onboarding
  • Scheduled Charging
  • Slot Reservation
  • Billing, And Payments

3. Management Platform

It is a cloud-based platform that aims to gather data from IoT Sensors and devices to perform data analytics. It consists of operations such as

  • Load Balancing
  • Remote Monitoring
  • Configurations Management
  • Firmware Upgrades
  • Alerts and Notifications

IoT in the EV charging system enables continuous monitoring of operations and gathering of data to present it in reports & dashboards. Also, it can be leveraged to notify users during critical failures. 

IoT is a great technology for EV automobiles and charging stations as most of its failures can be troubleshot effortlessly with remote operations. Hence, IoT is unquestionably the next big technology in the automotive sector. 

The Four Pillars of IoT in Electric Vehicle Management System

The IoT Electric vehicle management system consists of four aspects on which it majorly works:

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Battery Management System

As EVs are powered with batteries, so the primary role of the battery management system is to monitor and manage the battery processes. It includes charging, discharging, and checking key parameters like voltage, current, and temperature while charging operations. 

IoT enables the battery system to be controlled and fixed remotely when required. Besides, the battery system continuously sends data to the servers to generate insights on the next course of action to enhance performance. 

Safety and Smart Driving

Providing higher safety to passengers commuting in a vehicle is an important element of using IoT in automobiles. IoT sensors and devices planted inside the EVs provide features like

  • Theft prevention through real-time tracking, immobilization, and geo-fencing.
  • It consistently monitors the performance of vehicles based on different attributes like driving conditions, geography, weather, etc. The accumulated data helps in making the system more efficient. 
  • The IoT devices established in vehicles also capture the car parameters like speed and acceleration and accordingly provide ti[ps in real-time. 

Preventive Maintenance System

Though EVs are designed with care, there can be incidents of component failures. Therefore, there are IoT-based fault alert systems installed in the system that notifies the driver about the failing component. 

It helps them to analyze the situation and act accordingly. As the issue gets addressed ahead of time, the driver gets time to prevent a breakdown. In addition, the problem can be fixed remotely in certain conditions. It enhances the customer experience and provides higher vehicle reliability to the user. 

Telematics Data

IoT is important and is used widely in different sectors today due to its ability to collect data for improved operations. In the automotive industry, data is gathered when connected to vehicle sensors. This accumulated data can be displayed via widgets and used to generate automatic reports. Some of the most beneficial factors of using telematics for EVs are:

  • It provides the details of battery usage data. 
  • It generates a charging report for every charging session.
  • It monitors and provides insights on driver behavior data. 
  • It alerts users with nearby charging station alerts. 

How Does IoT Transform the EV Charging Experience?

Here are some crucial benefits and use cases of IoT in EV charging:

  1. User Authentication

The customer uses an RFID card/tag to access the charging machine. As soon as they tap their tag, the charging station transmits the data to the IoT platform. The IoT platform then checks the user profile and performs an authentication process to ensure secure and safe billing. 

       2. Charger Availability

The IoT sensors and devices deployed inside your car notify you about the nearby available charging stations. In addition, you can utilize the smartphone app to reserve a slot and check the rates of the charging service for different times.  

      3. Automated Operations

IoT has powered the charging stations to work automatically without any user help. Besides, the system notifies the users about the left charging time, due payments, and any charging errors.   

      4. Smart Charging

Due to the availability of IoT sensors, charging stations can work more smartly. When there is abundant sunlight and energy production, the chargers automatically start charging, which invariably helps grid operators to manage energy more efficiently.

     5. Remote Management

The IoT devices installed in the system generate real-time metrics & insights. The metrics may include charger availability, utilization, and fault monitoring. It helps in fixing the issues remotely when required. Further, it helps in predictive maintenance and minimizing operational downtime. 

     6. EVSE Control

There are several sensory nodes through which the IoT platform collects information. The data may include energy tariffs, grid limit, EV battery capacity, and state of charge. Information on these metrics helps manage the EV charging infrastructure and deliver better service. 

     7. Support and Management

IoT enables EV charging stations to become smarter, connected, and accessible for everyone. Besides, it presents crucial information such as charging time, charging queues, weather conditions, etc., that aids in a better support system for the users.

     8. Data Collection and Analysis

Advanced cloud solutions powered by IoT significantly help in data collection and enable users, service providers, and maintenance workers to optimize their work more efficiently. 

     9. Geo-Dashboard

Geo dashboard is an impressive feature of the EV charging module where the user is informed about the nearby charging stations to schedule their trip more effectively. 

Should You Invest in IoT EV Charging Solutions?

EVs are the future of automobiles and will get mainstream in the next couple of years around the globe. Hence, building refined EV charging solutions now can earn you a monopoly in this service industry. So if you wish to build your own IoT-based EV charging solution, get in touch with our Intuz expert team. Intuz is a leading IoT development company who have built impressive and unique IoT solutions for different market verticals. You, too, incorporate with them to build your next IoT solution.    

 

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According to a 2021 IBM report, the average organization did not detect a data breach for up to 212 days—and then did not fully contain the issue for another 75. In many instances, malicious hackers attack a company using publicly available information: open-source intelligence often referred to as OSINT.

However, pentration testers can also use OSINT to protect organizations. This guide discusses what OSINT is and explains how penetration testers can apply OSINT tools and frameworks to improve an organization’s security.

What Is Open-Source Intelligence, and How Is It Used?

What is OSINT (Open Source Intelligence)? - sunnyvalley.io

Cyberattackers usually start by profiling the organization or individual they’re looking to attack. Attackers can use publicly available data on the internet to locate exploitable targets with the objective of collecting as much data as possible about the individual or organization. Likewise, ethical hackers and penetration testers can use OSINT to identify a company’s vulnerabilities so that they can be fixed before malicious actors find them.

OSINT is raw data that is openly available to the public. It may include information like names, addresses, interests, and other personal details. Location and behavioral data, affiliations, and daily patterns are all important pieces of information that can provide an inside look into a target’s life.

Social Media Intelligence (SOCMINT)

Social media intelligence, known as SOCMINT, is a subcategory of OSINT. SOCMINT refers to publicly available information on social media websites.

One aspect of an OSINT-based penetration testing framework is the use of social media for reconnaissance. Most employees have social media accounts, which can give hackers access to a wealth of sensitive information. Penetration testing with SOCMINT can locate information such as:

  • Social media posts, messages, and images
  • Person-to-person communications
  • Group-to-group communications

How Do Penetration Testers Find Information?

Cybersecurity professionals perform penetration testing using OSINT as a proactive measure to protect organizations. Using publicly available information, the tester can determine which areas are open to exploits. Once they have this data, they can then implement appropriate measures to prevent an attack.

Penetration testers gather OSINT in various ways. One method is to manually view content posted in specific groups or on certain pages. Another approach is to review results from searches the tester has performed. Testers may also find information by extracting data from websites using web scraping tools.

A variety of tools have been developed to automate tasks for penetration testers, improving efficiency compared with manual testing. These automated testing tools can also be used to find items that manual testing doesn’t identify. Penetration testers have many OSINT tools available to collect information (Nordine, 2017).

  • Google dorks. One of the most popular OSINT tools is Google dorks. Google dorking is the technique of using Google search operators to find sensitive information and vulnerabilities.
  • Metagoofil is an OSINT tool that scans Google and Bing for email addresses. Testers use it to find people’s contact information, collect it in a list, and save that list as a CSV file.
  • Recon-ng is a framework to automate intelligence gathering that supports several data sources. Recon-ng provides five data sources: Google, Bing, Maltego CE, ShodanHQ, and Dnsdumpster.
  • SpiderFoot scans over 100 data sources to locate information about a target. The tool can find information such as IP addresses, domain names, and emails.

Why Pursue a Career in Penetration Testing?

Recent data from cybersecurity ventures  indicates that cybersecurity professionals are in high demand, with the cybersecurity job market expected to grow 350% by 2025 (Morgan, 2022). If you’re interested in obtaining one of these in-demand positions, consider getting certified with EC-Council as a Certified Penetration Testing Professional (C|PENT).

In the comprehensive, hands-on C|PENT program, you’ll take a deep dive into how to use OSINT in penetration testing. You’ll also cover many of the other most-desired skills for penetration testers today, including:

  • How to penetration test Internet of Things (IoT) devices
  • How to use social engineering tactics in a penetration test
  • How to conduct penetration testing in the cloud

With the C|PENT certification, you’ll have a proven record of your expertise in the tools and techniques used in this rewarding field.

 
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IoT Drives Digital Transformation

Digital transformation is the integration of digital technology into all areas of a business, resulting in fundamental changes to how businesses operate and how they deliver value to customers. It’s a journey of continuous improvement that can help organizations drive growth, become more agile and efficient, and create new customer experiences.
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2019 was the year that IoT solutions started to become a reality. The internet of things has been predicted for years now, but the implementation of IoT solutions has been slower. The impact that IoT will have on business and society cannot be understated, and many companies are aiming to gain a competitive advantage by implementing IoT solutions.

Every year, more entrepreneurs tend to jump on the IoT bandwagon to leverage the benefits of this rapidly evolving technology. Tapping into the IoT, businesses can achieve a plethora of benefits, including increased revenues, better customer services, and enhanced operations. All over the world, companies are turning to the Internet of Things solutions, especially in high-tech industries, such as automotive and aerospace, and in sectors such as manufacturing and retail.

Artificial intelligence and machine learning (AI/ML) deployed on sensors, devices, and networks through the Internet of Things (IoT) are helping enterprises transform the way they do business. Although IoT adoption rates have increased in recent years, IoT adoption is still relatively low. However, by 2025, the number of connected devices will grow to 75.44 billion from 16.2 billion in 2017, according to Statista.

This article will explore the effect of the Internet of Things on digital transformation and its importance to businesses. Before delving into the subject further, it is necessary to understand the significance of enterprise digital transformation.
 
Importance of Digital Transformation in Modern Enterprise
 
Digital transformation is the process of harnessing the power of technology to fundamentally transform an organization's operations, products, services, and customer experiences. It enables businesses to uncover innovative opportunities, reduce costs, and increase efficiencies. By leveraging digital capabilities, businesses can unlock new value and enhance their competitiveness in the marketplace.
 
The digital transformation of the modern enterprise is no longer optional, but a critical part of success and growth. As the world continues to move toward a more digital-first approach, businesses of all sizes must embrace digital transformation in order to remain competitive. Digital transformation is a complex process that requires a holistic approach, starting with the redefinition of the organization’s mission and culture and extending to the deployment of new technology, processes, and products. Each of these elements is essential for enabling organizations to become more agile, improve customer service, and reduce operational costs.

Digital transformation is not only about technology – it is about transforming the way a business works and interacts with its customers. By leveraging the power of digital technologies, organizations can drive innovation and create real value for their customers and business. Digital transformation is a process of continuous evolution, with organizations constantly on the lookout for new ways to optimize their operations and improve customer experience.
 Companies must now find ways to use technology to their advantage in order to remain successful in an increasingly complex and rapidly changing business landscape
 
 

What does IoT mean for digital transformation?

A digital transformation enterprise is not just about the technology or the platform. It is about a new approach to business. IoT is revolutionizing the way enterprises think about their business and the way in which customers and partners interact with them, providing new opportunities for revenue growth and customer engagement.

The Internet of Things (IoT) presents a wealth of opportunities for businesses to transform their processes and operations, leading to more efficient and effective services. By connecting physical devices and systems to each other and the cloud, businesses can gain greater insight into their operations, access real-time data, and automate processes. This can help businesses to save time, money and resources, as well as improve customer experience and reduce operational costs. IoT can also enable new business models, allowing businesses to develop new products and services and create new revenue streams. In short, IoT is an essential part of any digital transformation strategy

The implementation of IoT within modern enterprises offers numerous advantages. A multitude of startups has based their entire operations around IoT technology. Businesses are able to digitally transform their processes through the utilization of IoT solutions. Here are some of the key business benefits of incorporating IoT into digital transformation:
 

Automation: IoT devices can be used to automate tedious and labor-intensive tasks. Automation can be used to streamline processes, increase efficiency and reduce errors, ultimately speeding up the innovation process. can also be used to streamline data collection, allowing businesses to collect and analyze data in real-time to gain valuable insights and make data-driven decisions. This not only accelerates the development process but also reduces the cost associated with data collection and analysis.


Connectivity: IoT devices can be used to connect disparate systems and enable data and information sharing. This can be used to facilitate collaboration and data sharing, which can speed up the process of digital transformation. By leveraging the power of connectivity, businesses can develop a range of products and services that can bring about a whole new level of efficiency, cost savings and customer satisfaction. This can be achieved by integrating data sources and creating better ways to monitor and manage the connected devices. 


Monitoring and analytics: IoT devices can be used to monitor and analyze data in real-time, providing valuable insights and helping to inform decisions and improve the decision-making process. This can help businesses identify trends, identify potential issues before they arise, and reduce downtime. It also provides a way to better understand customer behavior and gain valuable insights into customer preferences. With this data, businesses can tailor their products and services to better meet customer needs, resulting in improved customer loyalty and profitability.


Security: IoT solutions can provide additional layers of security to protect data and systems from potential threats. This can help to reduce the risk of data breaches and other malicious activities.  IoT solutions can also help to automate security-related processes and procedures. This can help to reduce the time and effort required to maintain a secure environment, allowing organizations to focus on other areas of their operations. Additionally, by having automated security, organizations can be sure that their security measures are consistently up-to-date and effective in protecting their data and systems.


Scalability: IoT solutions can be used to easily scale up or down resources to meet the changing needs of the organization. 

 

 

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What is GNSS positioning technology?

GNSS is the general term for all navigation and positioning satellites, that is, the Global Navigation Satellite System (Global Navigation Satellite System). BDS, GLONASS in Russia, GALILEO in Europe, etcetera. We can also simply understand it as a positioning system based on artificial earth satellites, which can provide accurate geographic location, speed and time anywhere in the world and in near-Earth space information.

The principle of GNSS positioning is NB Module based on the constant propagation speed of radio waves and the linear nature of the propagation path, by measuring the propagation time of the radio waves in the space to determine the distance difference between the satellite and the user receiver antenna. The distance difference, distance and measurement value, and then use these distance differences as the radius to meet the three spheres, and solve the user position according to the simultaneous equations;

First of all, any location on the earth's surface has its three-dimensional coordinates, that is, longitude, latitude and elevation. The GNSS satellite above its head also has its own three-dimensional coordinates. We can regard the entire space as a coordinate system, and we can draw a cube. The two opposite corners of the cube are the user and the satellite;

Secondly, based on the knowledge of solid geometry, we can know the distance △L between the satellite and the user (this distance is also called "pseudorange"); the equation is as follows:

The coordinates of the satellite are (x', y', z'), which are known, and the coordinates of the user are (x, y, z), which are unknown. At the same time, the satellite can send a signal to the user terminal, and the transmission speed of the signal is basically equal to the speed of light c, and the satellite has a highly accurate atomic clock, so it knows its own time is t.

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With the advent of the Internet of Things, Big Data is becoming more and more important. After all, when you have devices that are constantly collecting data, you need somewhere to store it all. But the Internet of Things is not just changing the way we store data; it’s changing the way we collect and use it as well. In this blog post, we will explore how the Internet of Things is transforming Big Data. From new data sources to new ways of analyzing data, the Internet of Things is changing the Big Data landscape in a big way.

 

 

How is the Internet of Things transforming Big Data?

The Internet of Things is transforming Big Data in a number of ways. One way is by making it possible to collect more data than ever before. This is because devices that are connected to the Internet can generate a huge amount of data. This data can be used to help businesses and organizations make better decisions.

Another way the Internet of Things is transforming Big Data is by making it easier to process and analyze this data. This is because there are now many tools and technologies that can help with this. One example is machine learning, which can be used to find patterns in data.

The Internet of Things is also changing the way we think about Big Data. This is because it’s not just about collecting large amounts of data – it’s also about understanding how this data can be used to improve our lives and businesses.

The Benefits of the Internet of Things for Big Data

  1. The internet of things offers a number of benefits for big data.
  2. It allows for a greater volume of data to be collected and stored.
  3. Also, it provides a more diverse range of data types, which can be used to create more accurate and comprehensive models.
  4. It enables real-time data collection and analysis, which can help organizations make better decisions and take action more quickly.
  5. It can improve the accuracy of predictions by using historical data to train predictive models.
  6. Finally, the internet of things can help reduce the cost of storing and processing big data.

The Challenges of the Internet of Things for Big Data

The internet of things is transforming big data in a number of ways. One challenge is the sheer volume of data that is generated by devices and sensors. Another challenge is the variety of data formats, which can make it difficult to derive insights. Additionally, the real-time nature of data from the internet of things presents challenges for traditional big data infrastructure.

Conclusion

The Internet of Things is bringing a new level of connectivity to the world, and with it, a huge influx of data. This data is transforming how businesses operate, giving them new insights into their customers and operations.

The Internet of Things is also changing how we interact with the world around us, making our lives more convenient and efficient. With so much potential, it's no wonder that the Internet of Things is one of the most talked-about topics in the tech world today.

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IoT is disrupting almost every industry sector including communications. As power consumption has become a challenge for IoT devices, cellular IoT has introduced some standards that are cutting-edge. Let’s take a look at those standards and their device categories.

Remember the days when the “E” icon on the notification bar of our phones used to make us excited? 

Well, if we compare that to today, technology has skyrocketed like anything. It was just a matter of time before that E icon turned to 4G LTE.

Today, there are billions of devices that run on the 4G network providing lightning-fast internet to the users. And it does not end here. The wave of 5G is ready to take on the world. Though some countries have already deployed 5G, it is yet to conquer the entire world.

Now, IoT is not a buzzword anymore. It is an awesome technology that connects various internet-enabled devices and is known to everybody. The use of IoT allows devices to share data at a faster pace. But, there is one challenge!

As these devices are connected to cellular networks like 3G and 4G LTE, they consume a lot of power. In a way, it is acceptable, but not if the devices are sending a small amount of data occasionally. So what’s the solution here? Cellular IoT!

Cellular IoT deals with some of the best IoT standards and devices that make the existing cellular technology fit for low-powered devices. If you are interested to know how; read ahead and find out!

Why are IoT LTE devices necessary?

Well, the need for IoT devices comes into the picture when we analyze applications like predictive maintenance, asset tracking, fleet management, inventory management, remote service, etc.

All these applications are backed by powerful yet sensitive devices that transmit data to ensure that all your business processes are running fine. LTE is the technology that helps them. IoT devices under LTE can be classified based on the LTE standards!

LTE-M/ Cat-M1:

This standard covers devices that run under the bandwidth of 1.4 MHz. Most of the devices under the standard are smart meters, fleet management devices, and asset tracking devices.

Cat-1:

The operating bandwidth of Cat-1 devices is 20 MHz which allows for devices like ATMs, POS terminals, and wearables to operate.

Cat-4:

The devices under Cat-4 have the maximum download and upload speed, which makes them ideal for applications like autonomous vehicles, real-time video, and in-car infotainment.

NB-IoT/ Cat-NB1:

The IoT LTE devices under NB-IoT have the maximum latency, which makes them crucial for applications like parking sensors, street lighting, industrial monitors, and more.

What are the various IoT LTE devices categories?

Well, if we talk about the device categories, IoT LTE devices can be classified into four categories based on cellular IoT standards. The newest of these four standards are LTE-M and NB-IoT.

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Let’s read ahead and find out about the IoT LTE device categories!

 

1. LTE-M/ Cat-M1

Let’s begin with the LTE-M standard. The LTE-M standard is an excellent discovery that is ideal for devices that require less power and less bandwidth. Here are some key pointers related to the device categories of LTE-M!

  • The devices based on the LTE-M standard have an upload speed of 1 Mbps, and the same is the download speed.
  • On top of that, the latency in the case of LTE-M devices is 10-15 milliseconds. The latency is enough to ensure that the required data is transmitted at regular intervals.
  • The bandwidth of the LTE-M is enough to ensure that the devices are able to function well in the prevailing 2G and 3G applications.
  • The best thing about the LTE-M standard is handoff for devices. It allows seamless handoff that makes the standard ideal for applications like asset tracking and fleet management where devices are on the move.
  • Cat-M1 was created as an integral part of Release 13 of the 3GPP’s LTE standards.

2. Cat-1

Apart from the above-described device categories, Cat-1 is a category that is a part of Release 8 of the 3GPP standard. Though it is a part of the old technology, it is still widely used across the globe. Here are some features of the Cat-1!

  • The Cat-1 standard is made for IoT device categories that have low and medium bandwidth needs.
  • The speed of the Cat-1 device is more than that of LTE-M. The upload speed of the Cat-1 devices is 5 Mbps, and the download speed is 10 Mbps.
  • One of the best things about Cat-1 is that it has less latency. The latency of the signals is just 50-100 milliseconds.
  • The Cat-1 standard uses a massive bandwidth of 20 Mhz in a full duplex. The full duplex capability of the devices allows for smooth handoff, making it ideal for wearables, ATMs, POS terminals, etc.

3. Cat-4

Well, the Cat-4 standard is what it takes to support applications like autonomous cars. The speed of devices in this standard is way more than Cat-1. It can provide you with 50 Mbps upload speed, and 150 Mbps download speed.

The best advantage of the Cat-4 standard is that it supports in-car infotainment, in-car hotspots, and video surveillance.

4. NB-IoT/ Cat-NB1

After the LTE-M, there is NB-IoT or Cat-NB1 standard. Just like LTE-M, there are many aspects that make it a bit different and unique. Here are some key pointers about the devices supporting the NB1 standard.

  • The low-cost technology makes use of DSSS modulation technology vs. LTE spread technology to ensure connectivity.
  • The cost factor of the technology is not the only USP. The devices that come under Cat-NB1 have less power consumption, offer excellent in-building coverage, and have longer battery life.
  • If we talk about the upload and download speed of the NB-IoT device category, it is relatively less compared to LTE-M. The upload speed is 66 kbps, and the download speed is 26 kbps. This is in half duplex mode.
  • The latency of NB-IoT is also more than the LTE-M. It oscillates between 1.6 to 10 seconds. Though it seems way more, there are advantages to it. The latency is ideal for small, intermittent data transmissions.
  • NB-IoT is also part of Release 13 of the 3GPP’s LTE standard. It is an LPWAN technology that works on a licensed spectrum.
  • The devices that come under this standard are smart gas, street lights, parking sensors, etc.

Other than these device and standard categories, there are two more standards:

5. Cat-0

As there is a need for low-cost devices and processes, Cat-0 lays the groundwork for that. It eliminates the need for features that require a high data rate in Cat-1. On top of all, Cat-0 is slowly doing the groundwork for Cat-M by replacing 2G.

6. EC-GSM

It is a standard that does not have as much buzz as the LTE-M and NB-IoT. But, it has been tested by brands like Ericsson and Intel for supreme practicality and modularity.

Why Do We Need To Care?

Well, if you are a cellular carrier service provider, you have to care about it. There are many factors that need to be considered while choosing the IoT LTE device category. Here is a brief elaboration of some of the critical ones!

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1. Power consumption:

Out of all the IoT LTE devices listed above, those who come under the Cat-4 consume the maximum power. After that come the devices under Cat-1. Cat-M1 and NB-IoT devices are the ones that have the minimum power consumption.

2. Battery life:

Battery life is the key factor if the devices are placed in remote locations like the agricultural field. If you are choosing LTE IoT devices, go for devices under standards Cat-M1 and NB-IoT.

3. Cost:

If cost is your concern, then again, Cat-M1 and NB-IoT are the ideal picks for you. They are best for high-volume device applications. Devices under Cat-1 and Cat-4 are more pricey.

4. Adoption:

When it comes to adoption, the adoption of LTE-M and NB-IoT are quickly being adopted by carrier service providers across the globe.

5. Latency:

Latency is the highest in NB-IoT, which makes it ideal for applications that do not need to send continuous data. LTE-M is a bit faster than NB-IoT. Cat-4 is the fastest, which makes it ideal for video applications.

Conclusion

So, now we are clear about what type of IoT devices are under each standard of LTE. LTE-M and NB-IoT are the standards that are being quickly adopted as they are low cost, consume less power, and have max battery life. To make an informed choice, it is necessary for you to analyze each aspect closely. As of now, carrier companies are inclined toward adopting  NB-IoT and LTE-M as they can serve vast applications while being balanced in all aspects.

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 The internet-based global digital landscape comprises a plethora of complex software and hardware systems spread on-premise and across the cloud. Also, there are software applications within embedded devices that are connected to the internet a la the Internet of Things (IoT). When we envision the future of the digital world, the IoT, along with other technologies, seems to be the harbinger. It has the potential to usher in a world driven by smart technologies to make lives more convenient and qualitatively superior. According to statistics, the number of IoT devices is likely to surpass 25.4 billion by 2030. Also, the IoT can generate an economic value ranging from $4 - $11 trillion by 2025 (Source: dataprot.net). The data shows how the Internet of Things (IoT) is going to define the digitized future of the world. 

However, notwithstanding the tremendous potential of IoT as a technology to drive the next digital revolution, it offers several challenges as well. IoT testing has become critical given that the success of the IoT ecosystem depends on the seamless functioning of its associated software and hardware systems. Let us discuss the challenges in some detail in the below-mentioned segment: 

Digitalization Challenges with IoT

The Internet of Things QA testing ensures IoT devices function safely and reliably. However, this type of testing has a host of challenges to grapple with, as mentioned below:

Testing in an omnichannel environment: The IoT ecosystem comprises various devices, platforms, and systems spread across on-premise and cloud environments. To ensure effective utilization of such systems, IoT testing should be conducted rigorously. Since IoT devices generate data at high velocity, their veracity needs to be ensured in real-time. However, this can be easier said than done, for the data generated is mostly unstructured. Also, IoT testing services need to test several devices with varying capabilities across platforms. Hence, creating a real IoT environment for testing can be a challenge, for there are many devices that require testing on the platform they operate upon. Besides, there are device upgrades in terms of software and firmware, which need to be considered by IoT device testing solutions for effective test outcomes. Thus, cross testing for IoT devices in an omnichannel environment comprising various versions and platforms can be an uphill task.

Cybersecurity risks: Given that IoT devices generate a large quantum of data (structured and unstructured), they may be vulnerable to hacking. Even so, statistics suggest that around seventy percent of IoT devices have security-related issues. Therefore, such devices should be subjected to rigorous IoT security testing. It involves identifying vulnerabilities in the architecture of devices using IoT penetration testing and fixing them. Testers should focus on checking and verifying the devices’ passwords and authorization policies.

Different protocols of IoT communications: IoT devices follow a range of protocols when it comes to communicating among themselves and with the server. These may include AMPQ, XMPP, CoAP, and MQTT. Besides, various components in an IoT ecosystem can use different protocols for communication. Hence, such components need to be tested over communication protocols to preclude functional and security risks. For instance, when embedded software within devices runs on low memory due to higher loading requests, they balance load requests among components using an IoT gateway. Testing IoT applications can verify the load balance among different components, thereby ensuring their smooth functioning.

Lack of standardization: Creating standards for IoT devices can be a challenge across four levels - application, business model, connectivity, and platform. The lack of a uniform standard across the IoT landscape makes it a difficult case for testers. This is because different companies build devices with competing and often conflicting standards. The common IoT testing approach is based on the intended use of the system or the use case. The best way to wriggle out of the situation is to establish uniform standardization across the above-mentioned levels.

Battery life: A large number of IoT devices are powered by batteries, which need to function at their optimum at all times. To ensure IoT devices are energy efficient, they need to have low-power components. Thus, the battery needs to be tested under different conditions and scenarios to maximize the life of such devices. Also, testers should check whether the device is able to report the low-battery status to the cloud platform properly.

Conclusion

The quality of an IoT ecosystem can only be ensured if the above-mentioned challenges are addressed by stringently testing IoT applications. Business enterprises building and utilizing IoT devices can look at various benefits by implementing stringent IoT testing. These include driving innovation and speeding up risk-free initiatives; facilitating time-to-market; improving interoperability; and achieving a higher ROI.

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What is edge acquisition?

1. Introduction to edge acquisition

Edge acquisition is to abstract data (such as ModBus registers) on external devices (such as ModBus devices) into internal data points of the device (E870-D1). Configuring and reading internal data points is equivalent to configuring and reading corresponding external data ( such as ModBus registers). External devices can be ModBus devices or other communication protocol devices, such as IIC, CAN and other bus protocol devices. Currently, Ebyte E870-D1 only supports ModBus devices. (This article takes E870-D1 as an example)

2. The principle of edge acquisition

Implementation principle of edge acquisition (taking ModBus device as an example): As shown in the following edge acquisition application topology diagram, when edge acquisition data points are configured, the edge acquisition device (E870-D1) polls and reads the data in the external device through the ModBus protocol. The register is transmitted to the cloud platform through 4G;GPS Module when the cloud platform configures the data point, the edge acquisition device configures the corresponding register of the external device through the ModBus protocol, thus realizing the transparent transmission and control of the cloud platform and the external device.

The data structure of each data point includes the following attributes: "Enable", "Keyword", "Slave Address", "Register Type", "Register Address", "Data Type", "Report Mode", "Report Time" ", "Range of variation", "Number of decimal places", "Read-write property", "Up formula", "Down formula".

Among them, "keyword", "slave address", "register type", "register address", "read and write attributes" are used to realize the association between data points and ModBus registers.

The "keyword" is the name of the data point, and the name cannot be repeated in an edge acquisition device (E870-D1). When the cloud platform reads/configures the external device through the data point name ("keyword"), the edge acquisition The device (E870-D1) automatically translates the data point into the corresponding ModBus register according to its "Slave Address", "Register Type", "Register Address", and "Read-Write Attribute" information.

"Enable" controls whether the data point is valid. Only valid data points can be read, configured and polled.

Other attributes "Report Mode", "Report Time", "Variation Range", "Number of Decimals", "Upstream Formula", "Downstream Formula" can implement simple edge computing, which will be described in detail below.
2. The difference between edge collection and edge computing: Huawei's definition of edge computing (URL)

Huawei's definition of edge computing is: Edge computing is a distributed and open platform that integrates network, computing, storage, and application core capabilities at the edge of the network near the source of things or data to provide edge intelligent services nearby. To put it simply, edge computing is to analyze the data collected from the terminal directly in the local device or network where the data is generated, without the need to transmit the data to the cloud data processing center.

It is not difficult to see from the comparison between Huawei's definition of edge computing and the first description of the nature and principle of edge collection in this article. Edge collection belongs to a part of edge computing, that is, the part where the terminal collects data. At the same time, Ebyte E870-D1 has the function of transmitting data to the platform.
3. Problems solved by Ebyte E870-D1 edge acquisition:

1. Communication between ModBus and the platform: The traditional ModBus device is only short-distance communication. It is difficult to achieve communication with the Internet platform. Using Ebyte E870-D1, you can use its edge acquisition function to seamlessly connect to the local area. ModBus device and remote cloud platform, so as to realize unified monitoring and deployment of many ModBus devices by cloud platform.

2. Reduce the pressure on the platform server: Ebyte E870-D1 can easily add and delete data points through the "enable" attribute of data points, reduce unnecessary data point uploads, and at the same time "report mode", "report time" ” and “Variation range” can control the reporting timing of data points and reduce unnecessary reporting times of data points. The above can achieve a data filtering effect.

3. Simple edge computing can be realized: through the "upstream formula" and "downstream formula", custom addition, subtraction, multiplication and division calculations can be performed inside the Ebyte E870-D1.
Fourth, the advantages of Ebyte E870-D1 edge acquisition over ModBus_TCP:

1. Another way to achieve remote control of local ModBus devices is to use ModBus_TCP mode, but ModBus_TCP is not suitable for frequent data exchange and small amount of data each time, because it will consume a lot of network resources and platform resources. .

Today's sharply increased number of edge devices are all small, sophisticated, and highly specialized, such as a variety of sensors, each of which cannot be equipped with networking capabilities, and a huge number of edge devices are directly connected to the platform through ModBus_TCP , the pressure on the platform can also be imagined. Ebyte E870-D1 edge acquisition function can solve this problem very well.

2. Can connect to multiple external devices at the same time:Wireless modem Ebyte E870-D1 can connect to multiple edge acquisition devices at the same time, and ModBus_TCP can generally only communicate one-to-one.

3. The built-in IO can also be abstracted into data points: I explained how to abstract external device data into edge collection data points. At the same time, the DI, DO, AI, and AO that come with Ebyte E870-D1 can also be abstracted into structures. The same data points, thus eliminating the difference between built-in IO and external device data (such as DI, DO, AI, AO, etc.), reading/configuring built-in IO can use the same data structure, which is very helpful for platform development .

5. Usage scenarios

1. Connect multiple industrial DI, DO, AI, AO equipment to realize the network upgrade and transformation of traditional equipment.

2. Connect multiple ModBus sensors to realize environmental monitoring of an area.

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The Internet of Things is changing the way we consume and interact with things in our everyday lives. IoT gives objects digital identity. This means that they can be monitored, controlled, and synced with other devices wirelessly. The article looks at how the IoT will affect the electric vehicle industry in the future.

Let's begin!

Table of contents

  • How will the IoT affect the Electric Vehicle Industry?
  • What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of the IoT in the EV industry?
  • What Industries Have Benefited from the IoT?
  • Final Thought

 

How will the IoT affect the Electric Vehicle Industry?

The IoT has the potential to change the way we interact with the world around us, and it is already having an impact on the electric vehicle (EV) industry.

One way that the IoT is affecting EVs is by making it possible for cars to communicate with each other and with infrastructures, such as traffic lights and parking spaces. This communication can make driving more efficient and safer. For example, if two connected cars are approaching an intersection at the same time, they can communicate with each other to decide who has the right of way. This eliminates the need for one car to stop and wait for the other to pass.

Another way that the IoT is impacting EVs is by providing data that can be used to improve the efficiency of charging stations. Connected chargers can communicate with each other and with EV batteries to optimize charging times and reduce congestion at charging stations. This data can also be used to help plan future charging infrastructure.

The IoT also has the potential to change how we think about ownership of EVs. In a traditional ownership model, a person buys a car and then pays for its maintenance, fuel, and insurance. With an IoT-enabled EV, it would be possible for someone else to own the vehicle and provide these services as part of a subscription service. This could make EVs more affordable.

What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of the IoT in the EV industry?

As the electric vehicle industry continues to grow, so too does the role of the IoT. The advantages of the IoT in the EV industry include increased efficiency and accuracy in data collection, improved safety and security, and enhanced customer experience. Meanwhile, some of the disadvantages of the IoT in the EV industry include potential privacy concerns and data breaches, as well as the need for a reliable and secure network infrastructure.

The Advantages of the IoT in the EV industry

  • It makes it easier for you to control your car's climate and other functions remotely while you're not in it.
  • You can use an app on your phone or laptop to control things like lights, power windows, etc., even if they're not connected directly to your vehicle's system (like a garage door opener). You could also use this tech for home automation systems like Nest or Harmony which allow you to control all kinds of things from anywhere in your house.
  • You can share information about where you parked your car with friends who might need help finding it later on or help them find it.

The Disadvantages of the IoT in the EV industry

The IoT is a great way to increase your EV industry's efficiency and success, but it can also be difficult to implement. Here are some disadvantages of using the IoT in the EV industry:

  • The cost of implementation is high. This may be because there are many different types of devices that need to be connected, and each requires different types of software and hardware.
  • The amount of data that needs to be collected can be overwhelming for some businesses, especially if they don't have experience with big data collection or storage systems.
  • There are many different types of devices that need to be connected some may not work together well or may require additional programming. So it can take time and money before you're able to see any benefits from your investment in the IoT system.

What Industries Have Benefited from the IoT?

The Internet of Things (IoT) has had a significant impact on the automobile sector. One of the most major developments has been in the manufacturing of cars. The introduction of sensors and other linked devices has enabled manufacturers to collect data on how cars are used, leading to changes in the production process. As a result, automobiles are of higher quality and more efficient.

Another area where IoT technology is making a difference in car safety is. Automakers can discover possible safety hazards and solve them by gathering data from sensors and other linked systems. As a result, automobiles are safer and there are fewer accidents.

Finally, IoT technology is transforming how customers engage with their automobiles. Customers are increasingly utilizing their cell phones and other linked devices to manage their automobiles.

Everything from starting the engine to opening the doors and controlling the temperature control is covered. As this trend continues, it is probable that even more capabilities that allow consumers to operate their automobiles in novel ways will be added.

Final Thought

The IoT will play a major role in the electric vehicle industry by providing real-time data that can be used to improve the efficiency of production and distribution. In addition, the IoT can also be used to monitor the performance of electric vehicles and provide feedback to drivers in order to help them optimize their routes and usage. Ultimately, the goal is to make electric vehicles more efficient, reliable, and affordable for everyone.

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The advent of the internet of things on Metaverse is expected to change its overall market outlook in the future. The IoT Includes a plethora of features which, in turn, will highly benefit the Metaverse Market in the upcoming years. With a growth rate of 38.25 per cent CAGR, the metaverse market size was estimated to be worth USD 124.04 billion in 2022 and USD 1655.29 billion in 2030.

The IoT, which was first launched in 1999, links hundreds of devices, including thermostats, voice-activated speakers, and medical equipment, to a variety of data. IoT is now poised to revolutionize the Metaverse as it effortlessly connects the 3D environment to a wide range of physical objects. One of the renowned & largest private software firms in the UK, IRIS Software Group, offers software solutions and services that significantly improve operational compliance, efficiency, and accuracy.

The identity environment will expand enormously as the Metaverse takes traction and new applications and access points emerge alongside it, creating additional entry points for potential bad market players. Already, 84% of corporate executives concur that their company now manages significantly more digital identities than it did ten years ago (up to 10x). Additionally, 95% of firms say they have trouble keeping track of all the identities that are currently a part of their organization (human and machine). We have a perfect storm of rising complexity and expanding threat vectors that may be exploited, which can lead to breaches, business disruption, and material expenses when we add in the Metaverse and the rise in IoT usage that will accompany it.

Top features of IoT:

 a.) A 360-degree enhanced and real-world training: 

Using the IoT, we are able to develop and test training methods in situations where we are unable to do so in the real world due to the scope and authenticity of training on extreme real-world situations (such as severe weather or cyber events) that can be done through virtual simulations using digital twins in the Metaverse. Io Train-sim will aid in preparing people and AI/software to cooperate to better recognize issues and lessen the impact in real life as virtual metaverse environments develop to more closely resemble reality.

b.) Smarter and better long-term planning along with its near-term response: 

The metaverse system will increasingly closely resemble our real world as it fills up with digital duplicates of real-world objects (such as cars, buildings, factories, and people). We will be able to run different long-term planning scenarios, identify the most optimal designs for our energy, transportation, and healthcare systems, and dynamically operate these techniques as the real world evolves thanks to this system-of-systems complicated virtual simulation (e.g., more renewable sources, new diseases, population migrations or demographic changes). These simulations will assist teams of humans in responding to current events and solving an issue utilizing monthly, weekly, or day-ahead planning, in addition to long-term planning. AI will then be used to learn from the outcome and enhance the response during the next event.

Conclusion

Brands are utilizing a variety of cutting-edge technologies to fuel the Metaverse with the aim of making the virtual as real-time and authentic as possible. These technologies include AR, VR, Blockchain, AI, and IoT. Sensors, cameras, and wearables are already implemented and in use due to the present IoT development. These gadgets are the engines that make it possible for the Metaverse to reflect the real world in real-time when they are connected to it. A metaverse representation of a physical site, such as Samsung's 837x recreation of its 837 Washington St. experience centre in New York City's Meatpacking District, might, for instance, be updated continuously and in real-time as objects enter and exit the physical location

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Against the backdrop of digital technology and the industrial revolution, the Internet of Things has become the most influential and disruptive of all the latest technologies. As an advanced technology, IoT is showing a palpable difference in how businesses operate. 

Although the Fourth Industrial Revolution is still in its infancy, early adopters of this advanced technology are edging out the competition with their competitive advantage. 

Businesses eager to become a part of this disruptive technology are jostling against each other to implement IoT solutions. Yet, they are unaware of the steps in effective implementation and the challenges they might face during the process. 

This is a complete guide– the only one you’ll need – that focuses on delivering effective and uncomplicated IoT implementation. 

 

Key Elements of IoT

There are three main elements of IoT technology:

  • Connectivity:

IoT devices are connected to the internet and have a URI – Unique Resource Identifier – that can relay data to the connected network. The devices can be connected among themselves to a centralized server, a cloud, or a network of servers.

  • Data Communication:

IoT devices continuously share data with other devices in the network or the server. 

  • Interaction

IoT devices do not simply gather data. They transmit it to their endpoints or server. There is no point in collecting data if it is not put to good use. The collected data is used to deliver IoT smart solutions in automation, take real-time business decisions, formulate strategies, or monitor processes. 

How Does IoT work?

IoT devices have URI and come with embedded sensors. With these sensors, the devices sense their environment and gather information. For example, the devices could be air conditioners, smart watches, cars, etc. Then, all the devices dump their collected data into the IoT platform or gateway. 

The IoT platform then performs analytics on the data from various sources and derives useful information per the requirement

What are the Layers in IoT Architecture?

Although there isn’t a standard IoT structure that’s universally accepted, the 4-layer architecture is considered to be the basic form. The four layers include perception, network, middleware, and application.

  • Perception:

Perception is the first or the physical layer of IoT architecture. All the sensors, edge devices, and actuators gather useful information based on the project needs in this layer. The purpose of this layer is to gather data and transfer it to the next layer. 

  • Network:

It is the connecting layer between perception and application. This layer gathers information from the perception and transmits the data to other devices or servers. 

  • Middleware

The middleware layer offers storage and processing capabilities. It stores the incoming data and applies appropriate analytics based on requirements. 

  • Application

The user interacts with the application layer, responsible for taking specific services to the end-user. 

Implementation Requirements

Effective and seamless implementation of IoT depends on specific tools, such as:

  • High-Level Security 

Security is one of the fundamental IoT implementation requirements. Since the IoT devices gather real-time sensitive data about the environment, it is critical to put in place high-level security measures that ensure that sensitive information stays protected and confidential.  

  • Asset Management

Asset management includes the software, hardware, and processes that ensure that the devices are registered, upgraded, secured, and well-managed. 

  • Cloud Computing

Since massive amounts of structured and unstructured data are gathered and processed, it is stored in the cloud. The cloud acts as a centralized repository of resources that allows the data to be accessed easily. Cloud computing ensures seamless communication between various IoT devices. 

  • Data Analytics

With advanced algorithms, large amounts of data are processed and analyzed from the cloud platform. As a result, you can derive trends based on the analytics, and corrective action can be taken. 

What are the IoT Implementation Steps?

Knowing the appropriate IoT implementation steps will help your business align your goals and expectations against the solution. You can also ensure the entire process is time-bound, cost-efficient, and satisfies all your business needs. 

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Set Business Objectives 

IoT implementation should serve your business goals and objectives. Unfortunately, not every entrepreneur is an accomplished technician or computer-savvy. You can hire experts if you lack the practical know-how regarding IoT, the components needed, and specialist knowledge. 

Think of what you will accomplish with IoT, such as improving customer experience, eliminating operational inconsistencies, reducing costs, etc. With a clear understanding of IoT technology, you should be able to align your business needs to IoT applications. 

Hardware Components and Tools

Selecting the necessary tools, components, hardware, and software systems needed for the implementation is the next critical step. First, you must choose the tools and technology, keeping in mind connectivity and interoperability. 

You should also select the right IoT platform that acts as a centralized repository for collecting and controlling all aspects of the network and devices. You can choose to have a custom-made platform or get one from suppliers. 

Some of the major components you require for implementation include,

  • Sensors
  • Gateways
  • Communication protocols
  • IoT platforms
  • Analytics and data management software

Implementation

Before initiating the implementation process, it is recommended that you put together a team of IoT experts and professionals with selected use case experience and knowledge. Make sure that the team comprises experts from operations and IT with a specific skill set in IoT. 

A typical team should be experts with skills in mechanical engineering, embedded system design, electrical and industrial design, technical expertise, and front/back-end development. 

Prototyping

Before giving the go-ahead, the team must develop an Internet of Things implementation prototype. 

A prototype will help you experiment and identify fault lines, connectivity, and compatibility issues. After testing the prototype, you can include modified design ideas. 

Integrate with Advanced technologies

After the sensors gather useful data, you can add layers of other technologies such as analytics, edge computing, and machine learning. 

The amount of unstructured data collected by the sensors far exceeds structured data. However, both structured and unstructured, machine learning, deep learning neural systems, and cognitive computing technologies can be used for improvement. 

Take Security Measures

Security is one of the top concerns of most businesses. With IoT depending predominantly on the internet for functioning, it is prone to security attacks. However, communication protocols, endpoint security, encryption, and access control management can minimize security breaches. 

Although there are no standardized IoT implementation steps, most projects follow these processes. But the exact sequence of IoT implementation depends on your project’s specific needs.

Challenges in IoT Implementation

Every new technology comes with its own set of implementation challenges. 

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When you keep these challenges of IoT implementation in mind, you’ll be better equipped to handle them. 

  • Lack of Network Security

When your entire system is dependent on the network connectivity for functioning, you are just adding another layer of security concern to deal with. 

Unless you have a robust network security system, you are bound to face issues such as hacking into the servers or devices. Unfortunately, the IoT hacking statistics are rising, with over 1.5 million security breaches reported in 2021 alone. 

  • Data Retention and Storage 

IoT devices continually gather data, and over time the data becomes unwieldy to handle. Such massive amounts of data need high-capacity storage units and advanced IoT analytics technologies. 

  • Lack of Compatibility 

IoT implementation involves several sensors, devices, and tools, and a successful implementation largely depends on the seamless integration between these systems. In addition, since there are no standards for devices or protocols, there could be major compatibility issues during implementation. 

IoT is the latest technology that is delivering promising results. Yet, similar to any technology, without proper implementation, your businesses can’t hope to leverage its immense benefits. 

Taking chances with IoT implementation is not a smart business move, as your productivity, security, customer experience, and future depend on proper and effective implementation. The only way to harness this technology would be to seek a reliable IoT app development company that can take your initiatives towards success.

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How Doews IoT help in Retail? Continuous and seamless communication is now a reality between people, processes and things.  IoT has been enabling retailers to connect with people and businesses and gain useful insight about product performance and engagement of people with such products. 

Importance of IoT in Retail

  • It helps improve customer experience in new ways and helps brick and mortar shops compete with their online counterparts by engaging customers in different ways.
  • IoT can track customer preferences, analyze their habits and share relevant information with the marketing teams and help improve the product or brand features and design and keep the customer updated on new products, delivery status etc.
  • Using IoT retailers can increase efficiency and profitability in various ways for their benefit.
  • IoT can significantly improve the overall customer experience, like automated checkouts and integration with messaging platforms and order systems.
  • It helps increase efficiency in transportation and logistics by reducing the time to deliver goods to market or store. It helps in vehicle management, and tracking deliveries. This helps in reducing costs, improving the bottom line and increasing customer satisfaction.
  • Inventory management becomes easier with IoT. Tracking inventory is much easier and simpler from the stocking of goods to initiating a purchase.
  • It helps increase operational efficiency in warehouses, by optimizing temperature controls, improving maintenance, and managing the warehouse. 

Use Cases of IoT in Retail

  1. IoT is used in Facility management to ensure day-to-day areas are clean and can be used to monitor consumable supplies levels. It can be used to monitor store environments like temperature, lighting, ventilation and refrigeration. IoT can identify key areas that can provide a complete 360 degrees view of facility management.
  2. It can help in tracking the number of persons entering a facility. This is especially useful because of the pandemic situation, to ensure that no overcrowding takes place.
    Occupancy sensors provide vital data on store traffic patterns and also on the time spent in any particular area. This helps retailers with better planning and product placement strategies. This helps in guided selling with more effective display setups, layouts, and space management.
  3. IoT helps in a big way for Supply chain and logistics, by providing information on the stock levels. 
  4. IoT helps in asset tracking in items like shopping carts and baskets. Sensors can ensure that location data is available for all carts making retrieval easy. It can help lock carts if they are taken out of location.
  5. IoT devices can and are being used to personalize user experience. Bluetooth beacons are used to send personalized real-time alerts to phones when the customer is near an aisle or a store. This can prompt a customer to enter the store or look at the aisle area and take advantage of offers etc. IoT-based beacons, helps Target, collect user data and also send hyper-personalized content to customers.
  6. Smart shelves are another example of innovative IoT ideas. Maintaining shelves to refill products or ensure correct items are placed on the right shelves is a time-consuming task. Smart shelves automate these tasks easily. They can help save time and resolve manual errors.

Businesses should utilize new technologies to revolutionize the retail sector in a better way. Digitalization or digital transformation of brick and mortar stores is not a new concept. With every industry wanting to improve its services and facilities and trying to stay ahead of the competition, digitalization in retail industry is playing a big role in this transformation. To summarize, digitalization helps in enhanced data collection, helps data-driven customer insights, gives a better customer experience, and increases profits and productivity. It encourages a digital culture.

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Arm DevSummit 2020 debuted this week (October 6 – 8) as an online virtual conference focused on engineers and providing them with insights into the Arm ecosystem. The summit lasted three days over which Arm painted an interesting technology story about the current and future state of computing and where developers fit within that story. I’ve been attending Arm Techcon for more than half a decade now (which has become Arm DevSummit) and as I perused content, there were several take-a-ways I noticed for developers working on microcontroller based embedded systems. In this post, we will examine these key take-a-ways and I’ll point you to some of the sessions that I also think may pique your interest.

(For those of you that aren’t yet aware, you can register up until October 21st (for free) and still watch the conferences materials up until November 28th . Click here to register)

Take-A-Way #1 – Expect Big Things from NVIDIAs Acquisition of Arm

As many readers probably already know, NVIDIA is in the process of acquiring Arm. This acquisition has the potential to be one of the focal points that I think will lead to a technological revolution in computing technologies, particularly around artificial intelligence but that will also impact nearly every embedded system at the edge and beyond. While many of us have probably wondered what plans NVIDIA CEO Jensen Huang may have for Arm, the Keynotes for October 6th include a fireside chat between Jensen Huang and Arm CEO Simon Segars. Listening to this conversation is well worth the time and will help give developers some insights into the future but also assurances that the Arm business model will not be dramatically upended.

Take-A-Way #2 – Machine Learning for MCU’s is Accelerating

It is sometimes difficult at a conference to get a feel for what is real and what is a little more smoke and mirrors. Sometimes, announcements are real, but they just take several years to filter their way into the market and affect how developers build systems. Machine learning is one of those technologies that I find there is a lot of interest around but that developers also aren’t quite sure what to do with yet, at least in the microcontroller space. When we hear machine learning, we think artificial intelligence, big datasets and more processing power than will fit on an MCU.

There were several interesting talks at DevSummit around machine learning such as:

Some of these were foundational, providing embedded developers with the fundamentals to get started while others provided hands-on explorations of machine learning with development boards. The take-a-way that I gather here is that the effort to bring machine learning capabilities to microcontrollers so that they can be leveraged in industry use cases is accelerating. Lots of effort is being placed in ML algorithms, tools, frameworks and even the hardware. There were several talks that mentioned Arm’s Cortex-M55 architecture that will include Helium technology to help accelerate machine learning and DSP processing capabilities.

Take-A-Way #3 – The Constant Need for Reinvention

In my last take-a-way, I eluded to the fact that things are accelerating. Acceleration is not just happening though in the technologies that we use to build systems. The very application domain that we can apply these technology domains to is dramatically expanding. Not only can we start to deploy security and ML technologies at the edge but in domains such as space and medical systems. There were several interesting talks about how technologies are being used around the world to solve interesting and unique problems such as protecting vulnerable ecosystems, mapping the sea floor, fighting against diseases and so much more.

By carefully watching and listening, you’ll notice that many speakers have been involved in many different types of products over their careers and that they are constantly having to reinvent their skill sets, capabilities and even their interests! This is what makes working in embedded systems so interesting! It is constantly changing and evolving and as engineers we don’t get to sit idly behind a desk. Just as Arm, NVIDIA and many of the other ecosystem partners and speakers show us, technology is rapidly changing but so are the problem domains that we can apply these technologies to.

Take-A-Way #4 – Mbed and Keil are Evolving

There are also interesting changes coming to the Arm toolchains and tools like Mbed and Keil MDK. In Reinhard Keil’s talk, “Introduction to an Open Approach for Low-Power IoT Development“, developers got an insight into the changes that are coming to Mbed and Keil with the core focus being on IoT development. The talk focused on the endpoint and discussed how Mbed and Keil MDK are being moved to an online platform designed to help developers move through the product development faster from prototyping to production. The Keil Studio Online is currently in early access and will be released early next year.

(If you are interested in endpoints and AI, you might also want to check-out this article on “How Do We Accelerate Endpoint AI Innovation? Put Developers First“)

Conclusions

Arm DevSummit had a lot to offer developers this year and without the need to travel to California to participate. (Although I greatly missed catching up with friends and colleagues in person). If you haven’t already, I would recommend checking out the DevSummit and watching a few of the talks I mentioned. There certainly were a lot more talks and I’m still in the process of sifting through everything. Hopefully there will be a few sessions that will inspire you and give you a feel for where the industry is headed and how you will need to pivot your own skills in the coming years.

Originaly posted here

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Will We Ever Get Quantum Computers?

In a recent issue of IEEE Spectrum, Mikhail Dyakonov makes a pretty compelling argument that quantum computing (QC) isn't going to fly anytime soon. Now, I'm no expert on QC, and there sure is a lot of money being thrown at the problem by some very smart people, but having watched from the sidelines QC seems a lot like fusion research. Every year more claims are made, more venture capital gets burned, but we don't seem to get closer to useful systems.

Consider D-Wave Systems. They've been trying to build a QC for twenty years, and indeed do have products more or less on the market, including, it's claimed, one of 1024 q-bits. But there's a lot of controversy about whether their machines are either quantum computers at all, or if they offer any speedup over classical machines. One would think that if a 1K q-bit machine really did work the press would be all abuzz, and we'd be hearing constantly of new incredible results. Instead, the machines seem to disappear into research labs.

Mr. Duakonov notes that optimistic people expect useful QCs in the next 5-10 years; those less sanguine expect 20-30 years, a prediction that hasn't changed in two decades. He thinks a window of many decades to never is more realistic. Experts think that a useful machine, one that can do the sort of calculations your laptop is capable of, will require between 1000 and 100,000 q-bits. To me, this level of uncertainty suggests that there is a profound lack of knowledge about how these machines will work and what they will be able to do.

According to the author, a 1000 q-bit machine can be in 21000 states (a classical machine with N transistors can be in only 2N states), which is about 10300, or more than the number of sub-atomic particles in the universe. At 100,000 q-bits we're talking 1030,000, a mind-boggling number.

Because of noise, expect errors. Some theorize that those errors can be eliminated by adding q-bits, on the order of 1000 to 100,000 additional per q-bit. So a useful machine will need at least millions, or perhaps many orders of magnitude more, of these squirrelly microdots that are tamed only by keeping them at 10 millikelvin.

A related article in Spectrum mentions a committee formed of prestigious researchers tasked with assessing the probability of success with QC concluded that:

"[I]t is highly unexpected" that anyone will be able to build a quantum computer that could compromise public-key cryptosystems (a task that quantum computers are, in theory, especially suitable for tackling) in the coming decade. And while less-capable "noisy intermediate-scale quantum computers" will be built within that time frame, "there are at present no known algorithms/applications that could make effective use of this class of machine," the committee says."

I don't have a dog in this fight, but am relieved that useful QC seems to be no closer than The Distant Shore (to quote Jan de Hartog, one of my favorite writers). If it were feasible to easily break encryption schemes banking and other systems could collapse. I imagine Blockchain would fail as hash algorithms became reversable. The resulting disruption would not be healthy for our society.

On the other hand, Bruce Schneier's article in the March issue of IEEE Computing Edge suggests that QC won't break all forms of encryption, though he does think a lot of our current infrastructure will be vulnerable. The moral: if and when QC becomes practical, expect chaos.

I was once afraid of quantum computing, as it involves mechanisms that I'll never understand. But then I realized those machines will have an API. Just as one doesn't need to know how a computer works to program in Python, we'll be insulated from the quantum horrors by layers of abstraction.

Originaly posted here

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SSE Airtricity employees Derek Conty, left, Francie Byrne, middle, and Ryan Doran, right, install solar panels on the roof of Kinsale Community School in Kinsale, Ireland. The installation is part of a project with Microsoft to demonstrate the feasibility of distributed power purchase agreements. Credit: Naoise Culhane

by John Roach

Solar panels being installed on the roofs of dozens of schools throughout Dublin, Ireland, reflect a novel front in the fight against global climate change, according to a senior software engineer and a sustainability lead at Microsoft.

The technology copmpany partnered with SSE Airtricity, Ireland's largest provider of 100% green energy and a part of FTSE listed SSE Group, to install and manage the internet-connected solar panels, which are connected via Azure IoT to Microsoft Azure, a cloud computing platform.

The software tools aggregate and analyze real-time data on energy generated by the solar panels, demonstrating a mechanism for Microsoft and other corporations to achieve sustainability goals and reduce the carbon footprint of the electric power grid.

"We need to decarbonize the global economy to avoid catastrophic climate change," said Conor Kelly, the software engineer who is leading the distributed solar energy project for Microsoft Azure IoT. "The first thing we can do, and the easiest thing we can do, is focus on electricity."

Microsoft's $1.1 million contribution to the project builds on the company's ongoing investment in renewable energy technologies to offset carbon emissions from the operation of its datacenters.

A typical approach to power datacenters with renewable energy is for companies such as Microsoft to sign so-called power purchase agreements with energy companies.The agreements provide financial guarantees needed to build industrial-scale wind and solar farms and connections to the power grid.

The new project demonstrates the feasibility of agreements to install solar panels on rooftops distributed across towns with existing grid connections and use internet of things, or IoT, technologies to aggregate the accumulated energy production for carbon offset accounting.

"It utilizes existing assets that are sitting there unmonetized, which are roofs of buildings that absorb sunlight all day," Kelly said.

New Business Model

The project is also a proof-of-concept, or blueprint, for how energy providers can adapt as the falling price of solar panels enables distributed electric power generation throughout the existing electric power grid.

Traditionally, suppliers purchase power from central power plants and industrial-scale wind and solar farms and sell it to consumers on the distribution grid. Now, energy providers like SSE Airtricity provide renewable energy solutions that allow end consumers to generate power, from sustainable sources, using the existing grid connection on their premises.

"The more forward-thinking energy providers that we are working with, like SSE Airtricity, identify this as an opportunity and industry changing shift in how energy will be generated and consumed," Kelly noted.

The opportunity comes in the ability to finance the installation of solar panels and batteries at homes, schools, businesses and other buildings throughout a community and leverage IoT technology to efficiently perform a range of services from energy trading to carbon offset accounting.

Kelly and his team with Azure IoT are working with SSE Airtricity to develop the tools and machine learning models necessary to unlock this opportunity.

"Instead of having utility scale solar farms located outside of cities, you could have a solar farm at the distribution level, spread across a number of locations," said Fergal Ahern, a business energy solutions manager and renewable energy expert with SSE Airtricity.

For the distributed power purchase agreement, SSE Airtricity uses Azure IoT to aggregate the generation of all the solar panels installed across 27 schools around the provinces of Leinster, Munster and Connacht and run it through a machine learning model to determine the carbon emissions that the solar panels avoid.

The schools use the electricity generated by the solar panels, which reduces their utility bills; Microsoft receives the renewable energy credits for the generated electricity, which the company applies to its carbon neutrality commitments.

The panels are expected to produce enough energy annually to power the equivalent of 68 Irish homes for a year and abate more than 2.1 million kilograms, which is equivalent to 4.6 million pounds, of carbon dioxide emissions over the 15 years of the agreement, according to Kelly.

"This is additional renewable energy that wouldn't have otherwise happened," he said. "Every little bit counts when it comes to meeting our sustainability targets and combatting climate change."

Every little bit counts

Victory Luke, a 16 year old student at Collinstown Park Community College in Dublin, has lived by the "every little bit counts" mantra since she participated in a "Generation Green" sustainability workshop in 2019 organized by the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland, SSE Airtricity and Microsoft.

The workshop was part of an education program surrounding the installation of solar panels and batteries at her school along with a retrofit of the lighting system with LEDs. Digital screens show the school's energy use in real time, allowing students to see the impact of the energy efficiency upgrades.

Luke said the workshop captured her interest on climate change issues. She started reading more about sustainability and environmental conservation and agreed to share her newfound knowledge with the younger students at her school.

"I was going around and talking to them about energy efficiency, sharing tips and tricks like if you are going to boil a kettle, only boil as much water as you need, not too much," she explained.

That June, the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland invited her to give a speech at the Global Conference on Energy Efficiency in Dublin, which was organized by the International Energy Agency, an organization that works with governments and industry to shape sustainable energy policy.

"It kind of felt surreal because I honestly felt like I wasn't adequate enough to be speaking about these things," she said, noting that the conference attendees included government ministers, CEOs and energy experts from around the world.

At the time, she added, the global climate strike movement and its youth leaders were making international headlines, which made her advocacy at school feel even smaller. "Then I kind of realized that it is those smaller things that make the big difference," she said.

SSE Airtricity and Microsoft plan to replicate the educational program that inspired Luke and her classmates at dozens of the schools around Ireland that are participating in the project.

"When you've got solar at a school and you can physically point at the installation and a screen that monitors the power being generated, it brings sustainability into daily school life," Ahern said.

Proof of concept for policymakers

The project's education campaign extends to renewable energy policymakers, Kelly noted. He explained that renewable energy credits—a market incentive for corporations to support renewable energy projects—are currently unavailable for distributed power purchase agreements.

For this project, Microsoft will receive genuine renewable energy credits from a wind farm that SSE Airtricity also operates, he added.

"And," he said, "we are hoping to use this project as an example of what regulation should look like, to say, 'You need to award renewable energy credits to distributed generation because they would allow corporates to scale-up this type of project.'"

For her part, Luke supports steps by multinational corporations such as Microsoft to invest in renewable energy projects that address global climate change.

"It is a good thing to see," she said. "Once one person does something, other people are going to follow.

Originaly posted HERE

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