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IoT technologies or "Internet of Things" collect and analyze information about the object, its movement, condition, and many other features. In the European Union alone there are currently more than 13.3 millions of active trackers that use this system, which is a significant growth compared to 0.7 of a million in 2016.

An object of observation will be tagged for tracking with a relatively small device that collects the necessary information and sends it to you via Wi-Fi. But how one should know which type of IoT solutions to choose?

IoT Tracking Technologies

  1. RFID tags

RFID tags use radio frequency to identify the right element or track a certain "tag". In comes in two types:

  • Passive RFID tag depends on the RFID reader to send a wave that they can use to reply. For example, to see who passes through the reader bars in the store with an unpaid product.
  • Active RFID tags have an identifier along with a battery inside, which allows it to communicate with a reader on a larger distance.
  1. BLE beacons

BLE beacons rely on Bluetooth Low Energy so they can communicate, often used inside mobile phones. They can send multiple types of signals and detect many devices around them.

Beacons come in different forms and devices:

  • Parent beacons process and collect received data, communicate with child-beacons.
  • USB beacons
  • Router-sized beacons
  • Small portable beacons
  1. NFC chips

Near Field Communication is one of IoT technologies that rely on the electromagnetic field when are very close to each other (5-20 centimeters). NFC devices interact similar to RFID, can also be active and passive:

  • Active NFC sends and receives data (for example, it's being used on smartphones)
  • Passive NFC only sends information
  1. Zigbee hardware

Zigbee was invented for more complicated communication. They create a small network in a limited area, powered by a small radio.

Zigbee chips are widely used in radios and USB interfaces among other IoT solutions. It's also famous for its low cost and power expenses.

  1. LTE advanced

Long-Term Evolution is a wireless communication technology that was developed for faster internet, bigger storage and data processing. It's mostly used by mobile phones but sadly has different regions depending on the country where the phone was produced, with no support for a different frequency.

  1. LiFi

Visible Light Communication based Light Fidelity uses diodes to communicate at the speed of light without a chance for a human to notice the signal. The signal is then received by a photodetector.

LiFi is known to be the biggest rival of WiFi, though it's limited to the reach of the light that can be stopped by an obstacle.

  1. GPS

Everyone who owns a phone is familiar with Global Positioning System, which provides geolocation at a certain time to all GPS receiving devices. While still haven't beat by its accuracy in tracking, GPS is known to be quite power-consuming because it determines an object's location in non-stop mode.

  1. LPWAN

Low Power Wide Area Networks is created for long-distance communication and uses a low bit rate. It also allows to create a private wireless network.

Here some of the LPWAN based technologies:

  • NB-IoT uses a wide range in cellular services and devices
  • LoRaWAN uses a chirp spectrum radio module along with LPWAN technology
  • DASH7 is a firmware standard with low-latency, used over LPWAN

How IoT tracking helps in your business

Which of the IoT technologies is the best suited for your business?

Commercial Organization

  • A commercial organization may track their assets using RFID tags, such as Amazon keeps track of products in their vendor places
  • BLE beacons can help understand the customers, how much time they spend in the store, which aisles they visit and how they move across them
  • NFC technologies allow your customers to pay faster with their wireless credit cards
  • Zigbee is a necessity for those who develop smart home devices
  • LiFi help you set up shop displays and show advertisements to the customers

Industrial Business

  • BLE beacons help organize the inner industrial process, track equipment, monitor assets, prevent human errors and incidents
  • NFC takes care of security and access control
  • Zigbee helps with remote monitoring in a company with a large facility. However the cost rise drastically when operating between the facilities, so it's not used
  • LTE Advanced can instantly notify of a security breach and needed maintenance, write reports, draw a map of assets real-time movement
  • LPWAN optimizes costs and energy losses and power outrage. It monitors liquid levels, energy installations, optimizes solar plants performance

Healthcare Facility

  • RFID helps manage medical equipment and monitor the room's condition. It also helps with identification badges
  • BLE beacons help with indoor navigation
  • NFC tracks the patient's location, their time of treatment and health at home
  • Zigbee can monitor patients in real-time at low-cost
  • GPS tracks down the location of an emergency case
  • Li-Fi can lag when the light is interrupted. Otherwise, it's a perfect tool since it doesn't mess with another equipment
  • LTE has a personal network for enterprises. It's a large and secure network at a hospital

Logistics

  • RFID identifies a vehicle, person, baggage and therefore is helpful at railroad, airports, and roads
  • NFC helps scan tickets and trains passes fast
  • GPS helps to locate fleet vehicles and contact them
  • Modified with LED bulbs, LiFi cars help to prevent a collision in advance
  • Paired with other technologies, LTE Advanced can monitor the flight in real-time and communicate in long-distance
  • LPWAN can trace objects in real-time, optimize routes, detect and resolve faults, road threats, and maintenance

Agriculture and Food

  • RFID is helpful with tagging and locating cattle and food
  • GPS allows to plow and place crops precisely, map and monitor the field and save costs from farming
  • LPWAN is useful for measuring the soil moisture, water levels, cattle hygiene, and gate security

A wide range of IoT object tracking technologies is created to serve different purposes. Decide among the best of IoT solutions for yourself or read more in our blog to help determine which option is the best for you.

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Could it Be LTE? Identifying a Standard for the Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT) a buzzworthy phrase that has caught on and at first it seemed just that – talk. Now we’re in a position where we have smart lightbulbs, virtual assistants, self-regulating home heating and cooling systems…and the ‘things’ that make up the IoT are becoming more self-aware (if you believe in the Terminator approach). It’s proving far closer to reality than anyone previously thought. 

For this reality there are far-reaching implications when it comes to the applicability of IoT technology as it impacts every major industry – from automotive and finance, to energy and retail. But with each application comes another challenge, how do we define a standard that forms an ecosystem allowing all IoT solutions to work seamlessly and in each industry and application in the manner they were meant to?

We face a real problem when it comes to the exciting buzzworthy acronym of IoT. Yet with no central IoT standards or real oversight over development, the nearly five billion smart devices Gartner estimates will be in use by the end of this year are spread across a dizzying array of standards and protocols. IoT requires extensive technology to work – from wireless communications, to data security, to interoperability with other devices – so it’s a daunting task to apply a single standard to a device (much less the integration of the entire IoT ecosystem!). 

Start by Looking at the DNA of IoT

Let’s first break down IoT to its three core components to frame up the challenges with an IoT standard. I like to call them the DNA of IoT:

  • Devices - the connected ‘things’ that relay data to/from each other
  • Network - the internet, which provides the medium for these devices to communicate
  • Applications - the ‘enablers’ that direct workloads for predicted outcomes

In line with the overall IT industry, the majority of the value derived is designed and delivered at the software application layer, which means this is where most of the innovations and profits lie. On the other hand, you also have the underlying (network) hardware and devices, which are things like sensors, servers, routers, transmitters and personal devices. And while there’s no disputing that the latter are all vital components, they’re continuously commoditized with similar features in an endless but all too familiar race to the bottom of the market. There’s also no single body or organization regulating the manufacturing industry, so they aren’t building next generation solutions in a manner that complies with any security or IoT standards.

Why is this important? Because it highlights the different priorities and levels of innovation within the IoT ecosystem.

The Case for LTE: the Missing Link

So now that all of the IoT problems are out in the open, let’s get to a solution. There are a number of technologies to potentially standardize on – everything from WiFi and Zigbee, to LPWAN and Cellular. However, I believe there’s one that provides the most practical approach with the lowest barriers and fastest time to market: Long-Term Evolution (LTE).

LTE is the most prevalent wireless network option in the US today and providers are already in the process of building out specific bands within LTE to better service IoT devices. This means that new IoT devices can be on-boarded to an LTE network as quickly as they are developed, which provides the needed flexibility to accommodate IoT devices regardless of type or industry.

On top of that, by being built on a solid foundation of widely-available LTE, IoT devices also benefit from reduced device and network complexity, increased coverage for hard-to-reach IoT devices, multi-year battery life with power save modes and efficient signaling, as well as higher node density. And as wide-area IoT deployments pick-up, these new standards provide coexistence and compatibility with current LTE services, global scalability, increased quality of service, and end-to-end security and authentication features.

So regardless of how you view, use, or define IoT, the net-net is that there needs to be an ongoing conversation about truly setting a standard and my bet is on LTE. It’s already becoming widely adopted and offers the most resiliency and efficiency when it comes to the IoT - so I say, let’s party on.

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Originally Posted by:  

With the announcement of the Cisco Solution for LoRAWAN™, Service Providers have an integrated solution that enables them to extend their network reach to where they’ve never gone before – i.e., offering IoT services for devices and sensors that are battery powered, have low data rates and long distance communications requirements. The solution opens new markets and new revenue streams for Service Providers, and can be deployed in a wide range of use cases in Industrial IoT and Smart City applications such as:

  • Asset Tracking and Management
  • Logistics
  • Smart Cities (e.g., smart parking, street lighting, waste management, etc.)
  • Intelligent buildings
  • Utilities (e.g., water and gas metering)
  • Agriculture (e.g., soil, irrigation management)

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Our Cisco Mobile Visual Networking Index estimates that while LoRa is in its early stages now, these types of Low Power Wide Area connectivity means will quickly gain traction and that by 2020, there will be more than 860 million devices using it to connect.  One of the reasons for such forecasted aggressive adoption, especially in North America and Western Europe, is that LoRa® works over readily available unlicensed spectrum. Cisco is a founding Board member of the LoRa® Allianceformed in January, 2015, with a goal to standardize LPWA Networks in order to stimulate the growth of Internet of Things (IoT) applications.

Cisco has been working with a number of Mobile Operators who are trialing and deploying LoRa® networks to target new low-power consumption IoT services such as metering, location tracking and monitoring services. Many Mobile Operators are looking at LoRa® as complementary to NarrowBand IOT (NB-IOT), an upgrade to current mobile networks that drops the transmit power and data rates of the LTE standard to increase battery life. As NB-IOT networks, devices, and ecosystems will not be commercialized until 2017, LoRa® gives Operators (and all SPs, in fact) a way to gain a head-start on offering new IoT services based on various new low cost business models.

Cisco’s approach to IoT is to deliver integrated solutions that enable SPs to support different class of services aligned with specific pricing models across unlicensed (Wi-Fi, LoRa) and licensed (2G/3G/LTE, and soon, NB-IoT) radio spectrum as demanded by the IoT application. Our multi-access network strategy for IoT is complemented by the Cisco Ultra Services Platform (USP) – our comprehensive, virtualized services core, which includes mobile packet core, policy and services functions. Cisco USP delivers the scalability and flexibility that Operators focusing on IoT need as more and varied “things” get connected to their networks.

Cisco continues to integrate and evolve solutions such as LoraWAN™ to help Service Providers of all types capitalize on new IoT opportunities and transform into next-generation IoT Service Providers.

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